Skip to main content Accessibility help

Connecting invertebrate behavior, neurophysiology and evolution with Eshkol-Wachman movement notation

  • Zen Faulkes (a1) and Dorothy Hayman Paul (a1)


  • An abstract is not available for this content so a preview has been provided below. Please use the Get access link above for information on how to access this content.



Hide All

Letters a and r appearing before authors' initials refer to target article and response respectively.

Adani, N. (1990) The morphogenesis of locomotor behaviour in normal and amphetamine treated laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus). M.Sc. thesis submitted to the Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University. In Hebrew, with English summary. [arIG]
Adani, N., Kiryati, N. & Golani, I. (1991) The description of rat drug-induced behavior: Kinematics versus response categories. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 15. [aIG]
Albin, R. L., Young, A. B. & Penney, J. B. (1989) The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Trends in Neurosciences 12(10):366–75. [aIG]
Alexander, G. E., Crutcher, M. A. & Delong, M. R. (1990) Basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuits: Parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, “prefrontal” and “limbic” functions. Progress in Brain Research 87. [aIG]
Alexander, G. E., Delong, M. R. & Strick, P. L. (1986) Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 9:357–81. [aIG]
Alexander, R. McN. (1975) The chordates. Cambridge University Press. [DE]
Alexander, R. McN. (1967) Functional design in fishes. Hutchinson University Library. [GWB]
Altman, J. A. & Sudarshan, K. (1975) Postnatal development of locomotion in the laboratory rat. Animal Behavior 23(4):896920. [aIG]
Alvarez-Buylla, A., Kirn, J. & Nottebohm, F. (1990) Birth of projection neuron in adult avian brain may be related to perceptual or motor learning. Science 249:1444–46. [PHK]
Andersen, P. H., Gingrich, J. A., Bates, M. D., Dearry, A., Falardeau, P., Senogles, S. E. & Caron, M. G. (1990) Dopamine receptor subtypes: Beyond the D-1/D-2 classification. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 11:231–36. [aIG]
Arbas, E. A., Meinertzhagen, I. A. & Shaw, S. H. (1991) Evolution in nervous systems. Annual Review of Neuroscience 14:938. [ZF]
Atwood, H. L. & Sandeman, D. C., eds. (1982) The biology of Crustacea, vol. 3: Neurobiology: Structure and function. Academic Press. [ZF]
Barlow, G. W. (1977) Modal action patterns. In: How animals communicate, ed. Sebeok, T. A.. Indiana University Press. [arIG, GWB]
Barlow, G. W. (1989) Has sociobiology killed ethology or revitalized it? In: Perspectives in ethology, vol. 8: Whither ethology? ed. Bateson, P. P. G. & Klopfer, P. H.. Plenum Press. [ZF]
Basilius, H. (1952) Neo-Humboltian ethnolinguistics. Word 8:95101. [aIG]
Bateson, G. (1960). Some 19th century notions of evolution. Unpublished manuscript. [PHK]
Bayer, S. A. & Altman, J. (1987) Directions in neurogenetic gradients and patterns of anatomical connections in the telencephalon. Progress in Neurobiology 29:57106. [ARC]
Beck, C. H. M. (unpublished, 1986) Apomorphine-induced stereotypy in rats: Minimal influence of environment on acute time course. [CHMB]
Beck, C. H. M., Chow, H. L. & Cooper, S. J. (1986) Initial environment influences amphetamine-induced stereotypy: Subsequently environmental change has little effect. Behavioral and Neural Biology 46:383–97. [CHMB]
Beer, C. G. (1974) Comparative ethology and the evolution of behaviour. In: Ethology and psychiatry, ed. White, N. F.. University of Toronto Press. [aIG]
Beer, C. G. (1980) Perspectives on animal behavior comparisons. In: Comparative methods in psychology, ed. Bornstein, M. H.. Erlbaum. [rIG]
Bekoff, A. (1986) Ontogeny of chicken motor behaviours: Evidence for multiuse limb pattern generating circuitry. In: Neurobiology of vertebrate locomotion, ed. Grillner, S., Stein, P. S. G., Stuart, D. G., Forssberg, H. & Herman, R. M.. Macmillan. [rIG, JAB, JCF]
Bekoff, A. (1989) Continuity of pattern generating mechanisms in embryonic and posthatching chicks. In: Neurobiology of early infant behaviour, ed. von Euler, C., Forssberg, H. & Lagerkrantz, H.. Macmillan. [rIG, JAB]
Bekoff, A., Nusbaum, M. P., Sabichi, A. L. & Clifford, M. (1987) Neural control of limb coordination. I. Comparison of hatching and walking motor output patterns in normal and deafferented chicks. Journal of Neurobiology 7:2320–30. [rIG, JAB]
Bekoff, M. (1974) Social play and play soliciting by infant canids. American Zoologist 14:323–40. [aIG]
Bekoff, M. (1977) Social communication in canids: Evidence for the evolution of a stereotyped mammalian display. Science 197:1097–99. [rIG, MB]
Bekoff, M. (1979) Behavioral acts: Description, classification, ethogram analyses, and measurement. In: The analysis of social interactions: Methods, issues, and illustrations ed. Cairns, R. B.. Erlbaum. [rIG, MB]
Bekoff, M. & Jamieson, D., eds. (1990) Interpretation and explanation in the study of animal behavior, vol. I: Interpretation, intentionalitu, and communication. vol. II: Explanation, evolution, and adaptation. Westview Press. [MB]
Bente, G. & Frey, S. (1990) “Visuelle Zitate” als Mittel der Fernsehberichterstattung in Deutschland, Frankreich und den USA. In: Radio, Fernsehen auf Individuum und Gesellschaft, ed. W. Schulz. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft. [RDM]
Bente, G., Frey, S. & Treeck, J. (1989) Taktgeber der Informationsverarbeitung. In: Medienpsychologie, ed. Groebel, J., Vitouch, P. & Winterhoff-Spurk, P.. Heft 2. Westdeutscher Verlag. [RDM]
Bernstein, N. (1967) The coordination and regulation of movements. Pergamon Press. [JCF, GG]
Berridge, K. C., Fentress, J. C. & Parr, H. (1987) Natural syntax rules control action sequence of rats. Behavioural Brain Research 23:5968. [JCF]
Biguer, B., Jeannerod, M. & Prablanc, C. (1982) The coordination of eye, head, and arm movements during reaching at a single visual target. Experimental Brain Research 46:301–04. [WAM]
Bizzi, E., Mussa-Ivaldi, F. A. & Giszter, S. (1991) Computations underlying the execution of movement: A biological perspective. Science 253:287–91. [ZF]
Blanchard, R. J., Blanchard, D. C., Takahashi, T. & Kelly, M. J. (1977) Attack and defensive behavior in the albino rat. Animal Behavior 25:622–34. [aIG]
Bohm, D. (1969) Some remarks on the notion of order. In: Towards a theoretical biology. II. Sketches, ed. Waddington, C. H.. An International Union of Biological Sciences Symposium. Aldine. [arIG]
Bohm, D. (1980) Wholeness and the implicate order. Art Paperbacks. [rIG, GG]
Borchert, C. M. & Zihlman, A. L. (1990) The ontogeny and phylogeny of symbolizing. In: The life of symbols, ed. Foster, M. L. & Botscharow, L. J.. Westview Press. [RF]
Brand, G. (1979) The essential Wittgenstein. Basic Books. [aIG, MB]
Brand, M. (1984) Intending and acting: Toward a naturalized action theory. MIT Press. [MB]
Brand, M. & Walton, I., eds. (1980) Action theory. D. Reidel. [MB]
Brown, J. W. (1988) The life of the mind. Erlbaum. [GG]
Bullock, T. H. & Horridge, G. A. (1965) Structure and function in the nervous systems of invertebrates. W. H. Freeman. [ZF]
Carlsson, A. (1988) The current status of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 1(3): 179203. [aIG]
Chevalier, G. & Deniau, J. M. (1990) Disinhibition as a basic process in the expression of striatal functions. Trends in Neuroscience 13:7, 277–80. [rIG]
Chiodo, L. A. & Berger, T. W. (1986) Interactions between dopamine and amino acid-induced excitation and inhibition in the striatum. Brain Research 375:198203. [GVR]
Coghill, G. E. (1929) Anatomy and the problem of behavior. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aIG, DE]
Cools, A. R. (1980) Role of the neostriatal dopaminergic activity in sequencing and selecting behavioural strategies: Facilitation of processes involved in selecting the best strategy in a stressful situation. Behavioral Brain Research 1:361–78. [aIG]
Cools, A. R. (1981) Aspects and prospects of the concept of neurochemical and cerebral organization of aggression: Introduction of new research strategies in “brain and behaviour” studies. In: The biology of aggression, ed. Brain, P. F. & Bendton, D.. Sythoff & Noordhoff. [ARC]
Cools, A. R. (1985) Brain and behavior: Hierarchy of feedback systems and control if its input. In: Perspectives in ethology, ed. Klopfer, P. H. & Bateson, P.. Plenum. [aIG]
Cools, A. R. (1987) The relevance of feedforward loops. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:210. [ARC]
Cools, A. R. (1990) Role of neostriatal and mesostriatal or mesolimbic dopaminergic fibres in Parkinson's disease with and wtihout dementia: Prospects, concepts and facts. Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology 10:1534. [ARC]
Cools, A. R., Brachten, R., Heeren, D., Willemen, A. & Ellenbroek, B. (1990) Search after neurobiological profile of individual-specific features of Wistar rats. Brain Research Bulletin 24:4969. [ARC]
Cools, A. R., Coolen, J. M. M., Smit, J. C. A. & Ellenbroek, B. A. (1984) The striato-nigro-collicular pathway and explosive running behaviour: Functional interaction between neostriatal dopamine and collicular GABA. European Journal of Pharmacology 100:7177. [ARC]
Cools, A. R. & Jongen-Relo, A. L. (1991) Role of neostriatum and nucleus accumbens in stepping induced by apomorphine and dexamphetamine. Brain Research Bulletin 26:909–17. [ARC]
Cools, A. R., Scheenen, W., Eilam, D. & Golani, I. (1989) Evidence that apomorphine and (+)-amphetamine produce different types of circling in rats. Behavioural Brain Research 34:111–16. [aIG]
Cooper, S. J. & Dourish, C. T. (1990) An introduction to the concept of stereotypy and a historical perspective on the role of brain dopamine. In: The neurobiology of stereotyped behaviour, ed. Cooper, S. J. & Dourish, C. T.. Oxford Science Publications. [aIG]
Costall, B. & Naylor, R. J. (1973) The role of telencephalic dopaminergic systems in the mediation of apomorphine-stereotyped behavior. European Journal of Pharmacology 24:824. [aIG]
Creese, I. & Iversen, S. D. (1974) The role of forebrain dopamine systems in amphetamine-induced stereotypy in the adult rat following neonatal treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. Psychopharmacology 39:345–57. [aIG]
Creese, I. & Iversen, S. D. (1975) The pharmacological and anatomical substrates of the amphetamine response in the rat. Brain Research 83:419–36. [aIG]
Crutcher, M. D. & Delong, M. R. (1984) Single cell studies of the primate putamen. I. Functional organization. Experimental Brain Research 53:233–43. [aIG]
Darwin, C. (1872) The expression of the emotions in man and animals. John Murray. [RDM, WMS]
Dawkins, M. S. (1989) The future of ethology: How many legs are we standing on? In: Perspectives in ethology, Vol. 8: Whither ethology? ed. Bateson, P. P. G. & Klopfer, P. H.. Plenum Press. [ZF]
Dawkins, R. (1991) Darwin triumphant: Darwinism as a universal truth. In: Man & beast revisited, ed. Robinson, M. H. & Tiger, L.. Smithsonian Institution Press. [MB]
Decker, D. J. (1967) Motility of the turtle embryo Chelydra serpentina. Science 57:952–54. [aIG]
Denny-Brown, D. (1962) The basal ganglia. Oxford University Press (Oxford). [aIG]
Divac, L., Rosvold, H. E. & Szwarcbart, M. K. (1967) Behavioral effects of selective ablation of the caudate nucleus. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology 63:184–90. [aIG]
Dourish, C. T. (1987) Effects of drugs on spontaneous motor activity. In: Experimental psychopharmacology, ed. Greenshaw, A. J. & Dourish, C. T.. Humana Press. [aIG]
Dretske, F. (1988) Explaining behavior: Reasons in a world of causes. MIT Press. [MB]
Dwyer, P. D. (1984) Functionalism and structuralism: Two programs for evolutionary biologists. American Naturalist 124:745–50. [rIG, SMP]
Easter, S. S. Jr., Purves, D., Rakic, P. & Spitzer, N. C. (1985) The changing view of neural specificity. Science 230:507–11. [PHK]
Eaton, R. C. & Bombardieri, R. A. (1978) Behavioral functions of the Mauthner neuron. In: Neurobiology of the Mauthner cell, ed. Faber, D. S. & Korn, H.. Raven Press. [RCE]
Eaton, R. C., DiDomenico, R. & Nissanov, J. (1988) Flexible body dynamics of the goldfish C-start: Implications for reticulospinal command mechanisms. Journal of Neuroscience 8:2758–68. [RCE]
Eaton, R. C., DiDomenico, R. & Nissanov, J. (1991) Role of the Mauthner cell in sensorimotor integration by the brain stem escape network. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 37:272–85. [RCE]
Eaton, R. C. & Emberley, D. S. (1991) How stimulus direction determines the trajectory of the Mauthner-initiated escape response in a teleost fish. Journal of Experimental Biology (in press). [RCE]
Eaton, R. C., Laender, W. A. & Wieland, C. M. (1982) Alternative neural pathways initiate fast-start responses following lesions of the Mauthner neuron in goldfish. Journal of Comparative Physiology [A] 145:485–96. [RCE]
Eccles, J. C. (1982) The initiation of voluntary movements by the supplementary motor area. Archiv für Psychiatric und Nervenkrankheiten 231:423–41. [GG]
Edelman, G. M. (1987) Neural Darwinism: The theory of neuronal group selection. Basic Books. [rIG, JCF, PHK]
Edwards, J. L. (1977) The evolution of terrestrial locomotion. In: Major patterns in vertebrate evolution, ed. Hecht, M. K., Googy, P. C. & Hecht, B. M.. Plenum. [DE]
Edwards, J. L. (1985) Terrestrial locomotion without appendages. In: Functional vertebrate morphology, ed. Hildebrand, M., Bramble, D. M., Liem, K. E. & Wake, D. B.. Harvard University Press. [DE]
Eilam, D. (1988) Exploratory behavior in normal and amphetamine treated wild Norway rats (rattus norvegicus). Thesis submitted for the Ph.D. degree at the Department of Zoology, Tel-Aviv University. In Hebrew, with English summary. [arIG]
Eilam, D. & Golani, I. (1988) The ontogeny of exploratory behavior in the house rat (Rattus rattus): The mobility gradient. Developmental Psychobiology 21(7):679710. [arIG, DE, CHMB, PHK]
Eilam, D. & Golani, I. (1989) Home base behavior of rats (Rattus norvegicus) exploring a novel environment. Behavioral Brain Research 34:199211. [rIG]
Eilam, D. & Golani, I. (1990) Home base behavior in amphetamine-treated tame wild rats (Rattus norvegicus). Behavioral Brain Research 36:161–70. [rIG]
Eilam, D., Golani, I. & Szechtman, H. (1989) D-2 agonist quinpirole induces perseveration of routes and hyperactivity but no perseveration of movements. Brain Research 490:255–67. [aIG]
Eilam, D., Szechtman, H. & Spear, L. P. (submitted) The morphology of turning behavior is altered by the D-2 agonist quinpirole during the second postnatal week. Developmental Psychobiology. [aIG]
Einat, C. & Golani, I. (submitted) The organization of rat locomotor behavior in relation to the body-related plane of bilateral symmetry under apomorphine, amphetamine, and quinpirole. Behavioral Neuroscience. [aIG]
Eisenberg, J. F. (1981) The mammalian radiations. An analysis of trends in evolution, adaptation, and behavior. Universitiy of Chicago Press. [JAB]
Ekman, P. & Oster, H. (1979) Facial expressions of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology 30:527–54. [RDM]
Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V. & Ellsworth, P. (1972) The face of emotion. Pergamon Press. [RDM]
Ellinwood, E. H. Jr., & Escalante, O. D. (1972) Chronic methamphetamine intoxication in three species of experimental animals. In: Current concepts in amphetamine abuse, ed. Ellinwood, E. H. Jr., & Cohen, S.. U.S. Government Printing Office. [CHMB]
Ernst, A. M. (1967) Mode of action of apomorphine and dexamphetamine on gnawing compulsion in rats. Psychopharmacologia 10:316–23. [aIG]
Ernst, A. M. (1969) The role of biogenic amines in the extra-pyramidal system. Acta Physiologica et Pharmacologica Neerlandica 15:141–54. [aIG]
Eshkol, N. (1970) Notation of movement (BCL report 10.0). University of Illinois. [JGH]
Eshkol, N. (1971). The hand book. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Eshkol, N. (1975) Right angled curves. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Eshkol, N. (1978) Diminishing series. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Eshkol, N. (1979) Rubáiyát. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [rIG, JGH]
Eshkol, N. (1980) 50 lessons by Dr. Moshe Feldenkrais. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [aIG, ZF, JGH]
Eshkol, N. (1988) The quest for T'ai Chi Chuan. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Eshkol, N. (1990) Angles & angels. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [rIG, JGH]
Eshkol, N. & Seidel, S. (1974) Debka. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Eshkol, N. & Seidel, S. (1986) In the steps of the Hora. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Eshkol, N., Seidel, S., Sapir, T. & Shoshani, M. (1971) The Yemenite dance. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Eshkol, N. & Shoshani, M. (1979; 1982) Movement notations (Parts I & II). The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [rIG, JGH]
Eshkol, N. & Wachman, A. (1958) Movement notation. Weidenfeld & Nicholson. [arIG, JGH]
Fagen, R. (1981) Animal play behavior. Oxford University Press (Oxford). [aIG]
Falk, D. (1990) Brain evolution in Homo: The “radiator” theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:333–82. [PHK]
Faulkes, Z., Paul, D. H. & Pellis, S. M. (1991) Digging by the sand crab Blepharipoda occidentalis. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:1245. [ZF]
Fentress, J. C. (1990) The categorization of behavior. In: Interpretation and explanation in the study of animal behavior. Vol. 1: Interpretation, intentionality, and communication, ed. Bekoff, M. & Jamieson, D.. Westview Press. [JCF]
Fentress, J. C. (1991) Analytical ethology and synthetic neuroscience. In: The development and integration of behaviour: Essays in honour of Robert Hinde, ed. Bateson, P. P. G.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [JCF]
Fentress, J. C., Stanfield, B. B. & Cowan, W. M. (1981) Observations on the development of the striatum in mice and rats. Anatomy and Embryology 163:275–98. [JCF]
Fetcho, J. S. (1991) Spinal network of the Mauthner cell. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 37:298316. [RCE]
Finley, J., Ireton, D., Schleidt, W. M. & Thompson, T. A. (1983). A new look at the features of mallard courtship displays. Animal Behaviour 31:348–54. [WMS]
Fisch, H. H., Frey, S. & Hirsbrunner, H.-P. (1983) Analysing nonverbal behavior in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 92:307–18. [RDM]
Fischel, W. (1956) Haushunde. Handbuch der Zoologie 8:116. [aIG]
Fishman, J. A. (1960) A systematizaton of the Whorfian hypothesis. Behavioral Science 5:323–39. [aIG]
Foreman, M. B. (1991) The kinematics and neuroethology of the Mauthner initiated escape response. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder. [RCE]
Foreman, M. B. & Eaton, R. C. (1990) EMG and kinematic analysis of thestages of the Mauthner-initiated escape response. Neuroscience Abstracts 16:1328. [RCE]
Fox, M. W. (1971) Behavior of wolves, dogs, and related canids. Jonathan Cape. [aIG]
Fray, P. J., Sahakian, B. J., Robbins, T. W., Koob, G. F. & Iversen, S. D.(1980) An observational method for quantifying the behavioural effects of dopamine agonists: Contrasting the effects of d-amphetamine and apomorphine. Psychopharmacology 69:253–59. [aIG]
Frey, E. (1988) The carrying system of crocodilians — a biomechanical and phylogenetical analysis. Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde, Serie A (Biologie) 426:160. [DE]
Frey, S. & Bente, G. (1989) Mikroanalyse Medienvermittelter Informations prozesse zur Anwendung zeitreihen-basierten Notationsprinzipien auf die Untersuchung von Fernsehrachrichteri. Kölner Zietschrift für Soziologie, Sonderheft 30. [RDM]
Frey, S., Bente, G., Fuchs, A., Preiswerk, G., Glatt, A. & Imhof, P. (1987) Spontaneous motor activity in healthy volunteers after single doses of haloperidol. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 3. [RDM]
Frey, S., Hirsbrunner, H.-P., Bieri-Florin, A., Daw, W. & Crawford, R. (1983) A unified approach to the investigation of nonverbal and verbal behavior in communication research. In: Current issues in European social psychology, ed. Doise, W. & Moscovici, S.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [rIG, RDM]
Frey, S., Hirsbrunner, H.-P., Pool, J. & Daw, W. (1981) Das Berner System zur Untersuchtung nonverbaler Interaktion: I. Die Erhebung des Rohdatenprotokolls. In: Methoden der Analyse von Face-to-face Situationen, ed. Winkler, P.. Metzler. [RDM]
Gallistel, C. R. (1990) The organization of learning. MIT Press. [IQW]
Gambaryan, P. P. (1974) How mammals run. John Wiley. [DE]
Ganor, I. & Golani, I. (1980) Coordination and integration in the hindleg stepcycle of the rat: Kinematic synergies. Brain Research 195:5767. [rIG]
Gans, C. (1974) Biomechanics - an approach to vertebrate biology. Lippincott. [DE]
Gardiner, T. W., Iverson, D. A. & Rebec, G. V. (1988) Heterogeneous responses of neostriatal neurons to amphetamine in freely moving rats. Brain Research 463:268–74. [GVR]
Getting, P. A. (1989) Emerging principles governing the operation of neural networks. Annual Review of Neuroscience 12:185204. [ZF]
Geyer, M. A., Russo, P. V., Segal, D. S. & Kuczenski, R. (1987) Effects of apomorphine and amphetamine on patterns of locomotor and investigatory behavior in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 28:393–99. [aIG, ML]
Glick, S. D., Jerussi, T. P. & Fleisher, L. N. (1976) Turning in circles: The neuropharmacology of rotation. Life Sciences 18:889–96. [aIG]
Golani, I. (1973) Non-metric analysis of behavioral interaction sequences in captive jackals (Canis aureus L.). Behaviour 44:89112. [GWB]
Golani, I. (1976) Homeostatic motor processes in mammalian interactions: A choreography of display. In: Perspectives in Ethology, vol. 2, ed. Bateson, P. P. G. & Klopfer, P. F.. Plenum Press. [arIG]
Golani, I. (1981) The search for invariants is motor behavior. In: Behavioral development, ed. Immelman, K., Barlow, G. W., Petrinovich, L. & Main, M.. The Bielefeld Interdisciplinary Project. Cambridge University Press. [aIG]
Golani, I. (1986) Is the reduction of movement to a two-dimensional phenomenon justified? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9(4):607–08. [rIG]
Golani, I., Bronchti, G., Moualem, D. & Teitelbaum, P. (1981) “Warm up” along dimensions of movement in the ontogeny of exploration in rats and other infant mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 78(11):7226–29. [aIG, ZF]
Golani, I. & Fentress, J. C. (1985) Early ontogeny of face grooming in mice. Developmental Psychobiology 18(6):529–44. [aiG, JCF]
Golani, I. & Mendelssohn, H. (1971) Sequences of precopulatory behavior of the jackal (Canis aureus). Behaviour 28(1–2): 169–92. [aIG]
Golani, I. & Moran, G. (1983) A motility-immobility gradient in the behavior of the “inferior” wolf during “ritualized” fighting. In: Advances in the study of mammalian behavior, ed. J. F. Eisenberg & D. G. Kleiman. Special publication no. 7, American Society of Mammalogists. [arIG]
Golani, I., Wolgin, D. L. & Teitelbaum, P. (1979) A proposed natural geometry of recovery from akinesia in the lateral hypothalamic rat. Brain Research 164:237–67. [aIG, GG, SMP]
Goldberg, G. (1985) Supplementary motor area. Review and hypotheses. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:567–88. [GG]
Goldberg, G. (1987) From intent to action: Evolution and function of the premotor systems of the frontal lobe. In: The frontal lobes re-visited, ed. Perecman, E.. Erlbaum. [GG]
Goldman, A. I. (1970) A theory of action. Princeton University Press. [MB]
Gonseth, F. (1970) Le ŕeférentiel, universel obligé de la médiatisation. Dialectica, l'age d'homme. Lausanne. [rIG, RT]
Goodwin, B. C. (1988) Morphogenesis and heredity. In: Evolutionary processes and metaphors, ed. Ho, M. -W. & Fox, S. W., John Wiley. [rIG]
Gould, S. J. (1991) this view of life: Of mice and mosquitoes. Natural history July: 12–20. [rIG, GG]
Gould, S. J. & Lewontin, R. C. (1979) The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 8:205–58. [rIG]
Grant, E. C. & Mackintosh, J. H. (1963) A comparison of the social postures of some common laboratory rodents. Behaviour 21:256–59. [aIG]
Grillner, S. & Wallén, P. (1985) Central pattern generators for locomotion, with special reference to vertebrates. Annual Review of Neuroscience 8:233–61. [WAM]
Hall, W. G. (1979) The ontogeny of feeding in rats: I. Ingestive and behavioral responses to oral infusions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 93:9771000. [CHMB]
Hammerstein, P. & Parker, G. A. (1982) The asymmetric war of attrition. Journal of Theoretical Biology 96:647–82. [GWB]
Haracz, J. L., Tschanz, J. T., Greenberg, J. & Rebec, G. V. (1989) Amphetamine-induced excitations predominate in single neostriatal neurons showing motor-related activity. Brain Research 489:365–68. [GVR]
Haracz, J. L., Tschanz, J. T., Wang, Z., White, I. M. & Rebec, G. V. (in press) Effects of amphetamine, haloperidol, and clozapine on behavior and striatal single-unit activity in freely moving rats. Neuroscience. [GVR]
Hard, E. & Larsson, K. (1970) Effects of delaying intromissions on the male rat's mating behavior. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology 70:413–16. [ML]
Harnad, S., ed. (1987) Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition. Cambridge University Press. [JCF]
Harries, J. G. (1969) Shapes of movement. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Harries, J. G. (1975) A proposed notation for visual fine art. In: Visual art, mathematics and computers, ed. Malina, F.. Pergamon Press. [JGH]
Harries, J. G. (1981) Personal computers and notated visual art. Leonardo 14:299301. [JGH]
Harries, J. G. (1983) Language of shape and movement. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Harries, J. G. (1986) Symmetry and notation: Regularity and symmetry in notated computer graphics, in: Symmetry, ed. Hargittai, I.. Pergamon Press. [JGH]
Harries, J. G. (1989) Symmetry in the movements of T'ai Chi Chuan. In: Symmetry 2, ed. Hargittai, I.. Pergmon Press. [JGH]
Harries, J. G. & Richmond, G. (1982) A language for movement. New Dance 22:1417. [JGH]
Hasan, Z. & Stuart, D. G. (1988) Animal solutions to the problems of movement control: The role of proprioceptors. Annual Review of Neuroscience 11:199223. [ZF]
Havkin, Z. & Fentress, J. C. (1985) The form of combative strategies in interactions among wolf pups (Canis lupus). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychohgie 68:177200. [aIG, JCF, PL]
Heinroth, O. (1910) Beitrage zur Biologie, insbesondere Psychologie und Ethologie der Anatiden. Verh. 5, Internazionalen Ornithologen-Kongress, Berlin: 589702. [aIG]
Henry, J. D. & Herrero, S. M. (1974) Social play in the American black bear: Its similarity to canid social play and an examination of its identifying characteristics. American Zoologist 14:371–89. [aIG]
Hinde, R. A. (1958) Alternative motor patterns in Chaffinch song. Animal Behaviour 6:211–18. [DT]
Hinde, R. A. (1966) Animal behaviour. A synthesis of ethology and comparative psychology. McGraw-Hill. [aIG, WTP]
Hinde, R. A. (1970) Animal behaviour: A synthesis of ethology and comparative psychology, 2nd ed.McGraw-Hill. [rIG, JCF]
Hinde, R. A. (1982) Ethology: Its nature and relations with other sciences. Oxford University Press (Oxford). [CA]
Hinton, H. E. & Dunn, A. M. S. (1967) Mongooses. University of California Press. [aIG]
Hirsbrunner, H.-P., Bieri-Florin, A. & Frey, S. (1981) Das Berner System zur Untersuchung nonverbaler Interaktion: II. Die Auswertung von Zeitreihen visuell-auditiver Information. In: Methoden der Analyse von face-to-face Situationen, ed. Winkler, P.. Metzler. [RDM]
Hirsbrunner, H.-P., Frey, S. & Crawford, R. (1987). Movement in human interaction: Description, parameter formation and analysis. In Nonverbal behavior and communication, 2nd ed., ed. Siegman, A. W. & Feldstein, S.. Erlbaum. [RDM]
Ho, M-W. & Fox, S. W. (1988) Evolutionary processes and metaphors. John Wiley. [PHK]
Hollenbeck, L. (1971) The dynamic of canine gait: A study of motion. L. Hollenbeck. [MB]
Hollerbach, J. M. (1981) An oscillation theory of handwriting. Biological Cybernetics 39:139–56. [DN]
Hooper, S. & Moulins, M. (1989) Switching of a neuron from one network to another by sensory-induced changes in membrane properties. Science 244:1587–89. [PHK]
Hughes, A. E. W. & Prestige, M. C. (1967) Development of behavior in the hindlimb of Xenopus laevis. Journal of Zoology 152:347–59. [DE]
Hultsch, H. (1980) Beziehungen zwischen Struktur, zeitlicher Variabilität und sozialem Einsatz des Gesangs der Nachtigall (Luscinia megarhynchos). Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Biology, Freie Universität, Berlin. [DT]
Hultsch, H. (1989) Ontogeny of song patterns and their performance mode in nightingales. In: Neural mechanisms of behaviour, ed. Erber, J., Pflüger, H. J., Menzel, R. & Todt, D.. Thieme. [DT]
Hultsch, H. (1991) Early experience can modify singing styles: Evidence from experiments with nightingales. Animal Behaviour 42:750–57. [DT]
Hultsch, H. & Todt, D. (1982) Temporal performance roles during vocal interactions in nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 11:253–60. [DT]
Hultsch, H. & Todt, D. (1989) Properties of song memorization as evidence for package formation. Journal of Comparative Physiology 165:197220. [DT]
Huntingford, F. (1984) The study of animal behaviour. Chapman & Hall. [aIG]
Hutchinson-Guest, A. (1970) Labanotation or kinetography laban: The system of analyzing and recording movement. Theatre Arts Book. [MB]
Hutchinson-Guest, A. (1984) Dance notation: The process of recording movement on paper. Dance Horizons. [MB]
Huxley, J. S. (1914) The courtship of the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus); with an addition to the theory of sexual selection. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London: 491562. [WMS]
Izard, C. E. (1971) The face of emotion. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [RDM]
Jacobs, W. J., Blackburn, J. R., Buttrick, M., Harpur, T. J., Kennedy, D., Mana, M. J., MacDonald, M. A., McPherson, L. M., Paul, D. & Pfaus, J. G. (1988) Observations. Psychobiology 16:319. [ZF]
Johnsgard, P. A. (1965) Handbook of waterfowl behavior. Comstock Publishing. [SMP]
Kebabian, J. W. & Caine, D. B. (1979) Multiple receptors for dopamine. Nature 277:9396. [aIG]
Kehne, J. H., Sant, W. W. & Sorenson, C. A. (1981) The effects of radio-frequency lesions of the nucleus accumbens on d-amphetamine-induced locomotor and rearing behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology 75:363–67. [aIG]
Kelly, P. H. (1977) Drug induced motor behavior. In: Handbook of psychopharmacology, ed. Iversen, L. L., Iversen, S. D. & Snyder, S. H.. Plenum. [aIG]
Kelly, P. & Iversen, S. D. (1976) Selective 60HDA-induced destruction of mesolimbic dopamine neurons: Abolition of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activities in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 40:4556. [aIG]
Kelly, P., Seviour, P. & Iversen, S. D. (1975) Amphetamine and apomorphine responses in the rat following 6-OHDA lesions of the nucleus accumbens and corpus striatum. Brain Research 94:507–22. [aIG, ARC]
Kelly, T. M. & Chapple, W. D. (1990) Kinematic analysis of the defense response in crayfish. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:6476. [ZF]
Kelso, J. A. S. & Clark, J., eds. (1982) The development of movement control and coordination. John Wiley. [DN]
Kirkland, G. & Lawrence, G. (1990) The shape of love. Doubleday. [RF]
Klopfer, P. H. (1973) Behavioral aspects of ecology. Prentice Hall. [PHK]
Klopfer, P. H. & Budnitz, N. (1990) Fixed action patterns and neural Darwinism. Journal of Ornithology 131:9799. [PHK]
Kokkinidis, L. & Anisman, H. (1979) Circling behavior following systemic administration: Potential noradrenergic and dopaminergic involvement. Psychopharmacology 64:4554. [aIG]
Kokkinidis, L. & Anisman, H. (1980) Amphetamine models of paranoid schizophrenia: An overview and elaboration of animal experimentation. Psychological Bulletin 88:551–79. [CHMB]
Kornhuber, H. H. (1984) Attention, readiness for action, and the stages of voluntary decision — some electrophysiological correlates in man. Experimental Brain Research (Supplement) 9:420–29. [GG]
Krasne, F. B. & Wine, J. J. (1987) Evasion responses of the crayfish. In: Aims and methods of neuroethology, ed. Guthrie, D. M.. Manchester University Press. [ZF]
Kroodsma, D. E. & Miller, E. H. (1982) Acoustic communication in birds, vol. 2. Academic Press. [DT]
Kuczenski, R. & Segal, D. S. (1988) Psychomotor stimulant-induced sensitization: Behavioral and neurochemical correlates. In: Sensitization in the nervous system, ed. Kalivas, P. & Barnes, T.. Telford. [aIG]
Kuczenski, R. & Segal, D. S. (1989) Concomitant characterization of behavioral and striatal neurotransmitter response to amphetamine using in vivo microdialysis. Journal of Neuroscience 9(5):2051–65. [aIG]
Kugler, P. N. & Turvey, M. T. (1987) Information, natural law, and the self-assembly of rhythmic movement. Erlbaum. [GG]
Kupfermann, I. & Weiss, K. (1978) The command neuron concept. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:339. [RCE]
Lanzetta, J. T., Sullivan, D. G., Masters, R. D. & McHugo, G. J. (1985) Emotional and cognitive responses to televised images of political leaders. In: Mass media and political thought, ed. Kraus, S. & Perloff, R.. Sage. [RDM]
Larimer, J. L., Eggleston, A. C., Masukawa, L. M. & Kennedy, D. (1971) The different connections and motor outputs of lateral and medial giant fibres in the crayfish. Journal of Experimental Biology 54:391402. [ZF]
Lashley, K. S. (1951) The problem of serial order in behavior. In: Cerebral mechanisms in behavior, ed. Jeffries, L. A.. John Wiley. [JCF]
Lehrman, D. S. (1964) Control of behavior cycles in reproduction. In: Social behavior and organization among vertebrates, ed. Etkin, W.. University of Chicago Press. [aIG]
Lenneberg, E. H. (1953) Cognition in ethnolinguistics. Language 29:463–71. [aIG]
Lenneberg, E. H. (1967) Biological foundations of language. John Wiley. [aIG]
Leyhausen, P. (1979) Cat behaviour. Garland. [arIG, PL]
Lindsey, C. C. (1978) Form, function, and locomotory habits in fish. In: Fish physiology, vol. 7, ed. Hoar, W. & Randall, D. L.. Academic Press. [DE]
Lochhead, J. H. (1961) Locomotion. In: Physiology of Crustacea, Vol. II: Sense organs, integration, and behavior, ed. Waterman, T. H.. Academic Press. [ZF]
Lorenz, K. (1937) Über die Bildung des Instinktbegriffes. Naturwissenschaften 25:289331. [aIG, WMS]
Lorenz, K. (1941) Vergleichende Bewegungsstudien an Anatiden. Journal für Ornithologie 89 (sonderheft, 19–29). [rIG, GWB]
Lorenz, K. (1943) Die Angeborenen Formen moglicher Erfahrung. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 5:235409. [rIG]
Lorenz, K. (1959) Gestalt perception as a source of scientific knowledge. In: Studies in animal and human behavior, vol. 2. (1971) Harvard University Press. [aIG, WMS]
Lorenz, K. (1970; 1971) Studies in animal and human behavior (two volumes). Methuen. [rIG]
Lorenz, K. (1974) Analogy as a source of knowledge. Science 185:229–34. [PHK]
Lorenz, K. (1981) The foundations of ethology. Springer. [arIG]
Lyon, M. (1959) The dog in action: A study of anatomy and locomotion as applying to all breeds. Howell Book House, Inc. [MB]
Lyon, M. & Lyon, N. (1990) Response latency structure in schizophrenia as related to DA overstimulation theory. Abstracts: Society for Neuroscience 16:1351. [ML]
Lyon, M. & Magnusson, M. S. (1982) Central stimulant drugs and the learning of abnormal behavioral sequences. Behavioral models and the analysis of drug action, Proceedings of the 27th OHOLO Conference, Zichron Ya'acov, Israel, March 28–31, ed. M. Y. Spiegelstein & A. Levy. Elsevier. [ML]
Lyon, M. & Robbins, T. (1975) The action of central nervous system stimulant drugs: A general theory concerning amphetamine effects. In: Current developments in psychopharmacology, ed. Essman, W. & Valzelli, L.. Spectrum Publications. [arIG, ML]
Macmillan, D. L. (1975) A physiological analysis of walking in the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 270:159. [ZF]
Magnusson, M. S. (1988). Le temps et les patterns syntaxiques du comportement humain: Modèle, methode et le programme “THEME.” In: Revue des conditions de travail, Edition Octares. [ML]
Magnusson, M. S. (1989) Structure syntaxiques et rythmes acomportementaux sur la detection de rythmes caches. Sciences et Techniques de l'Animal de Laboratoire 14(2): 15. [ML]
Marler, P. & Peters, S. (1982) Subsong and plastic song: Their role in the vocal learning process. In: Acoustic communication in birds, vol. 2, ed. Kroodsma, D. E. & Miller, E. H.. Academic Press. [DT]
Martin, P. & Bateson, P. (1986) Measuring behaviour. An introductory guide. Cambridge University Press. [aIG]
Masters, R. D. (1989) The nature of politics. Yale Universisty Press. [RDM]
Masters, R. D. & Carlotti, S. J., Jr. (1988) The gender gap revisited. Paper presented at International Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., September 1. [RDM]
Masters, R. D., Frey, S. & Bente, G. (1991) Dominance and attention: Images of leaders in German, French, and American tv news. Polity 22:373–94. [RDM]
Masters, R. D. & Sullivan, D. G. (1989) Nonverbal displays and political leadership in France. Behavioural Processes 19:130. [RDM]
Masters, R. D., Sullivan, D. G., Feola, A. & McHugo, G. J. (1987) Television coverage of candidates' display behavior during the 1984 Democratic primaries. International Political Science Review 8:121–30. [RDM]
Masters, R. D., Sullivan, D. G., Lanzetta, J. T. & McHugo, G. J. (1986) The facial displays of leaders: Toward an ethology of human politics. Journal of Social and Biological Structures 9:319–43. [RDM]
McHugo, G. J., Lanzetta, J. T. & Bush, L. K. (1991) The effect of attitudes on emotional reactions to expressive displays of political leaders. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 15:1941. [RDM]
McHugo, G. J., Lanzetta, J. T., Sullivan, D. G., Masters, R. D. & Englis, B. G. (1985) Emotional reactions to a political leader's expressive G. (1985) Emotional reactions to a political leader's expressive displays. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49:1512–23. [RDM]
Meyer-Holzapel, M. (1956a) Uber die Bereitschaft zu Spiel- und Instinkthandlungen. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 13:442–62. [alG]
Meyer-Holzapel, M. (1956b) Das Spiel bei Saugtieren. Handbuch der Zoologie 8(10):136. [alG]
Mishkin, M. & Manning, F. J. (1978) Non-spatial memory after selective prefrontal lesions in monkeys. Brain Research 143:313–23. [alG]
Mittenthal, J. E. & Wine, J. J. (1973) Connectivity patterns of crayfish giant interneurons; Visualization of synaptic regions with cobalt dye. Science 179:182–84. [ZF]
Molloy, A. G. & Waddington, J. L. (1985) Mechanism of paradoxical blockade of D-2 agonist-induced sterotypy by the enantiomers of the D-1 antagonist SK&F 83566. British Journal of Pharmacology 85:242. [alG]
Montagner, H., Magnusson, M., Casagrande, C., Restoin, A., Bel, J.-P., Nguyen, M., Hoang, P., Ruiz, V., Delcourt, S., Gauffier, G. & Epoulet, B. (1990) Une nouvelle methode pur l'étude des organisateurs de comportement et des systèmes d'interaction du jeune enfant. Psychiatrie de l'Enfants 33(2):391456. [ML]
Moore, D. E. & Kelly, P. H. (1978) Biochemical pharmacology of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons. In: Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress, ed. Lipton, M. A., DiMascio, A. & Killam, K. F.. Raven. [alG]
Moran, G., Fentress, J. C. & Golani, I. (1981) A description of relational patterns of movement during “ritualized fighting” in wolves. Animal Behavior 29:1146–65. [alG]
Moynihan, M. (1970) Control, suppression, decay, disappearance and replacement of displays. Journal of Theoretical Biology 29:85112. [rIG, GWB]
Mumford, L., Teixeira, A. R. & Kumar, A. (1979) Sources of variation in locomotor activity and stereotypy in rats treated with d-amphetamine. Psychopharmacology 62:241–45. [CHMB]
Neafsey, E. J., Hull, C. D. & Buchwald, N. A. (1978) Preparation for movement in the cat: Unit activity in the cerebral cortex. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 44:714–23. [rIG]
Nelson, P. G., Yu, C. & Neale, E. A. (1989) Synaptic connections in vitro: Modulation of number and efficacy by electrical activity during development. Science 744:585–87. [PHK]
Newhouse, S., Ruelle, D. & Takens, F. (1978) Occurrences of strange axiom A attractors near quasi-periodic flows on Tm, m < 3. Communications in Mathematics and Physics 64:135. [RT]
Newtson, D. (1990) Alternatives to representation or alternative representations: Comments on the ecological approach. Contemporary Social Psychology 14:163–74. [DN]
Newtson, D. (1992) The dynamics of action and interaction. In: Applications of dynamical systems theory to human development, ed. Smith, L. & Thelen, E.. MIT Press. [DN]
Newtson, D., Engquist, G. & Bois, J. (1977) The objective basis of behavior units. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35:847–62. [DN]
Newtson, D., Hairfield, J. &Bloomingdale, J. & Cutino, S. (1987). The structure of action and interaction. Social Cognition 5:191237. [DN]
Nissanov, J. & Eaton, R. C. (1989) Reticulospinal control of rapid escape turning maneuvers in fishes. American Zoologist 29:103–21. [alG]
Nottebohm, F. (1991) Reassessing the mechanisms and origins of vocal learning in birds. Trends in Neurosdence 14(5):206–11. [rIG]
Ohm, D. (1959) Vergleichende Beobachtungen am Balzverhalten von Aequidens (Cichlidae). Wissenschaftliclie Zeitschrift der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Mathematisch-Naturwissen-Schaftliche Reihe 8:357404. [GWB]
Orgogozo, J. M. & Larsen, B. (1979) Activation of the supplementary motor area during movement in man suggests it works as a supramotor area. Science 206:847–50. [GG]
Paul, D. H. (1981a) Homologies between body movments and muscular contractions in the locomotion of two decapods of different families. Journal of Experimental Biology 94:159–68. [ZF]
Paul, D. H. (1981b) Homologies between neuromuscular systems serving different functions in two decapods of different families. Journal of Experimental Biology 94:169–87. [ZF]
Paul, D. H. (1989) A neurophylogenist's view of decapod Crustacea. Bulletin of Marine Science 45:487504. [ZF]
Paul, D. H. (1991) Pedigrees of neurobehavioral circuits: Tracing the evolution of novel behaviors by comparing motor patterns, muscles, and neurons in members of related taxa. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 38:226–39. [ZF]
Paulus, M. P. & Geyer, M. A. (1991) Temporal and spatial scaling hypothesis for the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. Psychopharmacology 104:610. [ML]
Peat, F. D. (1988) Synchronicity. The bridge between matter and mind. Bantam. [GG]
Pedersen, P. E. & Blass, E. M. (1981) Olfactory control over suckling in albino rats. In: Development of perception: Psychobiological perspectives, ed. Aslin, R. N., Alberts, J. R. & Peterson, M. R.. Academic Press. [CHMB]
Pellionisz, A. & Llinas, R. (1979) Brain modelling by tensor network theory and computer simulation. The cerebellum: Distributed processor for predictive coordination. Neurosdence 4:323–48. [rIG]
Pellionisz, A. & Llinas, R. (1980) Tensorial approach to the geometry of brain function: Cerebellar coordination via a metric tensor. Neurosdence 5:1125–36. [rIG]
Pellis, S. M. (1982) An analysis of courtship and mating in the Cape Barren goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae Latham based on Eshkol-Wachman movement notation. Bird Behaviour 4:3041. [SMP]
Pellis, S. M. (1983) Development of head and foot coordination in the Australian Magpie Gymnorhina tibicen, and the function of play. Bird Behaviour 4:5762. [ZF]
Pellis, S. M. (1989) Fighting: The problem of selecting appropriate behavior patterns. In: Ethoexperimental approaches to the study of behavior, ed. Blanchard, R. J., Brain, P. F., Blanchard, D. C. & Parmigiani, S.. Kluwer Academic Publishers. [alG, RF, SMP]
Pellis, S. M. & Pellis, V. C. (1991) An analysis of the targets and tactics of conspecific attack and predatory attack in northern grasshopper mice Onychomys leucogaster. Aggressive Behavior, in press. [SMP]
Penfield, W. & Welch, K. (1951) The supplementary motor area of the cerebral cortex: A chemical and experimental study. American Medical Association Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 66:289317. [GG]
Peterson, B. W. (1984) The reticulospinal system and its role in the control of movement. In: Brain stem control of spinal cord function, ed. Barnes, C. D.. Academic Press. [alG]
Piaget, J. (1967) Language and thought from the genetic point of view. In: Psychological studies, ed. Elkind, D.. Random House. [alG]
Pijnenburg, A. J. J., Honig, W. M. M. & van Rossum, J. M. (1975) Inhibition of d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity by injection of haloperidol into the nucleus accumbens of the rat. Psychopharmacology 41:8795. [alG]
Pijnenburg, A. J. J., Honig, W. M. M., van der Heyden, J. A. M. & van Rossum, J. M. (1976) Effects of chemical stimulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system upon locomotor activity. European Journal of Pharmacology 35:4558. [ARC]
Plotkin, H. C. (1988) The role of behavior in evolution. MIT Press. [PHK]
Pope, S. G., Dean, P. & Redgrave, P. (1980) Dissociation of d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and stereotyped behavior by lesions of the superior colliculus. Psychopharmacology 70:297302. [CHMB]
Posner, M. I. (1978) Chronometric exploration of mind. Erlbaum. [DT]
Powers, W. T. (1973) Behavior: The control of perception. Aldine. [arIG]
Prechtl, H. & Schleidt, W. M. (1950) Auslosende und Steurnde Mechanismen des Saugactes. I. Mitteilung. Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Physiologie 32:257–62. [alG]
Prechtl, H. & Schleidt, W. M. (1951) Auslosende und Steurnde Mechanismen des Saugactes. II. Mitteilung. Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Psysiologie 33:5362. [alG]
Pugh, M. T., O'Boyle, K. M., Molloy, A. G. & Waddington, J. L. (1985) Effects of the putative D-1 antagonist SCH 23390 on stereotyped behaviour induced by the D-2 antagonist RU 24213. Psychopharmacology 87:308–12. [alG]
Puzis, O. (1984) Social play in the Arabian babbler (Turdoides squamiceps). Thesis submitted toward M.Sc. degree at the Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University. In Hebrew, with English summary. [alG]
Rebec, G. V. (1987) Electrophysiological pharmacology of amphetamine. In: Neurobiology of drug abuse, ed. Marwah, J.. S. Karger AG. [GVR]
Rebec, G. V. (1991) Changes in brain and behavior produced by amphetamine: A perspective based on microdialysis, voltammetry, and single-unit electrophysiology in freely moving animals. In: Biochemistry and physiology of substance abuse, vol. III, ed. Watson, R. R.. CRC Press. [GVR]
Rebec, G. V. (1992) Neuropharmacology of amphetamine: Changes in the activity of striatal neurons during behavior. In: Biochemistry and physiology of substance abuse, vol. IV, ed. Watson, R. R. (in press). CRC Press. [GVR]
Rebec, G. V. & Bashore, T. R. (1984) Critical issues in assessing the behavioral effects of amphetamine. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 8:153–59. [alG, GVR]
Rebec, G. V., Haracz, J. L., Tschanz, J. T., Wang, Z. & White, I. (1991) Responses of motor- and nonmotor-related neostriatal neurons to amphetamine and neuroleptic drugs. In: Basal ganglia III, advances in behavioral biology, vol. 39, ed. Bernardi, G.. Plenum. [GVR]
Reichert, H., Wine, J. J. & Hagiwara, G. (1981) Crayfish escape behavior: Neurobehavioral analysis of phasic extension reveals dual systems for motor control. Journal of Comparative Physiology 142:281–94. [ZF]
Rewcastle, S. C. (1981) Stance and gait in tetrapods: An evolutionary scenario. Symposium of the Zoological Society London 48:239–67. [DE]
Robbins, T. W., Mittelman, G., O'Brien, J. & Winn, P. (1990) The neuropsychological significance of stereotypy induced by stimulant drugs. In: The neurobiotogy of stereotyped behaviour, ed. Cooper, S. J. & Dourish, C. T.. Oxford Science Publications. [arIG, ML]
Robinson, S. R. & Smotherman, W. P. (1987) Environmental determinants of behaviour in the rat fetus. II. The emergence of synchronous movement. Animal Behavior 35:1652–62. [CHMB]
Rolls, E. T. & Williams, G. V. (1987) Sensory and movement related neuronal activity in different regions of the primate striatum. In: Basal ganglia and behavior: Sensory aspects and motor functioning, ed. Schneider, J. S. & Lidsky, T. I.. Hans Huber. [alG]
Romer, A. (1922) The locomotor apparatus of certain primitive and mammal-like reptiles. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 46:517606. [DE]
Romer, A. S. (1976) Vertebrate paleontology. University of Chicago Press. [RCE]
Ryan, L. J., Young, S. J., Segal, D. S. & Groves, P. M. (1989) Antidromically identified striatonigral projection neurons in the chronically implanted behaving rat: Relations of cell firing to amphetamine-induced behaviors. Behavior Neuroscience 103:314. [GVR]
Sacks, O. W. (1982) Awakenings. Pan Books. [rIG]
Salzman, E. & Kelso, J. A. S. (1987) Skilled actions: A task-dynamic approach. Psychological Review 94:84106. [DN]
Sandeman, D. C. & Atwood, H. L., eds. (1982) The biology of Crustacea, vol. 4: Neural integration and behavior. Academic Press. [ZF]
Sapir, T. (1987) Hanukkah notebook, ed. N. Eshkol. The Movement Notation Society, Israel. [JGH]
Scheel-Krüger, J. (1983) The GABA receptor and animal behavior. In: The GABA-receptors, ed. Enna, S. J.. Humana Press. [alG]
Scheel-Krüger, J. (1986) Dopamine-GABA interactions: Evidence that GABA transmits, modulates and mediates dopaminergic functions in the basal ganglia and the limbic system. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Supplement 107/73:954. [ARC]
Schenkel, R. (1948) Ausdrucksstudien an wolfen. Behaviour 1:6129. [alG]
Schenkel, R. (1967) Submission: Its features and function in the wolf and dog. American Zoologist 7:319–29. [arIG]
Schiorring, E. (1971) Amphetamine induced selective stimulation of certain behavior items with concurrent inhibition of others in an open-field test with rats. Behaviour 39:117. [alG]
Schleidt, W. M. (1974) How “fixed” is the fixed action pattern? Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 36:184211. [rIG, WMS]
Schleidt, W. M. (1982) Stereotyped feature variables are essential constituents of behavior patterns. Behaviour 79:230–38. [WMS]
Schleidt, W. M. & Crawley, J. N. (1980) Patterns in the behavior of organisms. Journal of Social and Biological Structures 3:115. [rIG, WMS]
Schleidt, W. M., Yakalis, G., Donnelly, M. & McGarry, J. (1984) A proposal for a standard ethogram, exemplified by an ethogram of the bluebreasted quail (Coturnix chinensis). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 64:193220. [rIG, WMS]
Schmidt, W. (1983) Involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the control of goal-directed movements. Psychopharmacology 80:360–64. [ML]
Schnitzlein, H. N. & Faucette, J. R. (1969) General morphology of the fish cerebellum. In: Neurobiology of cerebellar evolution and development, ed. Llinas, R.. American Medical Association/Education & Research Foundation. [WAM]
Schoner, G. & Kelso, J. (1988) Dynamic pattern generation in behavioral and neural systems. Science March 25:1513–20. [DN]
Schrameck, J. E. (1970) Crayfish swimming: Alternating motor output and giant fiber activity. Science 169:698700. [ZF]
Schuster, H. G. (1989) Deterministic chaos. An introduction, 2nd ed. (revised). VCH Verlagsgesellschaft. [GG]
Sessions, G., Meyerhoff, J., Kant, G. J. & Koob, G. F. (1980) Effects of lesions of the ventral medial tegmentum on locomotor activity, biogenic amines and response to amphetamine in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 12:603–08. [alG]
Shik, M. L. & Orlovsky, G. N. (1976) Neurophysiology of locomotor automatism. Physiological Reviews 56:465501. [WAM]
Sillar, K. T. & Heitler, W. J. (1985) The neural basis of escape swimming behaviour in the squat lobster Galathea strigosa I. Absence of cord giant axons and anatomy of motor neurons involved in swimming. Journal of Experimental Biology 117:251–69. [ZF]
Skarda, C. A. & Freeman, W. J. (1987) How brains make chaos in order to make sense of the world. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:161–95. [DN]
Skarda, C. A. & Freeman, W. J. (1990) Chaos and the new science of the brain. Concepts in Neuroscience 1:275–85. [GG]
Slater, P. J. B. (1976) Data collection. In: Quantitative ethology, ed. Colgan, P.. John Wiley. [alG]
Sober, E. (1975) Simplicity. Oxford University Press. [MB]
Sparks, D. L. & Mays, L. E. (1990) Signal transformations required for the generation of saccadic eye movements. Annual Review of Neuroscience 13:309–36. [WAM]
Staton, D. M. & Solomon, P. (1984) Microinjections of d-amphetamine into the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen of the rat. Physiological Psychology 12:159–62. [alG]
Steels, L. (1991) Towards a theory of emergent functionality. In: From animals to animats. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive behavior, ed. Meyer, J. A. & Wilson, S. W.. MIT Press. [rIG]
Stern, J. M. & Johnson, S. K. (1990) Ventral somatosensory determinants of nursing behavior in Norway rats. I. Effects of variations in the quality and quantity of pup stimuli. Physiology ir Behavior 47:9931011. [CHMB]
Sullivan, D. G. & Masters, R. D. (1988) Happy warriors: Leaders' facial displays, viewers' emotions, and political support. American Journal of Political Science 32:345–68. [RDM]
Sullivan, D. G. & Masters, R. D. (in press) Nonverbal behavior, emotions, and democratic leadership. In: Reconsidering the Democratic public, ed. G. Marcus & J. Sullivan. [RBM]
Swerdlow, N. R. & Koob, G. F. (1987) Dopamine, schizophrenia, mania, and depression: Toward a unified hypothesis of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10(2): 197245. [alG]
Swerdlow, N. R., Vaccarino, F. J., Amalric, M. & Koob, G. F. (1986) The neural substrates for the motor-activating properties of psychostimulants: A review of recent findings. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 25:233–48. [alG]
Symons, D. (1978). Play and aggression: A study of rhesus monkeys. Columbia University Press. [alG]
Szechtman, H., Ornstein, K., Teitelbaum, P. & Golani, I. (1982) Snout-contact fixation, climbing and gnawing during apomorphine stereotypy in rats from two substrains. European Journal of Pharmacology 80:385–92. [CHMB]
Szechtman, H., Ornstein, K., Teitelbaum, P. & Golani, I. (1985) The morphogenesis of stereotyped behavior induced by the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine in the laboratory rat. Neuroscience 14(3):783–98. [alG]
Teitelbaum, P. & Pellis, S. M. (in press) Towards a synthetic physiological psychology. Psychological Science, [rIG]
Terry, L. M. & Johanson, I. B. (1987) Olfactory influences on the ingestive behavior of infant rats. Developmental Psychobiology 20:313–52. [CHMB]
Thimm, F. (1980) The function of feedback mechanism in bird song. Acta XVII Congressus International Ornithologici, Berlin: 677–81. [DT]
Thomas, K. V. & Handley, S. L. (1978) On the mechanism of amphetamine-induced behavioral changes in the mouse. I. An observational analysis of dexamphetamine. Arzeinmittel-forschung 28:827–33. [alG]
Thompson, D. W. (1942) On growth and form, vols. I, II. Cambridge University Press. [rIG]
Tinbergen, N. (1951) The study of instinct. Clarendon Press. [alG, WMS]
Tinbergen, N. (1959) Comparative studies of the behavior of gulls (Laridae) - a progress report. Behaviour 15:170. [alG]
Todt, D. (1968) Zur Steuerung unregelmässiger Verhaltensbläufe. In: Kybernetik, ed. Mittelstaedt, H.. Oldenbourg. [DT]
Todt, D. (1975) Short term inhibition of outputs occurring in the vocal behaviour of blackbirds. Journal of Comparative Physiology 98:289306. [DT]
Todt, D. (1986) Hinweis-Charakter und Mittler-Funktion von Verhalten. Zeitschrift für Semiotik 8:183230. [DT]
Todt, D. (1988) Serial calling as a mediator of interaction processes. In: Primate vocal communication, ed. Todt, D., Goedeking, P. & Symmes, D.. Springer. [DT]
Todt, D. & Fiebelkorn, A. (1979) Display, timing and function of wing movements accompanying duets of Cichladusa guttata. Behaviour 25:4258. [DT]
Todt, D., Hammerschmidt, K. & Hultsch, H. (1991) The behaviour of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Primate Report, in press. [DT]
Todt, D. & Hultsch, H. (1980) Functional aspects of sequence and hierarchy in bird song. Acta XVII Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, Berlin: 663:70. [DT]
Todt, D. & Wolffgramm, J. (1975) Überprüfung von Steuerungssystemen zur Strophenanwahl der Amsel durch digitale Simulierung. Biological Cybernetics 17:109–27. [DT]
Tracy, H. C. (1926) The development of motility and behavior in the toadfish. Journal of Comparative Neurology 40:253369. [alG]
Tschanz, J. T., Haracz, J. L., Griffith, K. E. & Rebee, G. V. (1991) Bilateral cortical ablations attenuate amphetamine-induced excitations of neostriatal motor-related neurons in freely moving rats. Neuroscience Letters. [GVR]
van der Koy, D., Fishell, G., Krushel, L. A. & Johnston, J. G. (1987) The development of striatal compartments: From proliferation to patches. In: The basal ganglia II: Structure and function - current concepts, ed. Carpenter, M. B. & Jayaraman, A.. Plenum. [JCF]
Vanderwolf, C. H., Bland, B. H. & Whishaw, I. Q. (1973) Diencephalic, hippocampal, and neocortical mechanisms in voluntary movement. In: Efferent organization and the integration of behavior, ed. Maser, J. D.. Academic Press. [IQW]
van Hooff, J. A. R. M. (1969) The facial displays of Catyrrhine monkeys and apes. In: Primate ethology, ed. Morris, D.. Doubleday Anchor. [RDM]
Van Leeuwen, J. L. (1991) Muscle function in locomotion. In: Mechanics of animal locomotion, ed. McN, R.. Alexander. Springer-Verlag. [ZF]
Viallet, F., Massion, J., Massarino, R. & Khalil, R. (1990) Coordination between posture and movement in Parkinsonism and SMA lesion. In: From neuron to action, ed. Deecke, L., Eccles, J. C. & Mountcastle, V. B.. Springer-Verlag.
Villablanca, R. J., Marcus, H. J. & Olmstead, C. E. (1976) Effects of caudate nuclei or frontal cortical ablations in cats. I. Neurology and gross behavior. Experimental Neurology 52:389420. [alG]
von Uexkull, J. (1934) Streifzuge durch die Umwelten von Tieren und Menschen. Springer. (Translated in Instinctive behavior (1957), ed. C. H. Schiller, Methuen. [rIG]
Vygotsky, L. S. (1965) Thought and language. M.I.T. Press. [alG]
Waddington, C. H. (1939) The strategy of the genes. Unwin. [RT]
Waddington, C. H. (1966) Principles of development and differentiation. Macmillan. [PHK]
Waddington, J. L., Molloy, A. G., O'Boyle, K. M. & Pugh, M. T. (1990) Aspects of stereotyped and non-stereotyped behaviour in relation to dopamine receptor subtypes. In: Neurobiology of stereotyped behaviour, ed. Cooper, S. J. & Dourish, C. T.. Oxford Science Publications. [alG]
Warnecke, A. M. (1991) The personalization of politics: An analysis of emotion, cognition, and nonverbal cues. Senior Fellowship Thesis. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH. [RDM]
Wassersug, R. J. (1989) Locomotion in amphibian larvae. American Zoologist 29:6584. [arIG]
Webb, G. J. W. & Gans, C. (1982) Galloping in Crocodylus johnstoni - a reflection of terrestrial activity? Records Australian Museum 34(14):607–18, Sydney. [DE]
Webb, P. W. (1978) Fast start performance and body form in seven species of teleost fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 74:211–26. [alG, RGB]
Webb, P. W. (1982) Locomotor patterns in evolution of actinopterygian evolution. American Zoologist 22:329–42. [DE]
Webb, P. W. (1984) Body form, locomotion and foraging in aquatic vertebrates. American Zoologist 24:107–20. [DE]
Webb, P. W. (1988) Simple physical principles and vertebrate aquatic locomotion. American Zoologist 28:709–25. [RCE]
Webb, P. W. & Weihs, D. (1986) Functional locornotor morphology of early life history stages of fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115:115–27. [DE]
Wegener, S. (1986) Dopaminerge kontrolle des eintrageverhaltens bei laktierenden hausmausen (mus musculus). Biologisches Institut der Universitat Stuttgart, Abteilung Tierphysiologie, Diplomarbeit. [ML]
Weihs, D. (1973) The mechanism of rapid starting of slender fish. Biorheology 10:343–50. [aiG]
Welker, W. I. (1971) Ontogeny of play and exploratory behaviors: A definition of problems and a search for new conceptual solutions. In: The ontogeny of vertebrate behavior, ed. Moltz, H.. Academic Press. [alG]
West, M. O., Carelli, R. M., Pomerantz, M., Cohen, S. M., Gardner, J. P., Chapin, J. K. & Woodward, D. J. (1990) A region in the dorsolateral striatunl of the rat exhibiting single-unit correlations with specific locomotor limb movements. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:1233–46. [GVR]
West, M. O., Michael, A. J., Knowles, S. E., Chapin, J. K. & Woodward, D. J. (1987) Striatal unit activity and the linkage between sensory and motor events. In: Basal ganglia and behavior: Sensory aspects of motor functioning, ed. Schneider, J. S. & Lidsky, T. I.. Hans Huber. [GVR]
Whishaw, I. Q. (1988) Food wrenching and dodging: Use of action patterns for the analysis of sensorimotor and social behavior in the rat. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 24:169–78. [IQW]
Whishaw, I. Q. & Gorney, B. P. (1991) Postprandial scanning by the rat (Rattus norvegicus): The importance of eating time and an application of “warm-up” movements. Journal of Comparative Psychology 105:3944. [IQW]
Whishaw, I. Q., Gorney, B. P. & Dringenberg, H. C. (1991) The defensive strategies of foraging rats: A review and synthesis. Psychological Record 41:185205. [IQW]
Whishaw, I. Q., Oddie, S. D., McNamara, R. K., Harris, T. L. & Perry, B. S. (1990) Psychophysical methods for the study of sensory-motor behavior using a food-carrying (hoarding) task in rodents. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 32:123–33. [IQW]
Whishaw, I. Q. & Pellis, S. M. (1990) The structure of skilled forelimb reaching in the rat: A proximally driven movement with a single distal rotatory component. Behavioural Brain Research 41:4559. [SMP]
Whishaw, I. Q., Pellis, S. M., Gorny, B. P. & Pellis, V. C. (1991) The impairments in reaching and the movements of compensation in rats with motor cortex lesions: An endpoint, videorecording, and movement notation analysis. Behavioural Brain Research 42:7791. [SMP]
Whitman, C. O. (1919) The behavior of pigeons. Publication of the Carnegie Institute 257:1161. [alG]
Whorf, B. L. (1956) Language, thought and reality ed. Carroll, J. B.. Technology Press of M.I.T. and John Wiley. [alG]
Wiersma, C. A. G. (1947) Giant fibre system of the crayfish. A contribution to comparative physiology of synapse. Journal of Neurophysiology 10:2338. [ZF]
Wilson, E. O. (1972) Animal communication. Scientific American 227(2):5360. [GWB]
Wilson, L. J. & Paul, D. H. (1987) Tailflipping of Munida quadraspina (Galatheidae): Conservation of behavior and underlying musculature with loss of anterior contralateral flexor motoneurons and motor giant. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 161:881–90. [ZF]
Wilson, S. & Kleiman, D. (1974) Eliciting play: A comparative study. American Zoologist 14:341–70. [aIG]
Wine, J. J. (1984) The structural basis of an innate behavioural pattern. Journal of Experimental Biology 112:283319. [ZF]
Wolffgramm, J. (1980) The role of periodicities in avian vocal communication. Acta XVII Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, Berlin: 671–76. [DT]
Wylie, L. (1977) Beaux gestes: A guide to French body talk. Undergraduate Press. [RDM]
Yanai, Z. (1974) Notation for the liberation of movement. Ariel 37:114–30. [JGH]
Yaniv, Y. & Golani, I. (1987) Superiority and inferiority: A morphological analysis of free and stimulus bound behaviour in honey badger (Mellivora capensis) interactions. Ethology 74:89116. [arlG]

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Connecting invertebrate behavior, neurophysiology and evolution with Eshkol-Wachman movement notation

  • Zen Faulkes (a1) and Dorothy Hayman Paul (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.