Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

The neuropsychology of schizophrenia

  • J. A. Gray (a1), J. Feldon (a2), J. N. P. Rawlins (a3), D. R. Hemsley (a1) and A. D. Smith (a4)...

A model is proposed for integrating the neural and cognitive aspects of the positive symptoms of acute schizophrenia, using evidence from postmortem neuropathology and neurochemistry, clinical and preclinical studies of dopaminergic neurotransmission, anatomical connections between the limbic system and basal ganglia, attentional and other cognitive abnormalities underlying the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, specific animal models of some of these abnormalities, and previous attempts to model the cognitive functions of the septohippocampal system and the motor functions of the basal ganglia. Anatomically, the model emphasises the projections from the septohippocampal system, via the subiculum, and the amygdala to nucleus accumbens, and their interaction with the ascending dopaminergic projection to the accumbens. Psychologically, the model emphasises a failure in acute schizophrenia to integrate stored memories of past regularities of perceptual input with ongoing motor programs in the control of current perception. A number of recent experiments that offer support for the model are briefly described, including anatomical studies of limbic-striatal connections, studies in the rat of the effects of damage to these connections, and of the effects of amphetamine and neuroleptics, on the partial reinforcement extinction effect, latent inhibition and the Kamin blocking effect; and studies of the latter two phenomena in acute and chronic schizophrenics.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. L. Albin , A. B. Young & J. B. Penny (1989) The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Trends in the Neurosciences 12:366–74. [IW]

J. Altman , G. D. Das & W. J. Anderson (1968) Effects of infantile handling on morphological development of the rat brain: An explanatory study. Developmental Psychology 1:1020. [rJAG]

L. L. Altschuler , A. Conrad , J. A. Kovelman & A. Scheibel (1987) Hippocampal pyramidal cell orientation in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 44:1094–98. [LP, AR]

A. Alzheimer 1897) Beitrage zür pathologischen Anatomic der Hirnrinde und zür anatomischen Grundlage einiger Psychosen. Monatsschrift der Psychiatric und Neurologie 2:82119. [RS]

N. C. Andreasen (1985) Positive vs. negative schizophrenia: A critical evaluation. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11:380–89. [HES, RS]

N. C. Andreasen & S. Olsen (1982) Negative vs. positive schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 39:789–94. [PHV]

B. Angrist , J. Rotrosen & S. Gershon (1980) Differential effects of amphetamine and neuroleptics vs. positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 72:1719. [RS]

R. Anscombe (1987) The disorder of consciousness in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:241–60. [aJAG]

T. Archer , A. K. Mohammed & T. U. C. Jarbe (1986) Context–dependent latent inhibition in taste aversion learning. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 27:277–84. [REL]

A. G. Baker & P. Mercier (1982) Extinction of the context and latent inhibition. Learning and Motivation 13:391416. [REL]

N. J. Baker , M. Staunton , L. E. Adler , G. A. Gerhardt , C. Drebing , M. Waldo , H. Nagamoto & R. Freedman (1990) Sensory gating deficits in psychiatric patients: relation to catecholamine metabolites in different diagnostic groups. Biological Psychiatry 27:519–28. [RDO]

A. M. Balaz , S. Capra , W. J. Kasprow & R. R. Miller (1982) Latent inhibition of the conditioning context: Further evidence of contextual potentiation of retrieval in the absence of appreciable context–US associations. Animal Learning and Behavior 10:242–48. [REL]

M. Baron (1986) Genetics of schizophrenia: I. Familial patterns and mode of inheritance. Biological Psychiatry 21:1051–66. [WEC]

I. Baruch , D. R. Hemsley & J. A. Gray (1988a) Differential performance of acute and chronic schizophrenics in a latent inhibition task. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 176:598606. [arJAG, KHN, GGD, REL, LJI, REH, PHV]

I. Baruch , D. R. Hemsley & J. A. Gray (1988b) Latent inhibition and “psychotic proneness” in normal subjects. Personality and Individual Differences 9:777–84. [arJAG, REL, PHV]

L. R. Baxter , M. E. Phelps , J. C. Mazziotta , B. H. Guze , J. M. Schwartz & C. E. Selin (1987) Local cerebral glucose metabolic rates in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 44:221–28. [NRS]

L. Beani & C. Bianchi (1973) Effect of amantidine on cerebral acetylcholine release and content in the guinea pig. Neuropharmacology 12:283–89. [MS]

H. Beckmann (1991) Schizophrenia and the limbic system. In: Schizophrenia and youth, eds. C. Eggers , Springer–Verlag in press.

H. Beckmann , W. F. Gattaz & H. Jakob (1987) Biochemical and neuropathological indices for the aetiology of schizophrenia. In: Search for the causes of schizophrenia, ed. H. Haffher W. F. Gattaz & W. Janzarik . Springer-Verlag. [aJAG]

A. Beech , T. Powell , J. McWilliam & G. Claridge (1989) Evidence of reduced “cognitive inhibition” in schizophrenia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 28:109–17. [aJAG]

H. Begleiter , B. Porjesz & G. L. Chou (1981) Auditory brainstem potentials in chronic alcoholics. Science 211:1064–66. [TP]

D. S. Bell (1965) Comparison of amphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 111:701–07. [JHW]

A. Bellissimo & R. A. Steffy (1972) Redundancy-associated deficit in schizophrenic reaction time performance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 80:299397. [IJE]

F. M. Benes (1989) Myelination of cortical-hippocampal relays during late adolescence. Schizophrenia Bulletin 15:585–93. [rJAG, LP, RDO]

R. J. Beninger (1983) The role of dopamine in locomotor activity and learning. Brain Research Reviews 6:173–96. [NAS]

T. W. Berger & R. F. Thompson (1978) Neuronal plasticity in the limbic system during classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response. I. The hippocampus. Brain Research 145:323–46. [NAS]

A. S. Bernstein , C. D. Frith , J. H. Gruzelier , T. Patterson , E. Straube , P. H. Venables & T. P. Zahn (1982) An analysis of the skin conductance orienting response in samples of American, British, and German schizophrenics. Biological Psychology 14:155211. [HES, MED]

B. H. Bland (1986) The physiology and pharmacology of the hippocampal formation theta rhythms. Progress in Neurobiology 26:154. [JHW]

B. Bogerts (1989) The role of limbic and paralimbic pathology in the aetiology of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 29:255–56. [PHV]

B. Bogerts , E. Meertz & R. Schonfeldt-Bausch (1985) Basal ganglia and limbic system pathology in schizophrenia: A morphometric study of brain volume and shrinkage. Archives of General Psychiatry 42:784–91. [aJAG, TP, RS]

W. D. Bowen , E. L. Moses , P. J. Tolentino & J. M. Walker (1990) Metabolites of haloperidol display preferential activity at sigma receptors compared to dopamine D-2 receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology 177:111–18. [KLRJ]

M. B. Bowers (1974) Central dopamine turnover in schizophrenic syndromes. Archives of General Psychiatry 31:5054. [RS]

H. S. Bracha (1987) Asymmetric rotational (circling) behavior, a dopaminerelated asymmetry: Preliminary findings in unmedicated and never-medicated schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 22:9951003. [rJAG, TSE]

D. L. Braff & M. A. Geyer (1990) Sensorimotor gating and schizophrenia: Human and animal model studies. Archives of General Psychiatry 47:181–88. [NRS]

M. Brecher , B. Porjesz & H. Begleiter (1987) The N2 component of the event-related potential in schizophrenic patients. EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology 66:369–75. [RDO]

D. E. Broadbent (1977) The hidden preattentive processes. American Psychologist 32:109–18. [aJAG]

R. Brown , N. Colter , J. A. N. Corsellis , T. J. Crow , C. D. Frith , R. Jagoe , E. C. Johnstone & L. Marsh (1986) Postmortem evidence of structural brain changes in schizophrenia. Differences in brain weight, temporal horn area, and parahippocampal gyrus compared with affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 43:3642. [aJAG, AR]

T. J. Brozowski , R. M. Brown , H. E. Rosvold & P. S. Goldman (1979) Cognitive deficit caused by regional depletion of dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkey. Science 205:929–32. [aJAG]

R. L. Brunner , S. J. Haggbloom & R. A. Gazzara (1974) Effects of hippocampal X-ir radiation-produced granule–cell agenesis on instrumental runaway performance in rats. Physiology & Behaviour 13:485–94. [rJAG]

B. S. Bunney (1984) Antipsychotic drug effects on the electrical activity of dopamine neurons. Trends in Neuroscience 7:212–15. [REH]

H. A. Burton & A. W. Toga (1982) Successive discrimination performance improves with increasing numbers of stimulus preexposures in septal rats. Behavioral and Neural Biology 34:141–51. [RDO]

M. Cador , T. W. Robbins & B. J. Everitt (1989) Involvement of the amydgala in stimulus-reward associations: Interaction with the ventral striatum, Neuroscience 30:7786. [ARC]

S. Cain & A. Routtenberg (1983) Neonatal handling selectively alters the phosphorylation of A 47.000 mol. wt. protein in male rat hippocampus. Brain Research 267:192–95. [rJAG]

T. D. Cannon , S. A. Mednick & J. Parnas (1990) Antecedents of predominantly negative and predominantly positive symptoms in a high risk population. Archives of General Psychiatry. 47:622–32. [rJAG, AR]

A. Carlsson (1988) The current status of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 1:179203. [aJAG, KLRJ, NRS, AC]

M. Carlsson & A. Carlsson (1989a) The NMDA antagonist MK-801 causes marked locomotor stimulation in monoamine depleted mice. Journal of Neural Transmission 75:221–26. [AC]

M. Carlsson & A. Carlsson (1989b) Dramatic synergism between MK-801 and clonidine with respect to locomotor stimulatory effect in monoamine-depleted mice. Journal of Neural Transmission 77:6571. [AC]

M. Carlsson & A. Carlsson (1990) Interfering with glutamatergic neurotransmission by means of NMDA antagonist administration discloses the locomotor stimulatory potential of other transmitter systems. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, & Behavior 36:4550. [AC]

W. T. Carpenter , J. S. Strauss & S. Muleh (1973) Are there pathognomonic symptoms of schizophrenia? An empiric investigation of Schneider's first rank symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry 28:847–52. [JHW]

P. A. Caza (1984) Noradrenergic influences on blocking: Interactions with development. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 21:917. [RDO]

A. Ceci , M. Smith & E. D. French (1988) Activation of the A 10 mesolimbic system by the sigma–receptor agonist (+)SKF10,047 can be blocked by rimcazole, a novel putative anti-psychotic. European Journal of Pharmacology 154:5357. [KLRJ]

L. J. Chapman & J. P. Chapman (1978) The measurement of differential deficits. Journal of Psychiatric Research 14:303–11. [rJAG]

M.-F. Chesselet (1984) Presynaptic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the brain; Facts and hypotheses. Neuroscience 12:347–75. [aJAG]

G. A. Chiarenza , D. Papakostopoulos , M. Dini & C. L. Cazzullo (1985) Neurophysiological correlates of psychomotor activity in chronic schizophrenics. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 61:218–28. [GGD]

G. W. Christison , M. F. Casanova , D. R. Weinberger , R. Rawlins & J. E. Kleinman (1989) A quantitative investigation of hippocampal pyramidal cell size, shape and variability of orientation in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:1027–34. [aJAG]

G. Claridge (1978) Animal models of schizophrenia: The case for LSD25. Schizophrenia Bulletin 4:186209. [aJAG, GC]

J. M. Cleghorn , R. D. Kaplan , B. Szechtman , H. Szechtman & C. M. Brown (1990) Neuroleptic drug effects on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 3:211–19. [MP]

J. M. Cleghorn , E. S. Garnett , C. Nahmias , G. Firnau , G. M. Brown , R. Kaplan , H. Szechtman & B. Szechtman (1989) Increased frontal and reduced parietal glucose metabolism in acute untreated schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 28:119–33. [AR]

L. M. Colle & R. A. Wise (1988) Effects of nucleus accumbens amphetamine on lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation reward. Brain Research 459:361–68. [NAS]

A. J. Conrad & A. B. Scheibel (1987) Schizophrenia and the hippocampus: The embryological hypothesis extended. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:577–87. [TP]

P. C. Contreras , R. Quirion , D. R. Gehlert , M. L. Contreras & T. L. O'Donohue (1987) Autoradiographic distribution of non-dopaminergic binding sites labelled by [ *3H] haloperidol in rat brain. Neuroscience Letters 75:133–40. [KLRJ]

P. C. Contreras , D. A. Dimaggio & T. L. O'Donohue (1987) An endogenous ligand for the sigma opioid binding site. Synapse 1:5761. [KLRJ]

A. R. Cools (1980) Role of the neostriatal dopaminergic activity in sequencing and selecting behavioural strategies: Facilitation of processes involved in selecting the best strategy in a stressful situation. Behavioral Brain Research 1:361–78. [ARC]

A. R. Cools , R. Brachten , D. Heeren , A. Willemen & B. Ellenbroek (1990) Search after neurobiological profile of individual-specific features of Wistar rats. Brain Research Bulletin 24:4969. [ARC]

A. Crider , L. Blockel & P. R. Solomon (1986) A selective attention deficit in the rat following induced dopamine receptor supersensitivity. Behavioral Neuroscience 100:315–19. [AnC, RDO]

R. L. Cromwell (1968) Stimulus redundancy and schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 146:360–75. [IJE]

R. L. Cromwell (1987) An argument concerning schizophrenia: The left hemisphere drains the swamp. In: Individual differences in hemispheric specialization, ed. A. Glass . Spectrum Press. [IJE]

B. Crosson (1984) Role of the dominant thalamus in language: A review. Psychological Bulletin 96:491517. [TP]

B. Crosson (1985) Subcortical function in language: A working model. Brain and Language 25:257–92. [NRS]

B. Crosson & C. W. Hughes (1987) Role of the thalamus in language: Is it related to schizophrenic thought disorder? Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:605–21. [TP]

T. J. Crow (1980a) Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: More than one disease process? British Medical Journal 280:6668. [RS]

T. J. Crow , J. Ball , S. R. Bloom , R. Brown , C. J. Bruton , N. Colter , C. D. Frith , E. C. Johnstone , D. G. C. Owens & G. W. Roberts (1989) Schizophrenia as an anomaly of the development of cerebral asymmetry. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:1145–50. [AR]

W. E. Crusio , G. Genthner-Grimm & H. Schwegler (1986) A quantitative-genetic analysis of hippocampal variation in the mouse. Journal of Neurogenetics 3:203–14. [WEC]

W. E. Crusio , H. Schwegler & H. P. Lipp (1987) Radial maze performance and structural variation of the hippocampus in mice: A correlation with mossy fibre distribution. Brain Research 425:182–85. [rJAG, WEC]

J. G. Csernansky , C. A. Gsernansky , K. A. Bonnet & L. E. Hollister (1985) Dopaminergic supersensitivity follows ferric chloride–induced limbic seizures. Biological Psychiatry 20:723–33. [RDO]

R. Davila , E. Manero , M. Zumarrage , I. Andia , J. W. Schweitzer & A. J. Friedhoff (1988) Plasma homovanillic acid as a predictor of response to neuroleptics. Archives of General Psychiatry 45:564–67. [GGD]

M. E. Dawson (1990) Psychophysiology at the interface of clinical science, cognitive science, and neuroscience. Psychophysiology 27:243–55. [MED]

M. E. Dawson , & K. H. Nuechterlein (1984) Psychophysiological dysfunctions in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 10:204–32. [GC, MED]

L. E. De Lisi , D. Dauphinais & E. S. Gershan (1988) Perinatal complications and reduced size of brain limbic structures in familial schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 14(2):185–91. [rJAG]

L. A. DeAmicis & R. L. Cromwell (1979) Reaction time crossover in process schizophrenic patients, their relatives, and control subjects. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 167:593600. [IJE]

J. F. W. Deakin , P. Slater , M. D. C. Simpson , A. C. Gilchrist , W. J. Skan , M. C. Royston , G. P. Reynolds & A. J. Cross (1989) Front cortical and left temporal glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. Journal of Neurochemistry 52:1781–86. [rJAG]

P. Dean & P. Redgrave (1984) Superior colliculus and visual neglect in rat and hamster. III. Functional implications. Brain Research Reviews 8:155–63. [aJAG]

R. A. Depue & L. Woodburn (1975) Disappearance of paranoid symptoms with chronicity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 84:8486. [aJAG]

J. Dodd & J. S. Kelly (1981) The actions of cholecystokinin and related peptides on pyramidal neurones of the mammalian hippocampus. Brain Research 205:337–50. [aJAG]

L. P. Downes , P. E. Lewis & M. A. Stone (1986) A comparison of the binding of sigma opioids and phencyclidine, and the interaction with antipsychotic drugs in rat brain membranes. British Journal of Pharmacology 88:231–37. [KLRJ]

M. R. Duchen , N. R. Burton & T. J. Biscoe (1985) An intracellular study of the interactions of N-methyl-DL-aspartate with ketamine in the mouse hippocampal slice. Brain Research 342:149–53. [REH]

M. P. Dunne & M. R. Hartley (1986) Scopolamine and the control of attention in humans. Psychopharmacology 89:9497. [JHW]

H. J. Einhorn & R. M. Hogarth (1980) Judging probable cause. Psychological Bulletin 99:319. [aJAG]

P. Etienne & M. Baudry (1987) Calcium dependent aspects of synaptic plasticity, excitatory amino acid neurotransmissions, brain aging, and schizophrenia: A unifying hypothesis. Neurobiology of Ageing 8:362–66. [KLRJ]

J. L. Evenden & T. W. Robbins (1983) Increased response switching, perseveration, and perseverative switching following d-amphetamine in the rat. Psychopharmacology 80:6773. [AnC]

B. J. Everitt , M. Cador & T. W. Robbins (1989) Interactions between the amygdala and ventral striatum in stimulus-reward associations: Studies using a second-order schedule of sexual reinforcement. Neuroscience 30:6375. [ARC]

M. W. Eysenck (1982) Attention and arousal: Cognition and performance. Springer Verlag. [aJAG]

P. Falkai & B. Bogerts (1986) Cell loss in the hippocampus of schizophrenics. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences 236:154–61. [aJAG]

P. Falkai , B. Bogerts & M. Rozumek (1988b) Limbic pathology in schizophrenia: The entorhinal region – a morphometric study. Biological Psychiatry 24:515–21. [RDO]

M. Farah (1989) The neural basis of mental imagery. Trends in Neurosciences 12:395–99. [DH]

S. V. Faraone & M. T. Tsuang (1985) Quantitative models of the genetic transmission of schizophrenia. Psychological Bulletin 98:4166. [WEC]

L. Farde H. Hall , E. Ehrin & G. Sedvall (1986) Quantitative analysis of dopamine D*2 receptor binding in the living human brain by positron emission tomography. Science 231:258–61. [REH]

L. Farde , F. A. Wiesel , H. Hall , C. Halldin , S. Stone-Elder & G. Sedvall (1987) No D2 receptor increase in PET study of schizophrenia. Archives of Psychiatry 44:671–72. [aJAG]

L. Farde , F. A. Wiesel , S. S. Stone-Elander , C. Halldin , A. L. Nordstrom , H. Hall & G. Sedvall (1990) D2 dopamine receptors in neurolepticnaive schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 47:213–19. [JRS, TSE, REH, LP]

I. Farley , K. Price , E. McCulloch , J. Deck , W. Hordynski & O. Hornykiewicz (1978) Norepinephrine in chronic paranoid schizophrenia: Above-normal in limbic forebrain. Science 200:456–58. [ARC]

J. Feldon & J. A. Gray (1979) Effects of medial and lateral septal lesions on the partial reinforcement extinction effect at short inter-trial intervals. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 31:675–90. [aJAG]

J. Feldon & I. Weiner (1988) Long-term attentional deficit in nonhandled males: Possible involvement of the dopaminergic system. Psychopharmacology 95:231–36. [aJAG]

J. Feldon , N. Avnimelech-Gigus & I. Weiner (1990) The effects of pre- and post-weaning rearing conditions on latent inhibition and partial reinforcement extinction effect in male rats. Behavioral and Neural Biology 53:181204. [rJAG]

J. Feldon , H. Bercovitz & I. Weiner (1989) The effects of amphetamine on a multitrial partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) in a runway. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 32:6569. [rJAG, IW]

J. Feldon , Y. Katz & I. Weiner (1988) The effects of haloperidol on the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE): Implications for neuroleptic drug action on reinforcement and nonreinforcement. Psychopharmacology 95:528–33. [aJAG]

W. Fisher , J. Kerbeshian & L. Burd (1986) A treatable language disorder: Pharmacological treatment of pervasive developmental disorder. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 7:7376. [NRS]

M. Fisman (1975) The brain stem in psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 126:414–22. [RS]

W. W. Fleischhacker , C. Barnas , C. Stuppack , B. Unterweger & H. Hinterhuber (1987) Zotepine in the treatment of negative symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry 20:5860. [MS]

E. Frecska , A. Perenyl , G. Bagdy & K. Reval (1985) CSF dopamine turnover and positive schizophrenic symptoms after withdrawal of longterm neuroleptic treatment. Psychiatry Research 16:221–26. [RS]

R. L. Freedman , L. E. Adler , G. A. Gerhardt , M. Waldo , N. Baker , G. M. Rose , C. Drebing , H. Nagamoto , P. Bickford-Wimer & R. Franks (1987) Neurobiological studies of sensory gating in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:669–78. [AFO]

A. S. Freeman & B. S. Bunney (1984) The effects of phencyclidine and N– allylnormetazocine on midbrain dopamine neuronal activity. European Journal of Pharmacology 104:287. [KLRJ]

T. Freeman &; C. E. Gathercole (1966) Perseveration – the clinical symptoms – in chronic schizophrenic and organic dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry 112:2732. [AnC]

T. F. Freund , J. F. Powell & A. D. Smith (1984) Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons in synaptic contact with identified striatonigral neurons, with particular reference to dendritic spines. Neuroscience 13:11891214. [aJAG]

C. D. Frith (1979) Consciousness, information processing, and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 134:225–35. [aJAG, REL, KHN]

C. D. Frith & D. J. Done (1988) Towards a neuropsychology of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 153:437–43. [arJAG, AFO, CF]

M. Gallagher , M. W. Meagher & E. Bostock (1987) Effects of opiate manipulations on latent inhibition in rabbits: Sensitivity of the medial septal region to intracranial treatments. Behavioral Neuroscience 101:315–24. [RDO]

P. Garrud , J. N. P. Rawlins , N. J. Mackintosh , G. Goodall , M. M. Cotton & J. Feldon (1984) Successful overshadowing and blocking in hippocampectomized rats. Behavioural Brain Research 12:3953. [RDO]

N. Gay , J. A. Cottraux , L. Denoroy , M. Tommasi & N. Copp (1989) Possible increase of dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity in the locus ceruleus of paranoid schizophrenic patients: A preliminary post-mortem study. Psychiatry Research 27:3138. [RS]

L. George &: R. W. J. Neufeld (1985) Cognition and symptomatology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11:264–85. [aJAG, KLRJ]

M. A. Geyer & D. L. Braff (1987) Startle habituation and sensorimotor gating in schizophrenia and related animal models. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:643–68. [AFO]

M. A. Geyer , P. V. Russo , D. S. Segal & R. Kuczenski (1987) Effects of apomorphine and amphetamine on patterns of locomotor and investigatory behavior in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and. Behavior 28:393–99. [IW]

A. Ginton , G. Urea & R. E. Lubow (1975) The effects of preexposure to a non-attended stimulus on subsequent learning: Latent inhibition in adults. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5:58. [REL]

M. A. Gluck &: R. F. Thompson (1987) Modeling the neural substrate of associative learning and memory: A computational approach. Psychological Review 94:176–91. [JG]

J. M. Gold & S. W. Hurt (1990) The effects of haloperidol on thought disorder and IQ in schizophrenia. Journal of Personality Assessment 54:390400. [JRS]

E. Goldberg & L. D. Costa (1981) Hemisphere differences in the acquisition and use of descriptive systems. Brain and Language 14:144–73. [EG]

E. Goldberg (1985) Akinesia, tardive dysmentia, and frontal lobe disorder in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11:255–63. [rJAG, EG]

E. Goldberg (1989) The gradiental approach to neocortical functionai organization. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 11:489517. [EG]

E. Goldberg (1990) Associative agnosias and the functions of the left hemisphere. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 12:467–84. [EG]

G. Goldberg (1985) Supplementary motor area structure and function: Review and hypotheses. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:189230. [REH]

T. E. Goldberg , D. R. Weinberger , N. H. Pishkin , K. F. Berman & M. H. Podd (1990) Recall memory deficit in schizophrenia: A possible manifestation of prefrontal dysfunction. Schizophrenia Research 2:251–57. [MP]

C. Grillon , E. Courchesne , R. Ameli , M. A. Geyer & D. L. Braff (1990) Increased distractibility in schizophrenic patients: electrophysiologic and behavioral evidence. Archives of General Psychiatry 47:171–79. [RDO]

P. M. Groves (1983) A theory of the functional organization of the neostriatum and the neostriatal control of voluntary movement. Brain Research Reviews 5:109–32. [aJAG]

J. H. Gruzelier (1984) Hemispheric imbalances in schizophrenia. International Journal of Psychophysiology 1:227–40. [IJE]

J. H. Gruzelier & P. H. Venables (1972) Skin conductance orienting activity in a heterogeneous sample of schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 155:277–87. [GC]

J. Gruzelier , K. Seymour , L. Wilson , A. Jolley & S. Hirsch (1988) Impairments on neuropsychologic tests of hippocampal functions and word fluency in remitting schizophrenia and affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 45:623–29. [aJAG]

S. A. Hackley , M. Woldorff & S. A. Hillyard (1987) Combined use of microreflexes and event–related brain potentials as measures of auditory selective attention. Psychophysiology 24:632–47. [RDO]

H. J. Haigler & G. K. Aghajanian (1974) Peripheral serotonin antagonists: Failure to antagonise serotonin in brain areas receiving a prominent serotonergic input. Journal of Neural Transmission 35:257–73. [aJAG]

E. Halgren , N. K. Squires , C. L. Wilson , J. W. Rohrbaugh , T. L. Babb & P. H. Crandall (1980) Endogenous potentials generated in the human hippocampal formation by infrequent events. Science 210:803–5. [rJAG, PHV]

G. Hall & S. Channell (1985b) Latent inhibition and conditioning after preexposure to the training context. Learning, and Motivation 16:381–97. [REL]

M. Harrow , I. Lanin-Kettering & J. G. Miller (1989) Impaired perspective and thought pathology in schizophrenic and psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 15:605–23. [MH]

R. D. Hawkings & E. R. Kandel (1984) Is there a cell-biological alphabet for simple forms of learning? Psychological Review 91:375–91. [JG]

K. Hawton , B. Shepstone , N. Soper & L. Reznek (1990) Single-photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 156:425–27. [RDO]

R. G. Heath (1954) Studies in schizophrenia. Harvard University Press. [JRS]

R. G. Heath & C. F. Walker (1985) Correlation of deep and surface electroencephalograms with psychosis in schizophrenics: A report of two cases. Biological Psychiatry 20:669–74. [rJAG, JHW]

R. G. Heath , K. L. McCarron & C. E. O'Neil (1989) Antiseptal brain antibody in IgG of schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 25:725–33. [WEC]

D. R. Hemsley (1977) What have cognitive deficits to do with schizophrenic symptoms? British Journal of Psychiatry 130:167–73. [aJAG]

D. R. Hemsley (1987a) An experimental psychological model for schizophrenia. In: Search for the causes of schizophrenia, ed. H. Hamer , W. F. Gattaz & W. Janzavik . Springer Verlag. [arJAG, MP, IJE, KLRJ, JG]

S. A. Hillyard , T. W. Picton & D. Regan (1978) Sensation, perception and attention: Analysis using ERPs. In: Event-related brain potentials in man, ed. E. Callaway , P. Tueting & S. H. Koslow . Academic Press. [RDO]

R. E. Hoffman & S. B. Dobscha (1989) Cortical pruning and the development of schizophrenia: A computer model. Schizophrenia Bulletin 15:477–90. [REH]

W. F. Hoffman , S. M. Labs & D. E. Casey (1987) Neuroleptic induced Parkinsonism in older schizophrenics. Biological Psychiatry 22:427–39. [RS]

G. E. Hogarty & R. F. Ulrich (1977) Temporal effects of drug and placebo in delaying relapse in schizophrenic outpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry 34:297313. [GGD]

P. S. Holzman (1987) Recent studies of psychophysiology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:4975. [aJAG, MED, KHN]

J. P. Houston , J. W. Maas , C. L. Bowden , S. A. Contreras , K. L. Melntyre & M. A. Javors (1986) Cerebrospinal fluid HVA, central brain atrophy, and clinical state in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 19:207–14. [RS]

A. Imperato , A. Mulas & G. Di Chiara (1986) Nicotine preferentially stimulates dopamine release in the limbic system of freely moving rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 132:337–38. [rJAG]

C. A. Ingham , J. P. Bolam & A. D. Smith (1988) GABA-immunoreactive synaptic boutons in the rat basal forebrain: Comparisons of neurons that project to the neocortex with pal lidos ubthalamic neurons. Journal of Comparative Neurology 273:263–82. [MS]

R. L. Isaacson (1980) A perspective for the interpretation of limbic system function. Physiological Psychology 8:183–88. [aJAG]

J. H. Jaffe (1989) Psychoactive substance abuse disorders. Ch. 13 in Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry 5th Edition, eds. H. I. Kaplan and B. J. Sadcock , Williams and Wilkins. [JHW]

H. Jakob & H. Beckmann (1986) Prenatal development disturbances in the limbic allocortex in schizophrenics. Journal of Neural Transmission 65:303–26. [LP, TP, AR]

K. L. R. Jansen (1989) Near death experience and the NMDA receptor. British Medical Journal 298:1708. [KLRJ]

K. L. R. Jansen (1990) Neuroscience and the near-death experience: Roles for the NMDA– PCP receptor, the sigma receptor, and the endopsychosins. Medical Hypotheses 31:2529. [KLRJ]

K. L. R. Jansen , M. Dragunow & R. L. M. Faull (1989a) [*3H] glycine binding sites, NMDA and PCP receptors similar distributions in the human hippocampus: An autoradiographic study. Brain Research 482:174–78. [rJAG, KLRJ]

K. L. R. Jansen , M. Dragunow & R. L. M. Faull (1989b) Excitatory amino acid receptors in the human cerebral cortex: A quantitative autoradiographic study comparing the distributions of [*3H] TCP, [*3H] glycine, L–[*3H] glutamate, [*3H] AMPA and [*3H] kainic acid binding sites. Neuroscience 32:587607. [rJAG, KLRJ]

K. L. R. Jansen , M. Dragunow & R. L. M. Faull (1990) Sigma receptors are highly concentrated in the rat pineal gland. Brain Research 507:158–60. [KLRJ]

L. E. Jarrard , J. Feldon , J. N. P. Rawlins , J. D. Sinden & J. A. Gray (1986) The effects of intrahippocampal ibotenate on resistance to extinction after continuous or partial reinforcement. Experimental Brain Research 61:519–30. [aJAG]

D. V. Jeste & J. B. Lohr (1989) Hippocampal pathologic findings in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:1019–24. [aJAG]

E. G. Jones (1985) The thalamus. Plenum Press. [AFO]

S. H. Jones , D. R. Hemsley & J. A. Gray (1990) The Kamin blocking effect, incidental learning and psychoticism. British Journal of Psychology 81:95109. [arJAG, PHV]

M. H. Joseph , C. D. Frith & J. L. Waddington (1979) Dopaminergic mechanisms and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A neurobiological model. Psychopharmacology 63:273–80. [aJAG]

R. S. Kamer , A. R. Turi , P. R. Solomon & L. J. Kaplan (1981) Increased mesolimbic dopamine binding following chronic haloperidol treatment. Psychopharmacologia 72:261–63. [RDO]

S. R. Kay & M. M. Singh (1989) The positive-negative distinction in drug-free schizophrenic patients: Stability, response to neuroleptics, and prognostic significance. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:711–18. [RS]

S. R. Kay , A. Fiszbein & L. A. Opler (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:261–75. [RS]

A. E. Kelley & V. B. Domesick (1982) The distribution of the projection from the hippocampal formation to the nucleus accumbens in the rat. An anterograde– and retrograde-horseradish peroxidase study. Neuroscience 7:2321–35. [aJAG]

P. K. Kelly , P. W. Seviour & S. D. Iversen (1975) Amphetamine and apomorphine responses in the rat following 6–OHDA lesions of the nucleus accumbens septi and corpus striatum. Brain Research 94:507–22. [aJAG]

J. M. Kemp & T. P. S. Powell (1971) The termination of fibres from the cerebral cortex and thalamus upon dendritic spines in the caudate nucleus: A study with the Golgi method. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society (London), Section B 262:429–39. [rJAG]

K. S. Kendler (1985) Diagnostic approaches to schizotypal personality disorder: A historical perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11:538–53. [LJI]

J. L. Kennedy , L. A. Giuffra , H. W. Moises , L. L. Cavalli-Sforza , A. J. Pakstis , J. R. Kidd , C. M. Castiglione , B. Sjogren , L. Wetterberg & K. K. Kidd (1988) Evidence against linkage of schizophrenia to markers on chromosome 5 in northern Swedish pedigree. Nature 336:167–70. [WEC]

J. S. Ketchum , F. R. Sidell , E. B. Crowell Jr, G. K. Aghajanian & A. H. Hayes (1973) Atropine, scopolamine and ditran: Comparative pharmacology and antagonists in man. Psychopharmacologia 28:121–45. [JHW]

R. A. Knight , D. S. Elliott , J. D. Roff & C. G. Watson (1986) Concurrent and predictive validity of components of disordered thinking in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 12:427–46. [aJAG]

C. Kohler & V. Chan-Palay (1988) Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK–8) receptors in the hippocampal region: A comparative in vitro autoradiographic study in the rat, monkey, and the postmortem human brain. Neuroscience Letters 90:5156. [rJAG, LP]

L. Kokkinidis & H. Anisman (1981) Amphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia: A dual model. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 5:449–61. [LJI]

B. Kolb , & I. Q. Whishaw (1983) Performance of schizophrenic patients on tests sensitive to left or right frontal, temporal, or parietal function in neurological patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 171:435–43. [MED]

J. H. Kopstein & J. M. Neale (1972) A multivariate study of attention dysfunction in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 80:294–98. [JRS]

J. Kornhuber & M. E. Kornhuber (1986) Presynaptic dopaminergic modulation of cortical input to the striatum. Life Sciences 39:669–74. [KLRJ]

J. Kornhuber , F. Mack-Burkhardt , P. Riederer , G. F. Hebenstriet , G. P. Reynolds , H. B. Andrews & H. Beckmann (1989) [*3H] MK–801 binding sites in postmortem brain regions of schizophrenic patients. Journal of Neural Transmission 77:231–36. [KLRJ]

J. Kornhuber , P. Riederer , G. P. Reynolds , H. Beckmann , K. Jellinger , & E. Gabriel (1989) 3H-spiperone binding sites in post-mortem brains from schizophrenic patients: Relationship to neuroleptic drug treatment, abnormal movements, and positive symptoms. Journal of Neural Transmission 75:110. [JRS]

B. L. Largent , H. Wikstrom , A. M. Snowman & S. H. Snyder (1988) Novel antipsychotic drugs share high affinity for sigma receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology 155:345–47. [KLRJ]

G. Launay & P. D. Slade (1981) The measurement of hallucinatory predisposition in male and female prisoners. Personality and Individual Differences 2:221–34. [rJAG, PHV]

J. Leff (1987) A model of schizophrenic vulnerability to environmental factors. In: Search for the causes of schizophrenia, ed. H. Hafher , W. F. Gattaz & W. Janzarik . Springer Verlag. [rJAG]

G. R. Leichnetz (1981) The prefrontal cortico-oculomotor trajectories in the monkey. A possible explanation for the effects of stimulation/lesion experiments on eye movement. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 49:387–96. [aJAG]

G. R. Leichnetz , R. F. Spencer , S. G. P. Hardy & J. Astruc (1981) The prefrontal corticotectal projection in the monkey: An anterograde and retrograde horseradish peroxidase study. Neuroscience 6:1023–41. [aJAG]

A. Lesch & B. Bogerts (1984) The diencephalon in schizophrenia: Evidence for reduced thickness of the periventricular grey matter. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences 234:212–19. [RS, AR]

S. Levin (1983) Smooth pursuit impairment in schizophrenia – What does it mean? Schizophrenia Bulletin 9:3744. [aJAG]

S. Levin (1984) Frontal lobe dysfunctions in schizophrenia I. Eye movement impairments. Journal of Psychiatric Research 18:2755. [aJAG, HES]

S. Levin , D. Yurgelun-Todd & S. Craft (1989) Contributions of clinical neuropsychology to the study of schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 98:341–56. [JRS]

J. A. Lieberman , B. J. Kinon & A. D. Loebel (1990) Dopaminergic mechanisms in idiopathic and drug-induced psychoses. Schizophrenia Bulletin 16:97110. [AnC]

L. Lindstrom , I. Klockhoff , A. Svedberg & K. Bergstrom (1987) Abnormal auditory brain-stem responses in hallucinating schizophrenic patients. The British Journal of Psychiatry 151:914. [TP]

T. Ljungberg & M. Enquist (1987) Disruptive effects of low doses of d-amphetamine on the ability of rats to organise behaviour into functional sequences. Psychopharmacology 93:146–51. [MHJ]

W. Loescher & S. J. Czuczwar (1986) Studies on the involvement of dopamine D-l and D–2 receptors in the anticonvulsant effect of dopamine agonists in various rodent models of epilepsy. European Journal of Pharmacology 128:5565. [RDO]

E. D. London , N. G. Cascella , D. F. Wong , R. L. Phillips , R. F. Dannals , J. M. Links , R. Herning , R. Grayson , J. H. Jaffe & H. N. Wagner (1990) Cocaine-induced reduction of glucose utilization in human brain: A study using positron emission tomography and [Fluorine 18] – fluorodeoxyglucose. Archives of General Psychiatry 47:567–74. [NRS]

A. Louilot , M. LeMoal & H. Simon (1989) Opposite influences of dopaminergic pathways to the prefrontal cortex or the septum on the dopaminergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens. An in vivo voltammetric study. Neuroscience 29:4556. [TSE]

A. Louilot , H. Simon , K. Taghzouti & M. LeMoal (1985) Modulation of dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens following facilitation or blockade of the dopaminergic transmission in the amygdala: A study by in vivo differential pulse voltammetry. Brain Research 346:141–45. [TSE]

D. Louw , G. R. Sutherland , G. B. Glavin & J. Girvin (1989) A study of monoamine metabolism in human epilepsy. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 16:394–97. [RDO]

R. E. Lubow (1973) Latent inhibition. Psychological Bulletin 79:398407. [aJAG]

R. E. Lubow , I. Werner , A. Schlossberg & I. Baruch (1987) Latent inhibition and schizophrenia. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25:464–67. [REL]

A. R. Luria (1977) On quasiphasie speech disturbances in lesions of the deep structures of the brain. Brain and Language 4:432–59. [AFO]

J. C. Lynch (1987) Frontal eye field lesions in monkeys disrupt visual pursuit. Experimental Brain Research 68:437–41. [aJAG]

A. V. P. MacKay (1980) Positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms and the role of dopamine. Discussion. British Journal of Psychiatry 137:379–83. [RS]

T. C. Manschreck , B. A. Maher & D. N. Ader (1981) Formal thought disorder, the type-token ratio, and disturbed voluntary motor movements in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 139:715. [aJAG]

M. Marien , J. Brien & K. Jhamandas (1983) Regional release of (3H)dopamine from rat brain in vitro: Effects of opioids on release induced by potassium, nicotine, and L-glutamic acid. Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology 61:4360. [aJAG]

M. Markianos , P. Rinieris , J. Hatzmanolis & C. Stefanis (1990) Plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in familial and sporadic paranoid schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 27:1176–78. [WEC]

A. McGhie & J. Chapman (1961) Disorders of attention and perception in early schizophrenia. British Journal of Medical Psychology 34:103–16. [aJAG]

P. J. McKenna (1987) Pathology, phenomenology and the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 151:288301. [aJAG]

S. McLean & E. Weber (1988) Autoradiographic visualisation of haloperidol– sensitive sigma receptors in guinea-pig brain. Neuroscience 25:259–69. [KLRJ]

M. J. Meaney , D. H. Aitken , S. R. Bodnoff , L. F. Iny , J. E. Tatarewicz & R. M. Sapolsky (1985) Early postnatal handling alters glucocorticoid receptor concentrations in selected brain regions. Behavioral Neuroscience 99:765–70. [rJAG]

A. Medalia , J. -M. Gold & A. Merriam (1988) The effects of neuroleptics on neuropsychological test results of schizophrenics. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 3:249–71. [JRS]

S. A. Mednick & F. Schulsinger (1968) Some premorbid characteristics related to breakdown in children with schizophrenic mothers. Journal of Psychiatric Research 6:267–91. [rJAG, AR]

G. A. Miller , E. H. Galanter & K. H. Pribram (1960) Plans and the structure of behavior. Rinehart & Winston. [aJAG]

J. Miller (1987) Priming is not necessary for selective attention failures: Semantic effects of unattended, unprimed letters. Perception and Psychophysics 41:419–34. [rJAG]

A. M. Mirkin (1985) Bimodal electrodermal activity in schizophrenia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 24:131–32. [rJAG]

M. Mishkin , L. G. Ungerleider & K. A. Macko (1983) Object vision and spatial vision: Two cortical pathways. Trends in Neurosciences 6:414–17. [EG]

S. Mithani , M. T. Martin-Iverson , A. G. Phillips , & H. C. Fibiger (1986) The effects of haloperidol on amphetamine– and methylphenidate–induced conditioned place preferences and locomotor activity. Psychopharmacology 90:247–52. [IW]

G. J. Mogenson & M. Nielsen (1984) A study of the contribution of hippocampal–accumbens–subpallidal projections to locomotor activity. Behavioral and Neural Biology 42:5260. [NRS]

A. K. Mohammed , N. E. B. Callenholm , T. U. C. Jaerbe , M. D. B. Swedberg , W. Danysz , T. W. Robbins & T. Archer (1986) Role of central noradrenaline neurons in the contextual control of latent inhibition in taste aversion learning. Behavioural Brain Research 21:109–18. [RDO]

D. T. Monaghan ; R. J. Bridges & C. W. Cotman (1989) The excitatory amino acid receptors. Their classes, pharmacology, and distinct properties in the function of the central nervous system. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 29:365402. [KLRJ]

J. W. Moore (1979) Information processing in space–time by the hippocampus. Physiological Psychology 7:224–32. [PHV]

R. Y. Moore , A. Bjorklund & U. Stenevi (1971) Plastic changes in the adrenergic innervation of the rat septal area in response to denervation. Brain Research 33:1335. [JRS]

T. Nishikawa , M. Takashima & M. Toru (1983) Increased [^ F3H] kainic acid binding in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Neuroscience Letters 40:245–50. [aJAG]

J. D. Nolan (1968) Reversal and extra–dimensional shifts in abstract and concrete schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 73:330–35. [rJAG]

K. H. Nuechterlein & M. E. Dawson (1984a) A heuristic vulnerability/stress model of schizophrenic episodes. Schizophrenia Bulletin 10:300–12. [KHN]

K. H. Nuechterlein & M. E. Dawson (1984b) Information processing and attentional functioning in the developmental course of the schizophrenic disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin 10:160203. [arJAG, JRS, IJE, KHN]

R. D. Oades (1985) The role of NA in tuning and DA in switching between signals in the CNS. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Review 9:261–82. [aJAG, ARC]

R. D. Oades & R. L. Isaacson (1978) The development of food search behavior by rats: The effects of hippocampal damage and haloperidol. Behavioral Biology 24:327–37. [RDO]

R. D. Oades , M. Rea or K. Taghzouti (1985) The modulation of selective processes in learning by neocortical and limbic dopamine. In: Brain plasticity, learning and memory, ed. B. Will , P. Schmitt & J. Dalrymple– Alford , Plenum Press. [RDO]

R. D. Oades , Rivet, J–M., Taghzouti, K., Kharuoby, M., H. Simon & Le M. Moal (1987) Attentional blocking is delayed by depletion of septal dopamine but remains attenuated after frontal depletion. Brain Research 406:136–46. [RDO]

A. Öhman (1981) Electrodermal activity and vulnerability to schizophrenia: A review. Biological Psychology 12:87145. [MED]

A. Öhman , H. Nordby , & G. d'Elia (1986) Orienting and schizophrenia: Stimulus significance, attention, and distraction in a signaled reaction time task. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95:326–34. [MED]

G. A. Ojemann (1975) Language and the thalamus: Object naming and recall during and after thalamic stimulation. Brain and Language 2:101–20. [AFO]

G. A. Ojemann & A. A. Ward (1971) Speech representation in ventrolateral thalamus. Brain 94:669–80. [AFO]

A. F. Oke & R. N. Adams (1987) Elevated thalamic dopamine: Possible link to sensory dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:589605. [AFO, TP]

A. F. Oke , R. N. Adams , B. Winblad & L. von Knorring (1988) Elevated dopamine/norepinephrine ratios in thalami of schizophrenic brains. Biological Psychiatry 24:7982. [AFO]

J. W. Olney (1989) Excitatory amino acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry 26:505–25. [KLRJ]

D. G. C. Owens , E. C. Johnstone & C. D. Frith (1982) Spontaneous involuntary disorders of movement: Their prevalence, severity and distribution in chronic schizophrenics with and without treatment with neuroleptics. Archives of General Psychiatry 39:452–61. [aJAG, MP, AnC]

J. W. Papez (1937) A proposed mechanism of emotion. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 38:725–43. [NRS]

S. Patel & P. Slater (1988) Effects of GABA compounds injected into the subpallidal regions of rat brain on nucleus accumbens evoked hyperactivity. Behavioral Neuroscience 102:596600. [MS]

T. Patterson (1987) Studies toward the subcortical pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:555–76. [aJAG, TP]

R. G. Pay (1980a) Conative regulation of cortical activity by the reticular formation, hypothalamus, and thalamus. International Journal of Neuroscience 10:233–53. [TP]

R. G. Pay (1980b) Contextual organization of unitary information processes in the cortex by the thalamus and basal ganglia and the central control of attention. International Journal of Neuroscience 11:249–78. [TP]

R. G. Pay (1981) Control of complex conation and emotion in the neocortex by the limbic entorhinal, subicular, and cingulate cortices and the hypothalamus, mammilary body and thalamus. International Journal of Neuroscience 15:130. [TP]

R. G. Pay (1982) Behavioral steering in dual and social states of conation by the amygdala, hypothalamus, ventral striatum, and thalamus. International Journal of Neuroscience 16:140. [TP]

J. M. Pearce & G. Hall (1980) A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review 87:532–52. [rJAG, JG, NAS]

J. B. Penney & A. B. Young (1981) GABA as the pallidothalamic neurotransmitter. Implications for basal ganglia function. Brain Research 207:195–99. [aJAG]

J. B. Penney & A. B. Young (1983) Speculations on the functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Annual Review of Neuroscience 6:7394. [NRS]

J. B. Penney & A. B. Young (1986) Striatal inhomogeneities and basal ganglia function. Movement Disorders 1:315. [AC]

M. M. Perez , M. R. Trimble ; N. N. F. Murray & I. Reider (1985) Epileptic psychosis: An evaluation of PSE profiles. British Journal of Psychiatry 146:155–63. [JHW]

A. Pfefferbaum , J. M. Ford , P. White & W. T. Roth (1989) P3 in schizophrenia is affected by stimulus modality, response requirements, medication status and negative symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:1035–44. [PHV]

B. Pfohl & G. Winokur (1982) The evolution of symptoms in institutionalized hebephrenic/catatonic schizophrenics. British Journal of Psychiatry 141:567–72. [aJAG, RS]

O. T. Phillipson & A. C. Griffiths (1985) The topographical order of inputs to nucleus accumbens in the rat. Neuroscience 16:275–96. [aJAG]

J. W. Phillis & J. R. Kirkpatrick (1980) The actions of motilin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, cholecystokinin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and other peptides on rat cerebral cortical neurons. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 58:612–23. [aJAG]

D. Pickar (1988) Perspectives on a time dependent model of neuroleptic action. Schizophrenia Bulletin 14:255–68. [rJAG]

D. Pickar , R. Labarca , A. R. Doran , O. M. Wolkowitz , A. Roy , A. Breier , M. Linnoila & S. M. Paul (1986) Longitudinal measurement of homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients: Correlation with psychosis and response to neuroleptic treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry 43:669–76. [GGD]

M. F. Pogue-Geile & M. Harrow (1988) Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Their longitudinal course and prognostic importance. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11:427–30. [aJAG]

Pogue–M. F. Geile & T. F. Oltmanns (1980) Sentence perception and distractibility in schizophrenic, manic, and depressed patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 89:115–24. [REL]

S. E. Pope , P. Dean & P. Redgrave (1980) Dissociation of d–amphetamine–induced locomotor activity and stereotyped behaviour by lesions of the superior colliculus. Psychopharmacology 70:297302. [aJAG]

B. T. Posey & M. E. Losch (1983–84) Auditory hallucinations of hearing voices in 375 normal subjects. Imagination, Cognition, & Personality 3:99113. [MH]

M. I. Posner (1982) Cumulative development of attentional theory. American Psychology 37:168–79. [aJAG]

M. I. Posner , T. S. Early , E. M. Reiman , P. J. Pardo & M. Dhawan (1988) Asymmetries in hemispheric control of attention in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 45:814–21. [rJAG, IJE, TSE, GC]

W. S. Pritchard (1986) Cognitive event–related potential correlates of schizophrenia. Psychological Bulletin 100:4366. [PHV]

A. Prochazka (1989) Sensorimotor gain control: A basic strategy of motor systems?. Progress in Neurobiology 33:281307. [DH]

G. P. Puente , D. S. Cannon , M. R. Best & L. E. Carrell (1988) Occasion setting of fluid ingestion by contextual cues. Learning and Motivation 19:239–53. [REL]

C. J. Pycock , R. W. Kerwin & C. J. Carter (1980) Effect of lesion of cortical dopamine terminals on subcortical dopamine in rats. Nature 286:7477. [aJAG]

G. Raisman (1969) Neuronal plasticity in the septal nuclei of the adult rat. Brain Research 14:2548. [JRS]

J. N. P. Rawlins , J. Feldon & J. A. Gray (1980) The effects of hippocampectomy and of fimbria section upon the partial reinforcement extinction effect in rats. Experimental Brain Research 38:273–83. [arJAG]

J. N. P. Rawlins , J. Feldon , J. Tonkiss & P. J. Coffey (1989) The role of subicular output in the development of the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Experimental Brain Research 77:153–60. [arJAG]

G. P. Reynolds (1987) Postmortem neurochemical studies in schizophrenia. In: Search for the causes of schizophrenia, ed. H. Hafher , W. F. Gattaz & W. Janzavik . Springer–Verlag. [aJAG]

E. J. Rickert & J. F. Lorden (1989) Forebrain monoamines and associative learning: III the US preexposure effect. Behavioural Brain Research 35:147–52. [RDO]

E. J. Rickert , J. F. Lorden , R. Dawson & E. Smyly (1981) Limbic lesions and the blocking effect. Physiology and Behavior 26:601–06. [RDO]

R. M. Ridley , D. N. Aitken & H. F. Baker (1989) Learning about rules, but not about reward is impaired following lesions of the cholinergic projection to the hippocampus. Brain Research 502:306–18. [CF]

R. M. Ridley , H. F. Baker , & T. A. G. Haystead (1981) Perseverative behaviour after amphetamine: Dissociation of response tendency from reward association. Psychopharmacology 75:283–86. [rJAG, CF]

M. Riklan & R. S. Cooper (1975) Psychometric studies of verbal functions following thalamic lesions in humans. Brain and Language 2:4564. [AFO]

T. W. Robbins & B. J. Everitt (1982) Functional studies of the central catecholamines. International Review of Neurobiology 23:303–65. [aJAG, ARC]

T. W. Robbins , B. A. Watson , M. Gaskin & C. Ennis (1983) Contrasting interactions of pipradol, d–amphetamine, cocaine, cocaine analogues, apomorphine, and other drugs with conditioned reinforcement. Psychopharmacology 80:113–19. [IW]

G. W. Roberts (1990) Schizophrenia: The cellular biology of a functional psychosis. Trends in Neuroscience 13:207–11. [MS]

G. W. Roberts , I. N. Ferrier , Y. Lee , T. J. Crow , E. C. Johnstone , D. G. C. Owens , A. J. Bararese-Hamilton , G. McGregor , D. O'Shaughnessy , J. M. Polak & S. R. Bloom (1983) Peptides, the limbic lobe and schizophrenia. Brain Research 288:199211. [arJAG, LP]

M. M. Robertson (1989) The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: The current status. British Journal of Psychiatry 154:147–69. [NRS]

S. R. Rochester (1978) Are language disorders in acute schizophrenics actually information processing problems?. Journal of Psychiatric Research 14:275–83. [REL]

E. H. Rodnick & D. Shakow (1940) Set in the schizophrenic as measured by a composite reaction time index. American Journal of Psychiatry 97:214–25. [IJE]

E. T. Rolls & G. V. Williams (1987) Sensory and movement related neuronal activity in different regions of the primate striatum. In: Basal ganglia and behavior: Sensory aspects and motor functioning, ed. J. S. Schneider & T. I. Kidsky . Hans Huber. [aJAG]

R. Romo (1986) In vivo presynaptic control of dopamine release in the cat caudate nucleus – III. Further evidence for the implication of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurons. Neuroscience 19:1091–99. [aJAG]

W. G. Rosen , R. C. Mohs , A. J. Celeste , N. S. Small , K. S. Kendler , T. B. Horvath & K. L. Davis (1984) Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 13:277–84. [MS]

V. A. Russell , R. Allin , M. C. L. Lamm & J. J. F. Taljaard (1989) Increased dopamine D2 receptor–mediated inhibition of [*14] acetylcholine release in the dorsomedial part of the nucleus accumbens. Neurochemical Research 14:877–81. [MS]

M. Sabatino , G. Gravante , G. Ferraro , V. Savatteri & V. La Grutta (1988) Inhibitory control by substantia nigra of generalized epilepsy in the cat. Epilepsy Research 2:380–86. [RDO]

D. P. Saccuzzo & D. L. Braff (1981) Early information processing deficit in schizophrenia: New findings using subgroups & manic control subjects. Archives of General Psychiatry 38:175179. [RDO]

K. Salzinger (1957) Shift in judgment of weights as a function of anchoring stimuli and instructions in early schizophrenics and normals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 55:4349. [KS]

K. Salzinger & S. Pisoni (1960) Reinforcement of verbal affect responses of normal subjects during the interview. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60:127–30. [KS]

K. Salzinger , S. Portnoy , D. Pisoni & R. S. Feldman (1970) The immediacy hypothesis and response–produced stimuli in schizophrenic speech. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 76:258–64. [KS]

M. Sarter , J. P. Bruno , & P. Dudchenck (1990) Activating the damaged basal forebrain cholinergic system: Tonic stimulation versus signal amplification. Psychopharmacology 101:117. [MS]

T. Schallert , M. De Ryck & P. Teitelbaum (1980) Atropine stereotypy as a behavioral trap: A movement subsystem and electroencephalographic analysis. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 94:124. [JHW]

G. Schaltenbrand (1975) The effects on speech and language of stereotactical stimulation in the thalamus and corpus callosum. Brain and Language 2:7077. [AFO]

N. A. Schmajuk (1989) The hippocampus and the control of information storage in the brain. In: Dynamic interactions in neural networks: Models and data, ed. M. Arbib & S. I. Amari . Springer–Verlag. [NAS]

W. Schneider & R. M. Shiffrin (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search and attention. Psychological Review 84:166. [arJAG]

E. J. Schwartz-Place & G. C. Gilmore (1980) Perceptual organization in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 89:409–18. [JRS, RDO]

H. Schwegler , W. E. Crusio & I. Brust (1990) Hippocampal mossy fibers and radial–maze learning in the mouse: A correlation with spatial working memory but not with non–spatial reference memory. Neuroscience 34:293–98. [rJAG, WEC]

W. B. Scoville & B. Milner (1957) Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 20:1121. [MP]

P. Seeman , C. Ulpian , C. Bergeron , P. Riederer , K. Jellinger , E. Gabriel , G. P. Reynolds & W. W. Tourtelotte (1984) Bimodal distribution of dopamine receptor densities in brains of schizophrenics. Science 225:728–31. [arJAG, MP]

D. S. Segal & D. S. Janowsky (1978) Psychostimulant–induced behavioral effects: Possible models of schizophrenia. In: Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress, ed. M. A. Liupton , A. DiMascio & K. F. Killam . Raven Press. [AnC]

D. Shakow (1962) Segmental set: A theory of psychological deficit in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 6:117. [HES]

D. Shakow (1963) Psychological deficit in schizophrenia. Behavioral Science 8:275305. [AnC, IJE]

D. Shakow (1977) Segmental set: The adaptive process in schizophrenia. American Psychologist 32:129–39. [AnC]

M. E. Shenton , S. F. Faux , R. W. McCarley , R. Ballinger , M. Coleman , M. Torello & F. H. Duffy (1989) Correlations between abnormal auditory P300 topography and positive symptoms in schizophrenia: A preliminary report. Biological Psychiatry 25:710–16. [GGD]

M. Shepherd (1987) Formulation of new research strategies in schizophrenia. In: Search for the causes of schizophrenia, ed. H. Hafner , W. F. Gattaz & W. Janzavik . Springer Verlag. [aJAG]

H. Simon , K. Taghzouti , H. Gozlan , J. M. Studler , A. Louilot , D. Hervé , J. Glowinski , J. P. Tassin & M. LeMoal (1988) Lesion of dopaminergic terminals in the amygdala produces enhanced locomotor response to D–amphetamine and opposite changes in dopaminergic activity in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Brain Research 447:335–40. [TSE]

M. Smith , A. P. Wolf , J. D. Brodie , C. D. Arnett , F. Barouche , C. -Y. Shiue , J. S. Fowler , J. A. G. Russell , R. R. MacGregor , A. Wolkin , B. Angrist , J. Rotrosen & E. Peselow (1988) Serial [*18F] N–methylspiroperidol PET studies to measure change in antipsychotic drug D2 receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 23:653–63. [GGD]

S. H. Snyder (1972) Catecholamines in the brain as mediators of amphetamine psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry 27:169–79. [LJI]

S. H. Snyder (1973) Amphetamine psychosis: A “model” schizophrenia mediated by catecholamines. American Journal of Psychiatry 130:6167. [GGD]

S. H. Snyder (1980) Phencyclidine. Nature 285:355–56. [KLRJ]

P. R. Solomon (1977) Role of the hippocampus in blocking and conditioned inhibition of the rabbit's nictating membrane response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 91:407–17. [aJAG]

P. R. Solomon , C. A. Kiney & D. R. Scott (1978) Disruption of latent inhibition following systemic administration of parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Physiology and Behaviour 20:265–71. [aJAG]

P. R. Solomon , G. W. Nichols , J. M. Kiernon III & R. S. Kamer (1980) Differential effects of lesions in medial and dorsal raphe of the rat: Latent inhibition and septohippocampal serotonin levels. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology 94:145–54. [aJAG]

M. S. Sonders , J. F. W. Keana & E. Weber (1988) Phencyclidine and psychotomimetic sigma opiates: Recent insights into their biochemical and physiological sites of action. Trends in Neurosciences 11:3740. [KLRJ]

H. E. Spohn & T. Patterson (1979) Recent studies of psychophysiology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 5:581611. [GC]

H. E. Spohn , L. Coyne & J. Spray (1988) The effect of neuroleptics and tardive dyskinesia on smooth–pursuit eye movement in chronic schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry 45:833–40. [HES]

J. E. Springer & R. L. Isaacson (1982) Catecholamine alterations in basal ganglia after hippocampal lesions. Brain Research 252:185–88. [aJAG, MP, TSE]

L. Stein & C. D. Wise (1971) Possible etiology of schizophrenia: Progressive damage to the noradrenergic reward system by 6-hydroxydopamine. Science 171:1032–36. [RS]

G. F. Steinfels , S. W. Tarn & L. Cook (1989) Electrophysiological effects of selective sigma receptor agonists, antagonists, and selective pliencyclidine receptor agonist MK-801 on midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuropsychopharmacology 2:201–08. [KLRJ]

S. R. Steinhauer & J. Zubin (1982) Vulnerability to schizophrenia: Information processing in the pupil and event-related potential. In: Biological markers in psychiatry and neurology, ed. E. Usdin & I. Hanin. Pergamon Press. [GGD]

J. R. Stevens (1973) An anatomy of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 29:177–89. [aJAG]

J. R. Stevens (1982) Neuropathology of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 39:1131–39. [RS]

J. R. Stevens & A. Livermore (1978) Kindling of the mesolimbic dopamine system: Animal model of psychosis. Neurology 28:3646. [JRS]

J. R. Stevens , K. Wilson & W. Foote (1974) GABA blockade, dopamine and schizophrenia: Experimental studies in the cat. Psychopharmacologia 39:105–19. [JRS]

J. S. Strauss (1987) Processes of healing and chronicity in schizophrenia. In: Search for the causes of schizophrenia, ed. H. Hafher , W. F. Gattaz & W. Janzavik . Springer–Verlag. [aJAG]

R. L. Suddath , G. W. Christison , E. F. Torrey , M. F. Casanova & D. R. Weinberger (1990) Anatomical abnormalities in the brains of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine 322:789–94. [PHV]

N. S. Sutherland & N. J. Mackinstrosh (1971) Mechanisms of animal discrimination learning. Academic Press. [rJAG]

R. J. Sutherland , R. J. McDonald , C. R. Hill & J. W. Rudy (1989) Damage to the hippocampal formation in rats selectively impairs the ability to learn cue relationships. Behavioral Neural Biology 52:331–56. [RDO]

S. Sutton , M. Braren , J. Zubin , & E. R. John (1965) Evoked-potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty. Science 150:1187–88. [PHV]

T. Sutula , G. Cascino , J. Cavazos , I. Parada & L. Ramirez (1989) Mossy fiber synaptic reorganization in the epileptic human temporal lobe. Annals of Neurology 26:321–30. [JRS]

N. R. Swerdlow & G. F. Koob (1984) Substantia innominata: Critical link in the behavioral expression of mesolimbic dopamine stimulation in the rat. Neuroscience Letters 50:1924. [MS]

N. R. Swerdlow & G. F. Koob (1987b) Lesions of the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex and pedunculopontine nucleus: Effects on locomotor activity mediated by the nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidal circuitry. Brain Research 412:233–43. [NRS]

N. R. Swerdlow , M. Geyer , D. Braff & G. F. Koob (1986) Central dopamine hyperactivity in rats mimics abnormal acoustic startle in schizophrenics. Biological Psychiatry 21:2333. [NRS]

N. R. Swerdlow , R. S. Mansbach , M. A. Geyer , L. Pulvirenti , G. F. Koob & D. L. Braff (1990a) Amphetamine disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle is reversed by depletion of mesolimbic dopamine. Psychopharmacology 100:413–16. [NRS]

S. W. Tam & L. Cook (1984) Sigma opiates and certain antipsychotic drugs mutually inhibit (+) [*3H]SKF10,047 and [*3H] haloperidol binding in guinea pig membranes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 81:5620–21. [KLRJ]

R. Tandon & J. F. Greden (1989) Cholinergic overactivity and negative schizophrenic symptoms. A model of cholinergic/dopaminergic interactions in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:745–53. [rJAG, RS, MS]

M. Timsit-Berthier , J. Delaunoy & J. C. Rousseau (1973) Slow potential changes in psychiatry. II. Motor potential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 35:363–67. [GGD]

R. Tomer & P. Flor-Henry (1989) Neuroleptics reverse attention asymmetries in schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 25:852–60. [TSE]

N. Tonder , F. F. Johansen , C. J. Frederickson , . Zimmer & N. H. Diemer (1990) Possible role of zinc in the selective degeneration of dentate hilar neurons after cerebral ischemia in the adult rat. Neuroscience Letters 109:247–52. [WEC]

S. Totterdell & A. D. Smith (1986) Cholecystokinin-immunoreaetive boutons in synaptic contact with hippocampal pyramidal neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens. Neuroscience 19:181–92. [aJAG]

P. Trend , M. R. Trimble & S. Wessley (1989) Schizophrenic psychosis associated with benzhexol (artane) therapy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 52:115. [JHW]

M. R. Trimble (1990) First rank symptoms of schizophrenia. A new perspective. British Journal of Psychiatry 156:195200. [LP]

E. Tsaltas , G. C. Preston , J. N. P. Rawlins , G. Winocur & J. A. Gray (1984) Dorsal bundle lesions do not affect latent inhibition of conditioned suppression. Psychopharmacology 84:549–55. [arJAG]

D. M. Tucker & P. A. Williamson (1984) Asymmetric neural control systems in human self-regulation. Psychological Review 91:185215. [EG]