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    Shevrin, Howard 2012. A Contribution Toward a Science of Psychoanalysis. The Psychoanalytic Review, Vol. 99, Issue. 4, p. 491.


Freud's dual process theory and the place of the a-rational

  • Linda A. W. Brakel (a1) and Howard Shevrin (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2003

In this commentary on Stanovich & West (S&W) we call attention to two points: (1) Freud's original dual process theory, which antedates others by some seventy-five years, deserves inclusion in any consideration of dual process theories. His concepts of primary and secondary processes (Systems 1 and 2, respectively) anticipate significant aspects of current dual process theories and provide an explanation for many of their characteristics. (2) System 1 is neither rational nor irrational, but instead a-rational. Nevertheless, both the a-rational System 1 and the rational System 2 can each have different roles in enhancing evolutionary fitness. Lastly, System 1 operations are incorrectly deemed “rational” whenever they increase evolutionary fitness.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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