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  • Cited by 2
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cronje, Ruth J. and Williamson, Owen D. 2006. Is Pain Ever ???Normal????. The Clinical Journal of Pain, Vol. 22, Issue. 8, p. 692.

    Harris, Christine and Alvarado, Nancy 2005. Facial expressions, smile types, and self-report during humour, tickle, and pain. Cognition & Emotion, Vol. 19, Issue. 5, p. 655.


Pain facial expression: Individual variability undermines the specific adaptationist account

  • Christine R. Harris (a1) and Nancy Alvarado (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2002

The proposal that there are specific adaptations for the expression and detection of pain appears premature on both conceptual and empirical grounds. We discuss criteria for the validation of a pain facial expression. We also describe recent findings from our lab on coping styles and pain expression, which illustrate the importance of considering individual differences when proposing evolutionary explanations.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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