Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 448
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Darragh, Margot Booth, Roger J. and Consedine, Nathan S. 2016. ‘Oxytocin’ for the outwardly oriented: Evidence for interactive effects in placebo responding. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 83, p. 10.

    He, Jie Zhai, Shuyi Lou, Liyue Zhang, Qing Li, Zhuyun and Shen, Mowei 2016. Development of behavioural regulation in Do and Don't contexts among behaviourally inhibited Chinese children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, Vol. 34, Issue. 3, p. 415.

    He, Jie Guo, Dong Zhang, Qing Liu, Yuxia Lou, Liyue and Shen, Mowei 2016. The Influence of Goal Value on Persistence in Exuberant Chinese Children. Social Development, Vol. 25, Issue. 2, p. 256.

    Yakupov, E. Z. and Troshina, Yu. V. 2016. Anxiety, insomnia, depression — in conjunction with or opposite to functional disorders. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova, Vol. 116, Issue. 5, p. 119.

    Beauchaine, Theodore P. and Thayer, Julian F. 2015. Heart rate variability as a transdiagnostic biomarker of psychopathology. International Journal of Psychophysiology, Vol. 98, Issue. 2, p. 338.

    Clauss, J.A. Avery, S.N. and Blackford, J.U. 2015. The nature of individual differences in inhibited temperament and risk for psychiatric disease: A review and meta-analysis. Progress in Neurobiology, Vol. 127-128, p. 23.

    Comer, Clinton S Harrison, Patti Kelly and Harrison, David W 2015. The dynamic opponent relativity model: an integration and extension of capacity theory and existing theoretical perspectives on the neuropsychology of arousal and emotion. SpringerPlus, Vol. 4, Issue. 1,

    Darragh, Margot Booth, Roger J. and Consedine, Nathan S. 2015. Who responds to placebos? Considering the “placebo personality” via a transactional model. Psychology, Health & Medicine, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 287.

    Mundy, Elizabeth A. Weber, Mareen Rauch, Scott L. Killgore, William D. S. Simon, Naomi M. Pollack, Mark H. and Rosso, Isabelle M. 2015. ADULT ANXIETY DISORDERS IN RELATION TO TRAIT ANXIETY AND PERCEIVED STRESS IN CHILDHOOD1. Psychological Reports, Vol. 117, Issue. 2, p. 473.

    Reuter, Martin Cooper, Andrew J. Smillie, Luke D. Markett, Sebastian and Montag, Christian 2015. A new measure for the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory: psychometric criteria and genetic validation. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, Vol. 9,

    Blackford, Jennifer Urbano Clauss, Jacqueline A. Avery, Suzanne N. Cowan, Ronald L. Benningfield, Margaret M. and VanDerKlok, Ross M. 2014. Amygdala–cingulate intrinsic connectivity is associated with degree of social inhibition. Biological Psychology, Vol. 99, p. 15.

    Darragh, Margot Booth, Roger J. and Consedine, Nathan S. 2014. Investigating the ‘placebo personality’ outside the pain paradigm. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 76, Issue. 5, p. 414.

    Dollar, Jessica M. and Buss, Kristin A. 2014. Approach and Positive Affect in Toddlerhood Predict Early Childhood Behavior Problems. Social Development, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 267.

    Ho, Chao-Yi and Berridge, Kent C. 2014. Excessive disgust caused by brain lesions or temporary inactivations: mapping hotspots of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 40, Issue. 10, p. 3556.

    Levita, Liat Bois, Catherine Healey, Andrew Smyllie, Emily Papakonstantinou, Evelina Hartley, Tom and Lever, Colin 2014. The Behavioural Inhibition System, anxiety and hippocampal volume in a non-clinical population. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 4.

    Otto, Michael W. Safren, Steven A. and Hearon, Bridget A. 2014. Social Anxiety.

    Zwierzyńska, Ewa and Pietrzak, Bogusława 2014. Patogeneza uzależnień – problem wciąż aktualny. Alcoholism and Drug Addiction, Vol. 27, Issue. 2, p. 163.

    Beckmann, Nadin Beckmann, Jens F. Minbashian, Amirali and Birney, Damian P. 2013. In the heat of the moment: On the effect of state neuroticism on task performance. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 54, Issue. 3, p. 447.

    Beggiato, Sarah O'Connor, William Thomas Tomasini, Maria Cristina Antonelli, Tiziana Loche, Antonella Tanganelli, Sergio Cacciaglia, Roberto and Ferraro, Luca 2013. GET73 increases rat extracellular hippocampal CA1 GABA levels through a possible involvement of local mGlu5 receptor. Synapse, Vol. 67, Issue. 10, p. 678.

    Peleg, Ora and Mass-Friedman, Michelle 2013. Worry about terror among young adults living in ongoing security uncertainty. International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 48, Issue. 3, p. 407.


Précis of The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system

  • Jeffrey A. Gray (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2010

A model of the neuropsychology of anxiety is proposed. The model is based in the first instance upon an analysis of the behavioural effects of the antianxiety drugs (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol) in animals. From such psychopharmacologi-cal experiments the concept of a “behavioural inhibition system” (BIS) has been developed. This system responds to novel stimuli or to those associated with punishment or nonreward by inhibiting ongoing behaviour and increasing arousal and attention to the environment. It is activity in the BIS that constitutes anxiety and that is reduced by antianxiety drugs. The effects of the antianxiety drugs in the brain also suggest hypotheses concerning the neural substrate of anxiety. Although the benzodiazepines and barbiturates facilitate the effects of γ-aminobutyrate, this is insufficient to explain their highly specific behavioural effects. Because of similarities between the behavioural effects of certain lesions and those of the antianxiety drugs, it is proposed that these drugs reduce anxiety by impairing the functioning of a widespread neural system including the septo-hippocampal system (SHS), the Papez circuit, the prefrontal cortex, and ascending monoaminergic and cholinergic pathways which innervate these forebrain structures. Analysis of the functions of this system (based on anatomical, physiological, and behavioural data) suggests that it acts as a comparator: it compares predicted to actual sensory events and activates the outputs of the BIS when there is a mismatch or when the predicted event is aversive. Suggestions are made as to the functions of particular pathways within this overall brain system. The resulting theory is applied to the symptoms and treatment of anxiety in man, its relations to depression, and the personality of individuals who are susceptible to anxiety or depression.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D. J. Albert , K. N. Brayley , & J. A. Milner (1978) Connections from the lateral septum modulating reactivity in the rat. Physiology and Behaviour 21:761–67. [taJAG]

B. E. Alger , & T. J. Teyler (1976) Long-term and short-term plasticity in the CA1, CA3 and dentate regions of the rat hippocampal slice. Brain Research 110:463–80. [taJAG]

J. Altman , R. L. Brunner & S. A. Bayer (1973) The hippocampus and behavioral maturation. Behavioral Biology 8:557–96. [taJAG]

A. Amsel (1962) Frustrative nonreward in partial reinforcement and discrimination learning: Some recent history and a theoretical extension. Psychological Review 69:306–28. [taJAG]

J. Archer (1973) Tests for emotionality in rats and mice: A review. Animal Behaviour 21:205–35. [rJAG]

J. Ashford & B. J. Jones (1976) The effects of intra-amygdaloid injections of 6-hydroxydopamine on avoidance responding in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology 56:255–61. [rJAG, STM]

S. Y. Assaf & J. J. Miller (1978) Neuronal transmission in the dentate gyrus: Role of inhibitory mechanisms. Brain Research 151:587–92. [taJAG]

E. C. Azmitia & M. Segal (1978) An autoradiographic analysis of the differential ascending projections of the dorsal and median raphe nucleus in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 179:641–68. [taJAG]

J. D. Barchas , H. Akil , G. R. Elliott , R. B. Holman & S. J. Watson (1978) Behavioral neurochemistry: Neuroregulators and behavioral states. Science 200:964–73. [BB]

M. F. Belin , M. Aguera , M. Tappaz , A. McRae-Deguerce , P. Bobillier & J. F. Pujol (1979) GABA-accumulating neurons in the nucleus raphe dorsalis and periaqueductal gray in the rat: A biochemical and autoradiographic study. Brain Research 170:279–97. [taJAG]

R. J. Beninger & A. G. Phillips (1979) Possible involvement of serotonin in extinction. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 10:3742. [taJAG]

T. L. Bennett , J. French & K. N. Burnett (1978) Species differences in the behavior correlates of hippocampal RSA. Behavioral Biology 22:161–77. [rJAG]

T. W. Berger & R. F. Thompson (1978a) Neuronal plasticity in the limbic system during classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response: 1. The hippocampus. Brain Research 145:323–46. [MG, tarJAG, KHP]

T. W. Berger & R. F. Thompson (1978b) Neuronal plasticity in the limbic system during classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response: 2. Septum and mammillary bodies. Brain Research 156:293314. [taJAG]

J. Birk & R. G. Noble (1981) Naloxone antagonism of diazepam-induced feeding in the Syrian hamster. Life Sciences 29:1125–31. [PS]

A. H. Black , L. Nadel & J. O'Keefe (1977) Hippocampal function in avoidance learning and punishment. Psychological Bulletin 84:1107–29. [rJAG]

B. H. Bland & C. H. Vanderwolf (1972) Electrical stimulation of the hippocampal formation: Behavioural and bioelectric effects. Brain Research 43:89106. [rJAG]

B. Bohus (1981) Neuropeptides in brain functions and dysfunctions. International Journal of Mental Health 9:644. [BB]

N. G. Bowery , D. R. Hill , A. L. Hudson , A. Doble , D. N. Middlemiss , J. Shaw & M. Turnbull (1980) (-)Baclofen decreases neurotransmitter release in the mammalian CNS by an action at a novel GABA receptor. Nature 283:9294. [taJAG]

J. V. Brady & H. F. Hunt (1955) An experimental approach to the analysis of emotional behavior. Journal of Psychology 40:313–24. [JCL]

C. Braestrup , M. Nielsen & C. E. Olsen (1980) Urinary and brain β-carboline-3-carboxylates as potent inhibitors of brain benzodiazepine receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 77:2288–92. [rJAG]

C. Braestrup & R. F. Squires (1977) Specific benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain characterized by high-affinity [3H]-diazepam binding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 74:3805–9. [tarJAG]

K. N. Brayley & D. J. Albert (1977) Suppression of VMH-lesion-induced reactivity and aggressiveness in the rat by stimulation of lateral septum, but not medial septum or cingulate cortex. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 91:290–99. [taJAG]

D. E. Broadbent (1958) Perception and communication. New York: Pergamon Press. [STM]

I. K. Broverman , D. M. Broverman , F. E. Clarkson , P. S. Rosenkranz & S. R. Vogel (1970) Sex role stereotypes and clinical judgments in mental health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 34:17. [TER]

L. S. Calderazzo-Filho , A. Moschorakis & I. Izquierdo (1977) Effect of hippocampal lesions on rat shuttle responses in four different behavioural tests. Physiology and Behaviour 19:569–72. [NMcN]

A. R. Cananzi , E. Costa & A. Guidotti (1980) Potentiation by intraventricular muscimol of the anticonflict effect of benzodiazepines. Brain Research 196:447–53. [rJAG, PS]

P. Carlton (1963) Cholinergic mechanisms in the control of behavior by the brain. Psychological Review 70:1939. [taJAG]

C. C. Chi (1965) The effect of amobarbital sodium on conditioned fear as measured by the potentiated startle response in rats. Psychopharmacologia 7:115–22. [rJAG]

G. A. Cicala & D. L. Hartley (1967) Drugs and the learning and performance of fear. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 64:175–78. [JCL]

J. C. Conti , E. Strope , R. N. Adams & C. A. Marsden (1978) Voltammetry in brain tissue: Chronic recording of stimulated dopamine and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine release. Life Sciences 23:2705–16. [rJAG]

L. P. Crespi (1942) Quantitative variation of incentive and performance in the white rat. American Journal of Psychology 55:467517. [taJAG]

T. J. Crow , J. F. W. Deakin , S. E. File , A. Longden & S. Wendlandt (1978) The locus coeruleus noradrenergic system – evidence against a role in habituation, anxiety and motor activity. Brain Research 155:249–61. [rJAC, STM]

T. Dalland (1970) Response and stimulus perseveration in rats with septal and dorsal hippocampal lesions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 71:114–18. [NMcN]

M. Davis (1979) Diazepam and flurazepam: Effects on conditioned fear as measured with the potentiated startle paradigm. Psychopharmacology 62:17. [rJAG]

M. Davis , D. E. Redmond Jr., & J. M. Baraban (1979) Noradrenergic agonists and antagonists: Effect on conditioned fear as measured by the potentiated startle paradigm. Psychopharmacology 65:111–18. [taJAG]

D. de Wied , Tj. B. van Wimersma Greidanus , B. Bohus , I. Urban & W. H. Gispen (1976) Vasopressin and memory consolidation. In: Perspectives in brain research, ed. M. A. Corner & D. F. Swaab . Progress in Brain Research, vol. 45, pp. 181–94. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [BB]

A. Dickinson (1974) Response suppression and facilitation by aversive stimuli following septal lesions in rats: A review and model. Physiological Psychology 2:444–56. [taJAG]

R. J. Douglas (1966) Cues for spontaneous alternation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 62:171–83. [NMcN]

R. J. Douglas (1967) The hippocampus and behavior. Psychologsical Bulletin 67:416–42. [AC, taJAG, KHP]

R. F. Drewett , J. A. Gray , D. T. D. James , N. McNaughton , I. Valero & H. J. Dudderidge (1977) Sex and strain differences in septal driving of the hippocampal theta rhythm as a function of frequency: Effects of gonadectomy and gonadal hormones. Neuroscience 2:1033–41. [rJAG]

J. D. Dudar , I. Q. Whishaw & J. C. Szerb (1979) Release of acetylcholine from the hippocampus of freely moving rats during sensory stimulation and running. Neuropharmacology 18:673–78. [rJAG, TER]

C. S. Dweck & A. R. Wagner (1970) Situational cues and correlation between CS and US as determinants of the conditioned emotional response. Psychonomic Science 18:145–47. [LN]

C. C. Eddy (1979) The effects of alcohol on anxiety in problem and non-problem drinking women. Alcoholism: Clinical and experimental research 3:107–14. [TER]

K. Elliott & J. Whelan , eds. (1978) Functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Ciba Foundation Symposium 58 (n.s.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. [AC, tarJAG]

P. C. Emson & G. F. Koob (1978) The origin and distribution of dopamine-containing afferents to the rat frontal cortex. Brain Research 142:249–67. [taJAG]

W. K. Estes & B. F. Skinner (1941) Some quantitative properties of anxiety. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29:390400. [rJAG, JCL]

J. Feldon & J. A. Gray (1979b) Effects of medial and lateral septal lesions on the partial reinforcement extinction effect at short inter-trial intervals. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 31:675–90. [tarJAG]

J. Feldon , A. Guillamon , J. A. Gray , H. De Wit & N. McNaughton (1979) Sodium amylobarbitone and responses to nonreward. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 31:1950. [taJAG, JNPR]

H. C. Fibiger & S. T. Mason (1978) The effect of dorsal bundle injections of 6-OHDA on avoidance responding in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology 64:601–6. [STM]

S. E. File (1980) The use of social interaction as a method for detecting anxiolytic activity of chlordiazepoxide-like drugs. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2:219–38. [taJAG]

M. Fillenz (1977) The factors which provide short-term and long-term control of transmitter release. Progress in Neurobiohgy 8:251–78. [taJAG]

M. Gabriel , J. D. Miller & S. E. Saltwick (1977) Unit activity in cingulate cortex and anteroventral thalamus of the rabbit during differential conditioning and reversal. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 91:423–33. [taJAG]

D. Gaffan (1972) Loss of recognition memory in rats with lesions of the fornix. Neuropsychologia 10:327–41. [taJAG]

D. Gaffan (1974) Recognition impaired and association intact in the memory of monkeys after transection of the fornix. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 86:11001109. [DSO]

D. Gaffan (1977a) Monkeys' recognition memory for complex pictures and the effect of fornix transection. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 29:505–14. [taJAG]

D. W. Gallager (1978) Benzodiazepines: Potentiation of a GABA inhibitory response in the dorsal raphe nucleus. European Journal of Pharmacology 49:133. [taJAG]

I. Geller & J. Seifter (1960) The effects of meprobamate, barbiturates, D-amphetamine and promazine on experimentally induced conflict in the rat. Psychopharmacologia 1:482–92. [tarJAG]

N. Geschwind (1965) Disconnection syndromes in animals and man. Part I. Brain 88:237–94. [DSO]

M. S. Gold & H. D. Kleber (1979) A rationale for opiate withdrawal symptomology. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 4:419–24. [MSG]

M. S. Gold , A. L. C. Pottash & D. R. Sweeney (1980) Opiate withdrawal using clonidine. Journal of the American Medical Association 243:343–46. [MSG]

F. G. Graeff , S. Quintero & J. A. Gray (1980) Median raphe stimulation, hippocampal theta rhythm and threat-induced behavioural inhibition. Physiology and Behavior 25:253–61. [tarJAG]

F. G. Graeff & N. G. Silveira Filho (1978) Behavioural inhibition induced by electrical stimulation of the median raphe nucleus of the rat. Physiology and Behavior 21:477–84. [tarJAG]

E. Grastyán , K. Lissak , I. Madarasz & H. Donhoffer (1959) Hippocampal electrical activity during the development of conditioned reflexes. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 11:409–30. [taJAG]

J. A. Gray (1964) Strength of the nervous system and levels of arousal. In: Povlov's typology, ed. J. A. Gray , pp. 289366. New York: Macmillan. [MZ]

J. A. Gray (1969) Sodium amobarbital and effects of frustrative nonreward. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 69:5564. [rJAG, JNPR]

J. A. Gray (1970a) The psychophysiological basis of introversion—extraversion. Behaviour Research and Therapy 8:249–66. [tarJAG]

J. A. Gray (1970b) Sodium amobarbital, the hippocampal theta rhythm and the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Psychological Review 77:465–80. [tarJAG, TER]

J. A. Gray (1971b) Sex differences in emotional behaviour in mammals including man: Endocrine bases. Acta Psychologica 35:2946. [rJAG]

J. A. Gray (1972a) Effects of septal driving of the hippocampal theta rhythm on resistance to extinction. Physiology and Behavior 8:481–90. [taJAG]

J. A. Gray (1979b) Emotionality in male and female rodents: A reply to Archer. British Journal of Psychology 70:425–40. [rJAG]

J. A. Gray (1981) A critique of Eysenck's theory of personality. In: A model for personality, ed. H. J. Eysenck , pp. 246–76. New York: Springer. [taJAG]

J. A. Gray & G. G. Ball (1970) Frequency-specific relation between hippocampal theta rhythm, behavior and amobarbital action. Science 168:1246–48. [rJAG, TER]

J. A. Gray , N. McNaughton , D. T. D. James & P. H. Kelly (1975) Effect of minor tranquillisers on hippocampal theta rhythm mimicked by depletion of forebrain noradrenaline. Nature 258:424–25. [tarJAG]

A. R. Green & J. F. W. Deakin (1980) Brain noradrenaline depletion prevents ECS-induced enhancement of serotonin- and dopaminemediated behaviour. Nature 285:232–33. [taJAG]

P. M. Groves & R. F. Thompson (1970) Habituation: A dual-process theory. Psychological Review 77:419–59. [taJAG]

A. Guidotti , G. Toffano & E. Costa (1978) An endogenous protein modulates the affinity of GABA and benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain. Nature 275:553–55. [taJAG]

P. G. Guyenet & G. K. Aghajanian (1979) ACh, substance P and metenkephalin in the locus coeruleus: Pharmacological evidence for independent sites of action. European Journal of Pharmacology 53:319–28. [taJAC]

R. D. Hare & D. N. Cox (1978) Clinical and empirical conceptions of psychopathy, and the selection of subjects for research. In: Psychopathic behaviour: Approaches to research, ed. R. D. Hare & D. Schalling , pp. 122. Chichester: Wiley. [taJAG]

P. G. Henke (1974) Persistence of runway performance after septal lesions in rats. Journal of Cotnparatice and Physiological Psychology 86:760–67. [rJAG, JNPR]

P. G. Henke (1976) Septal lesions and aversive nonreward. Physiology and Behaviour 17:483–88. [rJAG]

A. J. Hill (1978) First occurrence of hippocampal spatial firing in a new environment. Experimental Neurology 62:282–97. [taJAG]

R. A. Hinde (1954) Factors governing the changes in strength of a partially inborn response, as shown by the mobbing behaviour of the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs). I: The nature of the response, and an examination of its course. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Scries B 142:306–31. [rJAG]

R. Hirsh (1974) The hippocampus and contextual retrieval of information from memory: A theory. Behavioral Biology 12:421–44. [tarJAG, KHP]

H. S. Hoffman & J. Barrett (1971) Overt activity during conditioned suppression: A search for punishment artifacts. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 16:343–48. [JCL]

J. A. Horel (1978) The neuroanatomy of amnesia: A critique of the hippocampal memory hypothesis. Brain 101:403–45. [taJAG]

J. A. Horel & E. G. Keating (1969) Partial Klüver-Bucy syndrome produced by cortical disconnection. Brain Research 16:281–84. [DSO]

R. L. Isaacson (1974) The limbic system. New York: Plenum Press. [KHP]

R. L. Isaacson , D. S. Olton , R. Bauer & P. Swart (1966) The effect of training trials on passive avoidance deficits in the hippocampectomized rat. Psychonomic Science 5:419–20. [rJAG, LN]

R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram , eds. (1975) The hippocampus, vols. 1 & 2. New York: Plenum Press. [rJAG, KHP]

J. R. Ison & E. S. Pennes (1969) Interaction of amobarbital sodium and reinforcement schedule in determining resistance to extinction of an instrumental running response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 68:215–19. [JNPR]

L. L. Iversen & F. Schon (1973) The use of radioautographic techniques for the identification and mapping of transmitter-specific neurons in CNS. In: New concepts of transmitter regulation, ed. A. Mandell & D. Segal , pp. 153–93. New York: Plenum Press. [taJAG]

B. L. Jacobs , C. Trimbach , E. E. Eubanks & M. Trulson (1975) Hippocampal mediation of raphe lesion- and PCPA-induced hyperactivity in the rat. Brain Research 94:253–61. [taJAG]

R. Jaffard , C. Destrade , T. Durkin & A. Ebel (1979) Memory formation as related to genotypic or experimental variations of hippocampal cholinergic activity in mice. Physiology and Behaviour 22:1093–96. [taJAG]

D. T. D. James , N. McNaughton , J. N. P. Rawlins , J. Feldon & J. A. Gray (1977) Septal driving of hippocampal theta rhythm as a function of frequency in the free-moving male rat. Neuroscience 2:1007–17. [NMcN]

H. J. Jerison (1973) Evolution of the brain and intelligence. New York: Academic Press. [DTDJ]

E. C. Johnstone , D. G. C. Owens , C. D. Frith , K. McPherson , C. Dowie , G. Riley & A. Gold (1980) Neurotic illness and its response to anxiolytic and antidepressant treatment. Psychological Medicine 10:321–28. [taJAG]

B. R. Kaada , J. Jansen & P. Andersen (1953) Stimulation of the hippocampus and medial cortical areas in unanesthetized eats. Neurology 3:844–57. [taJAG]

L. T. Kamin , C. J. Brimer & A. H. Black (1963) Conditioned suppression as a monitor of fear of the CS in the course of avoidance training. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 56:497501. [rJAG, JCL]

D. P. Kimble (1968) Hippocampus and internal inhibition. Psychological Bulletin 70:285–95. [AC]

D. P. Kimble (1969) Possible inhibitory functions of the hippocampus. Neuropsychologia 7:235–44. [taJAG, KHP]

D. P. Kimble (1975) Choice behavior in rats with hippocampal lesions. In: The hippocampus: 2. Neurophysiology and behavior, ed. R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram , pp. 309–26. New York: Plenum Press. [tarJAG, KHP]

D. F. Klein (1964) Delineation of two drug-responsive anxiety syndromes. Psychopharmacologia 5:397408. [JP]

C. Köhler , M. T. Shipley , B. Srebro & W. Harkmark (1978) Some retrohippocampal afferents to the entorhinal cortex: Cells of origin studied by the HRP method in the rat and mouse. Neuroscience Letters 10:115–20. [taJAC]

G. F. Koob , A. F. Kelley & S. T. Mason (1978) Locus coeruleus lesions: Learning and extinction. Physiology and Behaviour 20:709–16. [STM]

G. L. Kovács , B. Bohus & D. H. G. Versteeg (1979) Facilitation of memory consolidation by vasopressin: Mediation by terminals of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle? Brain Research 172:7385. [BB, rJAG]

G. L. Kovács , B. Bohus , D. H. G. Versteeg , E. R. de Kloet & D. de Wied (1979) Effect of oxytocin and vasopressin on memory consolidation: Sites of action and catecholaminergic correlates after local microinjection into limbic-midbrain structures. Brain Research 175:303–14. [BB]

G. L. Kovács , D. H. G. Versteeg , E. R. de Kloet & B. Bohus (1981) Passive avoidance performance correlates with catecholamine turnover in discrete limbic brain regions. Life Sciences 28:1109–16. [BB]

R. Kramis & C. H. Vanderwolf (1980) Frequency-specific RSA-like hippocampal patterns elicited by septal, hypothalamic and brain stem electrical stimulation. Brain Research 192:383–98. [rJAG, TER]

R. Kramis , C. H. Vanderwolf & B. H. Bland (1975) Two types of hippocampal rhythmical slow activity in both the rabbit and the rat: Relation to behavior and effects of atropine, diethyl ether, urethane and pentobarbital. Experimental Neurology 49:5885. [TER]

J. Kuhl & V. Blankenship (1979) The dynamic theory of achievement motivation: From episodic to dynamic thinking. Psychological Review 86:141–51. [WR]

S. Lavielle , J. P. Tassin , H. M. Thierry , G. Blanc , Hervé, C. Barthelemy & J. Glowinski (1978) Blockade by benzodiazepines of the selective high increase in dopamine turnover induced by stress in mesocortical dopaminergic neurons of rat. Brain Research 168:585–94. [taJAG]

R. J. Leaf & S. A. Muller (1965) Simple method for CER conditioning and measurement. Psychological Reports 17:211–15. [rJAG, JCL]

G. Le Fur , J. Mizoule , M. C. Burgelin , O. Ferris , M. Heaulme , A. Gauthier , C. Gueremy & A. Uzan (1981) Multiple benzodiazepines receptors: Evidence of a dissociation between anticonflict and antieonvulsant properties by PK 8165 and PK 9084 (two quinoline derivatives). Life Sciences 28:139–48. [rJAG, PS]

G. P. Leichnetz & J. Astruc (1976) The efferent projections of the medial prefrontal cortex in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Brain Research 109:455–72. [taJAG]

J. K. Lennane & J. J. Lennane (1973) Alleged psychogenic disorders inwomen: A possible manifestation of sexual prejudices. New England Journal of Medicine 288:288–92. [TER]

C. M. Leonard (1969) The prefrontal cortex of the rat: I. Cortical projections of the medio-dorsal nucleus. II. Efferent connections. Brain Research 12:321–43. [rJAG]

J. C. Leslie & P. Garrud (1976) Conditioned suppression of a positively reinforced shuttle response. Animal Learning and Behavior 4:99104. [JCL]

L. S. Leung & C. H. Vanderwolf (1980) Behavior-dependent evoked potentials in the hippocampal CAI region of the rat: II. Effect of eserine, atropine, ether and pentobarbital. Brain Research 198:119–33. [TER]

D. J. Levis & N. P. Hare (1977) A review of the theoretical rationale and empirical support for the extinction approach of implosive (flooding) therapy. In: Progressive behavior modification, ed. M. Hersen , R. M. Eisler & P. M. Moller , vol. 4, pp. 299376. New York: Academic Press. [taJAG]

J. K. Lewis , L. D. Young , W. T. McKinney & G. W. Kraemer (1976) Mother-infant separation as a model of human depression: A reconsideration. Archives of General Psychiatry 33:699705. [rJAG]

A. S. Lippa , J. Coupet , E. N. Greenblatt , C. H. Klepner & B. Beer (1979) A synthetic non-benzodiazepine ligand for benzodiazepine receptors: Probe for investigating neuronal substrates of anxiety. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 11:99106. [rJAG]

J. F. Lorden , E. J. Richert , R. Dawson & M. A. Pelleymounter (1980) Forebrain norepinephrine and the selective processing of informaiton. Brain Research 190:569–73. [rJAG, STM]

J. F. Lubar & A. A. Perachio (1965) One-way and two-way learning and transfer of an active avoidance response in normal and cingulectomized cats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 60:4652. [MLW]

N. McNaughton , E. C. Azmitia , J. H. Williams , A. Buchan & J. A. Gray (1980) Septal elicitation of hippocampal theta rhythm after localized deafferentation of serotonergic fibres. Brain Research 200:259–69. [rJAG]

N. McNaughton & J. Feldon (1980) Spontaneous alternation of body turns and place: Differential effects of amylobarbitone, scopolamine and septal lesions. Psychopharmacohgy 68:201–6. [taJAG, NMcN]

N. McNaughton , D. T. D. James , J. Stewart , J. A. Gray , I. Valero & A. Drewnowski (1977) Septal driving of hippocampal theta rhythm as a function of frequency in the male rat: Effects of drugs. Neuroscience 2:1019–27. [tarJAG, NMcN]

N. McNaughton & S. T. Mason (1980) The neuropsychology and neuropharmacology of the dorsal ascending noradrenergic bundle - a review. Progress in Neurobiology 14:157219. [tarJAG]

N. McNaughton & E. M. Sedgwick (1978) Reticular stimulation and hippocampal theta rhythm in rats: Effects of drugs. Neuroscience 3:629–32. [NMcN]

A. W. Macadar , L. M. Chalupa , & D. B. Lindsley (1974) Differentiation of brain stem loci which affect hippocampal and neocortical electrical activity. Experimental Neurology 43:499514. [KHP]

H. Mahut (1971) Spatial and object reversal learning in monkeys with partial temporal lobe ablations. Neuropsychologia 9:409–24. [KHP]

S. F. Maier , S. Davies , J. W. Grau , R. L. Jackson , D. H. Morrison , T. Moye , J. Madden IV, & J. Barchas (1980) Opiate antagonists and long-term analgesic reaction induced by inescapable shock in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 94:1172–83. [KHP]

S. F. Maier & M. E. P. Seligman (1976) Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 105:346. [taJAG]

W. S. Maki , S. Brokofsky & B. Berg (1979) Spatial memory in rats: Resistance to retroactive interference. Animal Learning and Behavior 7:2530. [LN]

S. T. Mason (1979) The dorsal bundle extinction effect: Motivation or attention? Physiology and Behaviour 23:4351. [rJAG, STM]

S. T. Mason (1980) Noradrenaline and selective attention: A review of the model and the evidence. Life Sciences 27:617–31. [STM]

S. T. Mason (1981) Noradrenaline in the brain: Progress in theories of behavioural function. Progress in Neurobiology 16:263303. [rJAG, STM]

S. T. Mason & H. C. Fibiger (1978a) Evidence for a role of brain noradrenaline in attention and stimulus sampling. Brain Research 159:421–26. [STM]

S. T. Mason & H. C. Fibiger (1978b) Noradrenaline and partial reinforcement in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 92:1110–18. [rJAG, STM]

S. T. Mason & H. C. Fibiger (1978c) 6-OHDA lesion to the dorsal noradrenergic bundle alters extinction of passive avoidance. Brain Research 152:209–14. [STM]

S. T. Mason & H. C. Fibiger (1979a) Anxiety: The locus coeruleus disconnection. Life Sciences 25:2141–47. [STM]

S. T. Mason & H. C. Fibiger (1979b) The dorsal bundle extinction effect: Dependence on subtle changes in acquisition. Brain Research 166:341–48. [STM]

S. T. Mason & H. C. Fibiger (1979c) The dorsal noradrenergic bundle and varieties of passive avoidance. Psychopharmacohgy 66:179–82. [STM]

S. T. Mason & H. C. Fibiger (1979d) Noradrenaline and avoidance learning in the rat. Brain Research 161:321–34. [tarJAG, STM]

S. T. Mason & H. C. Fibiger (1979e) Noradrenaline, fear and extinction. Brain Research 165:4756. [rJAG, STM]

S. T. Mason & H. C. Fibiger (1979f) Noradrenaline and selective attention. Life Sciences 25:1949–56. [rJAG, STM]

S. T. Mason & S. D. Iversen (1975) Learning in the absence of forebrain noradrenaline. Nature 258:422–24. [taJAG, STM]

S. T. Mason & S. D. Iversen (1977) Effects of selective forebrain noradrenaline loss on behavioural inhibition. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 91:165–73. [STM]

S. T. Mason & S. D. Iversen (1978a) The dorsal noradrenergic bundle, extinction and nonreward. Physiology and Behavior 21:1043–45. [rJAG, STM]

S. T. Mason & S. D. Iversen (1978b) Reward, attention and the dorsal noradrenergic bundle. Brain Research 150:135–48. [STM]

S. T. Mason & S. D. Iversen (1979) Theories of the dorsal bundle extinction effect. Brain Research Reviews 1:107–37. [tarJAG, STM]

S. T. Mason & D. Lin (1980) Noradrenaline and selective attention in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 94:819–32. [rJAG, STM]

A. Mathews (1978) Fear-reduction research and clinical phobias. Psychological Bulletin 85:390404. [taJAG]

R. C. Meibach & A. Siegel (1977) Subicular projections to the posterior cingulate cortex in rats. Experimental Neurology 57:264–74. [taJAG]

J. Mellanby , J. A. Gray , S. Quintero , L. Holt & N. McNaughton (1981) Septal driving of hippocampal theta rhythm: A role for gamma-amino-butyrate in the effects of minor tranquillizers? Neuroscience 6:1413–21. [tarJAG]

G. D. Mellinger , M. B. Balder , D. I. Manheimer , I. H. Cisin & H. J. Parry (1978) Psychic distress, life crises and use of psycho-therapeutic medications: National household survey data. Archives of General Psychiatry 35:1045–52. [TER]

K. A. Miczek (1973) Effects of scopolamine, amphetamine and benzodiazepines on conditioned suppression. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1:401–11. [rJAG, JCL]

J. R. Millenson & J. C. Leslie (1974) The conditioned emotional response as a baseline for the study of anti-anxiety drugs. Neuropharmacology 13:19. [JCL]

N. E. Miller (1961) Some recent studies of conflict behavior and drugs. American Psychologist 16:1224. [JCL]

S. M. Mirrin , R. E. Meyer & B. McNamee (1976) Psychopathology and mood during heroin abuse: Acute vs chronic. Archives of General Psychiatry 33:1503–08. [MSG]

K. Modigh (1975) Electroconvulsive shock and postsynaptic catecholamine effects: Increased psychomotor stimulant action of apomorphine and clonidine in reserpine pretreated mice by repeated ECS. Journal of Neural Transmission 36:1932. [taJAG]

K. Modigh (1976) Long-term effects of electroconvulsive shock therapy on synthesis, turnover and uptake of brain monoamines. Psychopharmacology 49:179–85. [taJAG]

H. Möhler & T. Okada (1977) Benzodiazepine receptor: Demonstration in the central nervous system. Science 198:849–51. [tarJAG]

L. W. Morris & R. M. Liebert (1970) Relationship of cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety to psychological arousal and academic performance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35:332–37. [WR]

R. G. M. Morris (1981) Spatial localization does not require the presence of local cues. Learning and Motivation 12:239–60. [LN]

H. A. Mulford (1977) Women and men problem drinkers: Sex differences in patients served by Iowa's community alcoholism centers. Journal for the Study of Alcohol 38:1624–39. [TER]

L. Nadel & J. Willner (1980) Context and conditioning: A place for space. Physiological Psychology 8:218–28. [LN]

R. S. Neary & M. Zuckerman (1976) Sensation seeking, trait and state anxiety and the electrodermal orienting reflex. Psychophysiology 13:205–11. [MZ]

M. Nielsen , C. Braestrup & R. F. Squires (1978) Evidence for a late evolutionary appearance of brain-specific benzodiazepine receptors: An investigation of 18 vertebrate and 5 invertebrate species. Brain Research 141:346–56. [taJAG]

H. Niki & M. Watanabe (1976) Cingulate unit activity and delayed response. Brain Research 110:381–86. [taJAG]

R. H. O'Connell (1964) Comparison of alternation and response to stimulus change. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 57:362–66. [NMcN]

F. J. Oclling-Smee (1975) Background stimuli and the inter-stimulus interval during Pavlovian conditioning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 27:387–92. [rJAG]

S. O. Ögren & K. Fuxe (1977) The role of brain noradrenaline and the pituitary-adrenal axis in learning. Brain Research 127:372–73. [taJAG]

A. Öhman (1972) Factor analytically derived components of orienting, defensive and conditioned behavior in electrodermal conditioning. Psychophysiology 9:199209. [rJAG, HU]

A. F. Oke & R. N. Adams (1978) Selective attention dysfunction in adult rats treated neonatally with 6-hydroxydopamine. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 9:429–32. [STM]

J. O'Keefe & J. Dostrovsky (1971) The hippocampus as a spatial map: Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the free-moving rat. Brain Research 34:171–75. [taJAG]

J. O'Keefe & L. Nadel (1979) Précis of The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:487533. [LN]

R. W. Olsen (1981) GABA-benzodiazepine-barbiturate receptor interactions. Journal of Neurochemistry 37:113. [rJAG]

D. S. Olton & R. L. Isaacson (1968) Hippocampal lesions and active avoidance. Physiology and Behavior 3:719–24. [rJAG]

D. S. Olton & B. C. Papas (1979) Spatial memory and hippocampal function. Neuropsychologia 17:669–82. [rJAG, DSO]

M. O. Oscar-Berman & I. Samuels (1977) Stimulus preference and memory factors in Korsakoff's syndrome. Neuropsychologia 15:99106. [taJAG]

S. Owen , M. R. Boarder , J. A. Gray & M. Fillenz (1982) Acquisition and extinction of continuously and partially reinforced running in rats with lesions of the dorsal and noradrenergic bundle. Behavioral Brain Research 5:1141. [taJAG, STM]

J. Panksepp (1982) Toward a general psychobiological theory of emotions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:407467. [rJAC]

J. Panksepp , R. Gandelman & J. Trowill (1970) Modulation of hypothalamic self-stimulation and escape behavior by chlordiazepoxide. Physiology & Behavior 5:965–69. [JP]

J. Panksepp , R. Meeker & N. J. Bean (1980) The neurochemical control of crying. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior 12:437–43. [JP]

J. W. Papez (1937) A proposed mechanism of emotion. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 38:725–43. [tarJAG]

P. L. Parmeggiani , A. Azzaroni & P. Lenzi (1971) On the functional significance of the circuit of Papez. Brain Research 30:357–74. [taJAC]

P. L. Parmeggiani , P. Lenzi & A. Azzaroni (1974) Transfer of the hippocampal output by the anterior thalamic nuclei. Brain Research 67:269–78. [taJAG]

R. E. Passingham (1975) The brain and intelligence. Brain Behavior and Evolution 11:115. [DTDJ]

E. S. Paykel (1971) Classification of depressed patients: A cluster analysis derived grouping. British Journal of Psychiatry 118:275–88. [taJAG]

E. S. Paykel , R. R. Parker , R. J. J. Penrose & E. R. Rassaby (1979) Depressive classification and prediction of response to phenelzine. British Journal of Psychiatry 134:572–81. [taJAG]

H. Petsche , Ch. Stumpf & G. Gogolak (1962) The significance of the rabbit's septum as a relay station between the midbrain and the hippocampus: 1. The control of hippocampus arousal activity by the septum cells. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 14:202–11. [taJAG]

J. Prather & L. S. Fidell (1975) Sex differences in the content and style of medical advertisements. Social Science and Medicine 9:2326. [TER]

K. H. Pribram & L. Kruger (1954) Functions of the “olfactory” brain. Annals of the New fork Academy of Science 58:109–38. [KHP]

K. H. Pribram & D. McGuinness (1975) Arousal, activation and effort in tin control of attention. Psychological Review 82:116–49. [rJAG, KHP]

J. B. Ranck Jr., (1975) Behavioral correlates and firing repertoires of neuron: in the dorsal hippocampal formation and septum of unrestrained rats. In: The hippocampus: 2. Neurophysiology and behavior, ed. R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram , pp. 207–44. New York: Plenum Press. [TER]

B. R. Ransom & J. L. Barker (1976) Pentobarbital selectively enhances GABA-mediated post-synaptic inhibition in tissue cultured mouse spinal neurons. Brain Research 114:530–35. [taJAG]

J. N. P. Rawlins , J. Feldon & J. A. Gray (1979) Septo-hippocampal connections and the hippocampal theta rhythm. Experimental Brain Research 37:4963. [rJAG]

J. N. P. Rawlins , J. Feldon & J. A. Gray (1980) The effects of hippocampectomy and of fimbria section upon the partial reinforcement extinction effect in rats. Experimental Brain Research 38:273–83. [taJAG, JNPR]

D. E. Redmond , Y. H. Huang , D. R. Snyder & J. W. Maas (1976) The behavioural effects of stimulation of the locus coeruleus in the stumptail monkey (Macaca arctoides). Brain Research 116:502–10. [STM]

B. Rensch (1955) Increase of learning capability with increase of brain size. American Naturalist 90:8196. [DTDJ]

W. Revelle , M. S. Humphreys , L. Simon & K. Gilliland (1980) The interactive effect of personality, time of day and caffeine: A test of the arousal model. Journal of Experimental Psychology (General) 109:131. [rJAG]

W. Revelle & E. J. Michaels (1976) The theory of achievement motivation revisited: The implications of inertial tendencies. Psychological Review, 83:394404. [WR]

K. Rickels (1978) Use of anti-anxiety agents in anxious outpatients. Psychopharmacology 58:117. [taJAG]

E. J. Rickert , T. L. Bennett , P. Lane & J. French (1978) Hippocampectomy and the attenuation of blocking. Behavioral Biology 22:147–60. [taJAG]

M. Rilling , H. R. Askew , J. E. Ahlskog & T. J. Kramer (1969) Aversive properties of the negative stimulus in a successive discrimination. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour 12:917–32. [STM]

D. C. S. Roberts & H. C. Fibiger (1977) Evidence for interactions between central noradrenergic neurons and adrenal hormones in learning and memory. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour 7:191–94. [STM]

D. C. S. Roberts , M. T. C. Price & H. C. Fibiger (1976) The dorsal tegmental noradrenergic projection: Analysis of its role in maze learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 90:363–72. [STM]

T. E. Robinson (1980) Hippocampal rhythmic slow activity (RSA; theta): A critical analysis of selected studies and discussion of possible species-differences. Brain Research Reviews 2:69101. [rJAG, TER]

T. E. Robinson & C. H. Vanderwolf (1978) Electrical stimulation of the brain stem in freely moving rats: 2. Effects on hippocampal and neocortical electrical activity and relations to behavior. Experimental Neurology 61:485515. [taJAG]

T. E. Robinson , C. H. Vanderwolf & B. A. Pappas (1977) Are the dorsal noradrenergic bundle projections from the locus coeruleus important for neocortical or hippocampal activation? Brain Research 138:7598. [NMcN]

A. J. Rosen , D. H. Glass & J. R. Ison (1967) Amobarbital sodium and instrumental performance following reward reduction. Psychonomic Science 9:2532. [taJAG]

A. P. Rudell , S. E. Fox & J. B. Ranck Jr., (1980) Hippocampal excitability phase-locked to the theta rhythm in walking rats. Experimental Neurology 68:8796. [taJAG]

D. J. Sanger & D. E. Blackman (1976) Effects of chlordiazepoxide, ripazepam and D-amphetamine on conditioned deceleration of timing behaviour in rats. Psychopharmacology 48:209–15. [rJAG]

J. J. Schildkraut (1965) The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: A review of supporting evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry 122:509–22. [taJAG]

S. R. Scobie & G. Garske (1970) Chlordiazepoxide and conditioned suppression. Psychopharmacologia 16:272–80. [JCL]

M. Segal (1977a) Afferents to the entorhinal cortex of the rat studied by the method of retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Experimental Neurology 57:750–65. [taJAG]

M. Segal (1977c) The effects of brainstem priming stimulation on interhemispheric hippocampal responses in the awake rat. Experimental Brain Research 28:529–41. [taJAG]

M. Segal (1977d) Excitability changes in rat hippocampus during conditioning. Experimental Neurology 55:6773. [taJAG]

J. Seggie & G. M. Brown (1976) The effects of ablation of the septal nuclei in the rat on circadian variation and stress response pattern of corticosterone, growth hormone and prolactin. In: The septal nuclei, ed. J. F. De France , pp. 335–44. New York: Plenum Press. [HU]

M. E. P. Seligman (1971) Phobias and preparedness. Behavioral Therapy 2:307–20. [taJAG]

G. R. Sessions , G. J. Kant & G. F. Koob (1976) Locus coeruleus lesions and learning in the rat. Physiology and Behavior 17:853–59. [STM]

M. Shepard , B. Cooper , A. C. Brown & G. W. Kalton (1969) Minor mental illness in London: Some aspects of a general practice survey. British Medical Journal 2:1359–63. [TER]

C. C. D. Shute & P. R. Lewis (1967) The ascending cholinergic reticular system: Neocortical, olfactory and snbcortical projections. Brain 90:497520. [taJAG]

R. D. Sikorsky , P. J. Donovick , R. G. Burright & T. Chin (1977) Experiential effects on acquisition and reversal of discrimination tasks by albino rats with septal lesions. Physiology and Behaviour 18:231–36. [taJAG]

H. Simon , M. Le Moal , L. Stinus & A. Calas (1979) Anatomical relationships between the ventral mesencephalic tegmentnin-A10 region and the locus coeruleus as demonstrated by anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. Journal of Neural Transmission 44:7786. [taJAG]

P. Simon & P. Soubrié (1979) Behavioral studies to differentiate anxiolytic and sedative activity of the tranquilizing drugs. In: Modern problems in pharmacopsychiatry: 14. Differential psychopharmacology of anxiolytics and sedatives, ed. J. R. Boissier , pp. 99143. Basel: Karger. [PS]

P. R. Solomon (1977) Role of the hippocampus in blocking and conditioned inhibition of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 91:407–17. [AC, tarJAG, LN]

P. R. Solomon (1979) Temporal versus spatial information processing views of hippocampal function. Psychological Bulletin 86:1272–79. [AC, JAG]

P. R. Solomon & J. W. Moore (1975) Latent inhibition and stimulus generalization of the classically conditioned nictitating membrane response in rabbits following dorsal hippocampal ablation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 89:11921203. [taJAG]

P. Soubrié , A. Jobert & M. H. Thiébot (1980) Differential effects of naloxone against the diazepam-induced release of behavior in rats in three aversive situations. Psychopharmacology 69:101–5. [rJAG]

J. T. Spence & K. W. Spence (1966) The motivational components of manifest anxiety: Drive and drive stimuli. In: Anxiety and behavior, ed. C. D. Spielberger , pp. 291326. London: Academic Press. [WR]

A. A. Spevack & K. H. Pribram (1973) Decisional analysis of the effects of limbic lesions on learning in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 82:211–26. [KHP]

R. F. Squires , D. I. Benson , C. Braestrup , J. Coupet , C. A. Klepner , V. Myers & B. Beer (1979) Some properties of brain specific bencodiazepine receptors: New evidence for multiple receptors. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 10:825–30. [HU]

S. J. Suomi , S. F. Seaman , J. K. Lewis , R. D. DeLizio & W. T. McKinney Jr (1978) Effects of imipramine treatment on separation induced social disorders in rhesus monkeys. Archives of General Psychiatry 35:321–25. [JP]

N. S. Sutherland (1968) Outlines of a theory of visual pattern recognition in animals and man. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. Biological Sciences 171:297317. [DTDJ]

R. Svendsrød & H. Ursin (1974) A factor-analytic study of the acquisition of a conditioned emotional response in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 87:1174–79. [HU]

D. Tanaka & P. S. Goldman (1976) Silver degeneration and autoradiographic evidence for a projection from the principal sulcus to the septum in the rhesus monkey. Brain Research 103:535–40. [taJAG]

S. S. Tenen (1967) Recovery time as a measure of CER strength: Effects of benzodiazepines, amobarbital, chlorpromazine and amphetamine. Psychopharmacologia 12:17. [JCL]

R. F. Thompson (1976) The search for the engram. American Journal of Psychology 31:209–27. [LN]

E. W. Thornton & A. J. Goudie (1978) Evidence for the role of serotonin in the inhibition of specific motor responses. Psychopharmacology 60:7379. [taJAG]

M. K. Ticku & R. W. Olson (1978) Interaction of barbiturates with dihydropicrotoxinin binding sites related to the GABA receptor-ionophore system. Life Sciences 22:1643–52. [taJAG]

N. C. Tye , B. J. Everitt & S. D. Iversen (1977) 5-Hydroxytryptamine and punishment. Nature 268:741–42. [taJAG]

H. Ursin , D. C. Blanchard , R. Blanchard & R. Ursin (1981) Flight and defense in cats with septal lesions. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 17:206–8. [HU]

E. S. Valenstein , V. C. Cox & J. W. Kakolewski (1970) Reexamination of the role of the hypothalamus in motivated behavior. Psychological Review 77:1631. [JP]

I. Valero , J. Stewart , N. McNaughton & J. A. Gray (1977) Septal driving of the hippocampal theta rhythm as a function of frequency in the male rat: Effects of adreno-pitnitary hormones. Neuroscience 2:1029–32. [rJAG]

C. H. Vanderwolf (1971) Limbic-diencephalic mechanisms of voluntary movement. Psychological Review 78:83113. [tarJAG]

C. H. Vanderwolf , R. Kramis , L. A. Gillespie & B. H. Bland (1975) Hippocampal rhythmic slow activity and neocortical low-voltage fast activity: Relations to behavior. In: The hippocampus: 2. Neurophysiology and behavior, ed. R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram , pp. 101–27. New York: Plenum Press. [rJAG,. TER]

G. W. Van Hoesen , D. L. Rosene & M. M. Mesulam (1979) Subicular input from temporal cortex in the rhesus monkey. Science 205:608–10. [taJAG]

H. M. Van Praag (1978) Amine hypotheses of affective disorders. In: Handbook of psychopharmacology: 13. Biology of mood and antianxiety drugs, ed. L. L. Iversen , S. D. Iversen & S. H. Snyder , pp. 187297. New York: Plenum Press. [taJAG]

A. R. Wagner (1963) Sodium amytal and partially reinforced runway performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65:474–77. [taJAG]

F. N. Watts (1979) Habituation model of systematic desensitization. Psychological Bulletin 86:627–37. [taJAG]

B. Weiner & K. Schneider (1971) Drive versus cognitive theory: A reply to Boor and Harmon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18:258–62. [rJAG, WR]

L. Weiskrantz & E. K. Warrington (1975) The problem of the amnesic syndrome in man and animals. In: The hippocampus: 2. Neurophysiology and behavior, ed. R. L. Isaacson & K. H. Pribram , pp. 411–28. New York: Plenum Press, [taJAG]

J. M. Weiss , H. I. Glazer , L. A. Pohorecky , J. Brick & N. E. Miller (1975) Effects of chronic exposure to stressors on avoidance-escape behavior and on brain norepinephrine. Psychosomatic Medicine 37:522–34. [taJAG]

A. E. Whimbey & V. H. Denenberg (1967) Two independent behavioural dimensions in open field performance. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 63:500504. [NMcN]

I. Q. Whishaw , B. H. Bland , T. E. Robinson & C. H. Vanderwolf (1976) Neuromuscular blockade: The effects on two hippocampal RSA (theta) systems and neocortical desynchronization. Brain Research Bulletin 1:573–81. [TER]

I. Q. Whishaw & C. H. Vanderwolf (1971) Hippocampal EEC and behavior: Effects of variation in body temperature and relation of EEC to vibrissae movement, swimming and shivering. Physiology and Behavior 6:391–97. [TER]

J. H. Williams & E. C. Azmitia (1981) Hippocampal serotonin reuptake and nocturnal locomotor activity after microinjections of 5,7-DHT in the fornix-fimbria. Brain Research 207:95107. [taJAG]

G. Winocur & C. B. Breckenridge (1973) Cue-dependent behavior of hippocampally damaged rats in a complex maze. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 82:512–22. [taJAG]

G. Winocur & J. A. Mills (1970) Transfer between related and unrelated problems following hippocampal lesions in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 73:162–69. [taJAG]

J. Winson (1976) Hippocampal theta rhythm: 1. Depth profiles in the curarized rat. Brain Research 103:5770. [taJAG]

R. A. Wise (1978) Catecholamine theories of reward: A critical review. Brain Research 152:215–47. [rJAG]

M. L. Woodruff , R. H. Baisden & J. R. Douglas (1981) Effect of cingtilate and fornix lesions on emotional behavior in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Experimental Neurology 74:379–95. [MLW]

M. Zuckerman , M. S. Buchsbaum & D. L. Murphy (1980) Sensation seeking and its biological correlates. Psychological Bulletin 88:187214. [MZ]

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *