Skip to main content

Warning signals, response specificity and the gap effect: Implications for a nonattentional account

  • Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz (a1) and Howard C. Hughes (a2)
Hide All

Letters a and r appearing before authors' initials refer to target article and response respectively.

Albano J. E. & King W. M. (1989) Rapid adaptation of saccadic amplitude in humans and monkeys. Investigations in Ophthalmology and Visual Science 30:1883–93. [aBF]
Allport D. A. (1989) Visual attention. In: Foundations of cognitive science, ed. Posner M. I.. MIT Press. [HD]
Andersen R. A. & Gnadt J. W. (1989) Posterior parietal cortex. In: The neurobiology of saccadic eye movements, ed. Wurtz R. H. & Goldberg M. E.. Elsevier. [ER]
Aslin R. & Salapatek P. (1975) Saccadic localisation of visual targets by the very young human infant. Perception & Psychophysics 17:293302. [aBF]
Astrue J. (1971) Cortieofugal connections of area 8 (frontal eye field) in Macaca mulatta. Brain Research 33:241–56. [aBF]
Auerhach C. & Sperling P. (1974) A common auditory-visual space: Evidence for its reality. Perception & Psychophysics 16:129–35. [RMB]
Bachmann T. (1988) Time course of the subjective contrast enhancement for a second stimulus in successively paired above-threshold transient forms. Vision Research 28:1255–61. [TB]
Bachmann T. (1993) Psychophysiology of visual masking: The fine structure of conscious experience. Nova. [TB]
Barabanshehikov V. A., Belopolsky V. I. & Vergiles N. Yu. (1981/1982) Optical methods of transformation of visual feedback. Soviet Psychology 20:8095. [VIB]
Barbas H. & Mesulam M.-M. (1980) Differential afferent input to subdivisions within the frontal eye fields (area 8) of macaque. Neuroscience Abstracts 114.4(6):316. [aBF]
Barnes C. S. & Hallett P. E. (1992) Saccadic eye movements to briefly flashed targets. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18:669. [PEH]
Battersby W. S., Bender M. B., Pollack M. & Kahn R. L. (1956) Unilateral “spatial agnosia” (inattention). Brain 79:6893. [RMB]
Banmeister A. & Joubert C. (1969) Interactive effects on reaction time of preparatory interval length and preparatory interval frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82:393–95. [JDS]
Becker W. (1972) The control of eye movements in the saccadic system. Bibliotheca Ophthalmologica 82:233–43. [aBF, PEH]
Becker W. (1976) Do correction saccades depend exclusively on retinal feedback? A note on the possible role of nonretinal feedback. Vision Research 16:425–27. [PEH]
Becker W. (1989) Metrics. In: Reviews of oculomotor research 3. The neurobiology of saccadic eye movements, ed. Wurtz R. H. & Goldberg M. E.. Elsevier. [aBF, JEA, VIB, JMF, FV]
Becker W. (1991) Saccades. In: Eye movements, ed. Carpenter R. H. S.. Macmillan. [MJ]
Becker W. & Jürgens R. (1979) An analysis of the saccadic system by means of donble-stup stimuli. Vision Research 19:967–83. [JEA, HD. JMF, MHF, PEH]
Belopolsky V. I. (1985) Selective attention and eye movement control. Psikhohgichcskii Zhurnal (Soviet Journal of Psychology) 6(3):5673. [VIB]
Belopolsky V. I. (1988) Towards a model of visual spatial attention. In: Psychophysiology 88. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the International Organization of Psychophysiology. Prague. [VIB]
Belopolsky V. I. (1989a) On mechanisms of gaze control in humans. In: Psikhologiia cospriiatiia (The psychology of perception), ed. Zomov B. I., Yu M., Magnussen S., Saugstad P. & Mit'kin A. A.. Nanka. [VIB]
Belopolsky V. I. (1989b) External and internal control of spatial visual attention. Perception 18:525. [VIB]
Bender D. B. (1982) Receptive field properties of neurons in the macaque inferior pulvinar. Journal of Neurophysiology 48:117. [DLR]
Birbaumer N. (1992) Slow brain potentials change behavior: From the laboratory to reality. Abstract, Sixth International Congress of Psychophysiology, Berlin. [ER]
Biscaldi M., Boch R. & Fischer B. (1989) Effects of directed attention on saccadic and manual reaction times. Perception 18:521. [aBF, VIB, MHF]
Bisealdi M. & Fischer B. (1993) Saccadic eye movements of dyslexic children in non-cognitive tasks. In: Studies in visual information processing, ed. Wright S. & Groner R.. Elsevier. [arBF]
Boch R. (1989) Saccadic reaction times after chemical lesions in striate and prestriate cortex of the rhesus monkey. Investigations in Ophthalmology and Visual Science 30:184. [aBF]
Boch R. & Fischer B. (1986) Further observations on the occurrence of express-saecades in the monkey. Experimental Brain Research 63:487–94. [aBF]
Boch R., Fischer B. & Ramsperger E. (1984) Express-saecades of the monkey: Reaction times versus intensity, size, duration, and eccentricity of their targets. Experimental Brain Research 55:223–31. [aBF, PEH, PAR-L]
Braun D. & Breitmeyer B. G. (1988) Relationship between directed visual attention and saccadic reaction times. Experimental Brain Research 73:546–52. [aBF, BGB, DC, RMK]
Braun D. & Breitmeyer B. G. (1990) Effects of reappearance of fixated and attended stimuli upon saccadic reaction time. Experimental Brain Research 81:318–24. [BGB]
Braun D., Weber H., Mergner T. & Schulte-Monting J. (1992) Saccadic reaction times in patients with frontal and parietal lesions. Brain 15:1359–86. [aBF, RMB, ER]
Bronstein A. M. & Kennard C. (1987) Predictive eye saccades are different from visually triggered saccades. Vision Research 27:517–20. [aBF]
Brooks-Eidelberg B. A. & Adler G. A. (1992) A frontal cortical potential associated with saccades in humans. Experimental Brain Research 89:441–46. [ER]
Bruce C. & Goldberg M. (1984) Physiology of the frontal eye fields. Trends in Netiroscience 7:436–41. [aBF]
Buchtel H. A. & Butter C. H. (1988) Spatial attentional shifts: Implications for the role of polysensory mechanisms. Neuropsychologia 26:499505. [TB]
Bushnell M. C., Goldberg M. E. & Robinson D. L. (1981) Behavioral enhancement of visual responses in monkey cerebral cortex: I. Modulation in posterior parietal cortex related to selective visual attention. Journal of Neurophysiology 46:755–72. [DLR]
Butter C. M., Evans J., Kirsh N. & Kewman D. (1989) Altitudinal neglect following traumatic brain injury: A case report. Cortex 25:135–46. [RMB]
Cameron E. L. & Lennie P. (1991) Fast saccades to chromatic and achromatic targets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Supplement) 32(4):1094. [ELC]
Cave K. R. & Kosslin S. M. (1989) Varieties of size-specific visual selection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118:148–64. [VIB]
Chalupa L. M., Coyle R. S. & Lindsley D. B. (1976) Effect of pulvinar lesions on visual pattern discrimination in monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 39:354–69. [DLR]
Chastain G. (1992) Is rapid performance improvement across short precuetarget delays due to masking from peripheral precues? Acta Psychologica 79:101–14. [TB]
Chevalier G. & Deniau J. M. (1987) Functional significance of a double GABAergic link in the striato-nigro-fugal pathways. In: Neurotransmitter interactions in the basal ganglia, ed. Sandier M., Feuerstein C. & Seatton B.. Raven Press. [SJ].
Chevalier G. & Deniau J. M. (1990) Disinhibition as a basic process in the expression of striatal functions. Trends in Neuroscience 13:277–80. [SDF]
Clark C. R., Geffen G. M. & Geffen L. B. (1989) Catecholamines and the covert orientation of attention in humans. Neuropsychologia 27(2):131–39. [SJ]
Coeffé C. & O'Regan J. K. (1987) Reducing the influence of non-target stimuli on saccade latency: Predictability and latency effects. Vision Research 27:227–40. [FV]
Cohen J. D., Romero R. D., Servan-Schreiber D. & Farah M. J. (in preparation) Disengaging from the disengage function: The relation of macrostructure to microstructure in parietal attentional deficits. (Manuscript available upon request: J. Cohen, Department of Psychology, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.) [SDF]
Cohen M. E. & Ross L. E. (1977) Saccade latency in children and adults: Effects of warning interval and target eccentricity. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 23:539–49. [JA]
Corbetta M., Miezin F. M., Shulman G. L. & Peterson S. E. (1991) Selective and divided attention during visual discrimination of shape, colour and speed: Functional anatomy by positron emission tomography. Journal of Neuroscience 11:23822402. [SJ]
Cowie R. J. & Holstege G. (1992) Dorsal mesencephalic projections to pons, medulla and spinal cord in the cat. Limbic and non-limbic components. Journal of Comparative Neurology 319:536–59. [DLR]
Crawford T. J. & Mueller H. J. (1992) Spatial and temporal effects of spatial attention on human saccadic eye movements. Vision Research 32(2):293304. [DC, TJC, MHF]
Dehen H. & Cambier J. (1980) Negligence somesthetique, visnelle, auditive, et impersisteuce motrice par lesion ischemiqne limitée hemispherique droite. Nonvelle Presse Medicale 10:249. [RMB]
De Renzi E. (1982) Disorders of space exploration and cognition. Wiley. [RMB]
Deubel H. & Frank H. (1991) The latency of saccadic eye movements to texture-defined stimuli. In: Oculomotor control and cognitive processes, ed. Schmid R. & Zambarbieri D.. Elsevier. [HD, MJ]
Deubel H., Wolf W. & Hauske G. (1982) Corrective saccades: Effect of shifting the saccade goal. Vision Research 22:353–64. [HD]
Deubel H., Wolf W. & Hauske G. (1984) The evaluation of the oculomotor error signal. In: Theoretical and applied aspects of eye movement research, ed. Gale A. G. & Johnson F.. Elsevier/North-Holland. [HD]
Deubel H., Wolf W. & Hauske G. (1986) Adaptive gain control of saccadic eye movements. Human Neurobiology 5:245–53. [aBF]
Doma H. & Hallett P. E. (1988) Rod-cone dependence of saccadic latency in a foveating task. Vision Research 28:899913. [PEH]
Doma H. & Hallett P. E. (1989) Variable contributions of rods and cones to eye-movement lateney in a non-foveating task. Vision Research 29:563–77. [PEH]
Donchin E. & Coles M. G. H. (1991) While an undergraduate waits. Neuropsychologia 29:557–69. [JMF]
Duhamel J.-R., Colby C. L. & Goldberg M. E. (1992) The updating of the representation of visual space in parietal cortex by intended eye movements. Science 255:9092. [ER]
Eckhorn R., Bauer R., Jordan W., Brosch M., Kruse W., Munk M. & Reitboeck H. J. (1988) Coherent oscillations: A mechanism of feature linking in the visual cortex? Biological Cybernetics 60:121–30. [ER]
Egeth H. (1977) Attention and preattention. In: Advances in research and theory 11. The psychology of learning and motivation, ed. Bower G. H.. Academic Press. [VIB]
Engelken E. J. or Stevens K. W. (1989) Saccadic eye movements in response to visual, auditory and bisensory stimuli. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 60:763–68. [RMB]
Eriksen C. W. & St James J. D. (1986) Visual attention within and around the field of focal attention: A zoom lens model. Perception & Psychophysics 40:225–40. [TB, VIB]
Eriksen C. W. & Webb J. M. (1989) Shifting of attentional focus within and about a visual display. Perception & Psychophysics 45:175–83. [TB]
Farah M. J., Wong A. B., Monheit M. A. & Morrow L. A. (1989) Parietal lobe mechanisms of spatial attention: Modality-specific or supramodal? Neuropsychologia 27:461–70. [RMB]
Fendrich R., Hughes H. C. & Renter-Lorenz P. A. (1991) Fixation point offsets reduce the latency of saccades to acoustic targets. Perception & Psychophysics 50:383–87. [MJ, PAR-L]
Findlay J. M. (1980) The visual stimulus for saccadic eye movements in human observers. Perception 9:721. [PEH]
Findlay J. M. (1981) Spatial and temporal factors in the predictive generation of saccadic eye movements. Vision Research 21:347–54. [WJT]
Findlay J. M. (1982) Global visual processing for saccadic eye movements. Vision Research 22:1033–45. [aBF]
Findlay J. M. (1983) Visual information for saccadic eye movements. In: Spatially oriented behavior, ed. Hein A. & Jeannerod M.. Springer-Verlag. [JMF]
Findlay J. M. (1987) Visual computation and saccadic eye movements. Spatial Vision 2:175–89. [JMF]
Findlay J. M. (1992) Programming of stimulus-elicited saccadic eye movements. In: Eye movements and visual cognition, ed. Rayner K.. Springer-Verlag. [JMF]
Findlay J. M. & Crawford T. J. (1983) The visual control of saccadic eye movements: Evidence for limited plasticity. In: Eye movements and psychological processes: International perspectives, ed. Groner R., Menz C., Fisher D. F. & Monty R. A.. Erlbaum. [JMF]
Findlay J. M. & Harris L. R. (1984) Small saccades to double stepped targets moving in two dimensions. In: Theoretical and applied aspects of oculomotor research, ed. Gale A. G. & Johnson F. W.. Elsevier. [PEH]
Findlay J. M., Walker R. & Kentridge R. W. (in preparation) Three attentional operations affect saccadic eye movement generation. [JMF]
Fischer B. (1986) Express saccades in man and monkey. Progress in Brain Research 64:155–60. [aBF]
Fischer B. (1987) The preparation of visually guided saccades. Reviews in Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology 106:135. [aBF, RMB, HD, KN, ER]
Fischer B. & Boch R. (1983) Saccadic eye movements after extremely short reaction times in the monkey. Brain Research 260:2126. [aBF, ELC, JMF, PEH, JDS, PW]
Fischer B. & Boch R. (1990) Cerebral cortex. In: Vision and visual dysfunction, vol. 9: Eye movements, ed. Carpenter R.. Macmillan. [aBF]
Fischer B., Boch R. & Ramsperger E. (1984) Express-saccades of the monkey: Effect of daily training on probability of occurrence and reaction time. Experimental Brain Research 55:232–42. [aBF, PW]
Fischer B. & Breitmeyer B. (1987) Mechanisms of visual attention revealed by saccadic eye movements. Neuropsychologia 25:7383. [RMK, PAR-L, ROW]
Fischer B. & Ramsperger E. (1984) Human express saccades: Extremely short reaction times of goal directed eye movements. Experimental Brain Research 57:191–95. [aBF, PEH, FV]
Fischer B. & Ramsperger E. (1986) Human express saccades: Effects of randomization and daily practice. Experimental Brain Research 64:569–78. [aBF, ELC, PEH, RMK, JDS, WJT, FV, PW]
Fischer B. & Rogal L. (1986) Eye-hand coordination in man: A reaction time study. Biological Cybernetics 55:253–61. [aBF, MHF]
Fischer B. & Weber H. (1990) Saccadic reaction times of dyslexic and agematched normal subjects. Perception 19:805–18. [ABF, ELC, FV]
Fischer B. & Weber H. (1992) Characteristics of “anti” saccades in man. Experimental Brain Research 89:415–24. [aBF, FV]
Fischer B., Weber H. & Biscaldi M. (submitted) The time of secondary saccades to primary targets. [rBF]
Fischer B., Weber H., Biscaldi M., Aiple F., Otto P. & Stuhr V. (1993) Separate populations of visually guided saccades in humans: Reaction times and amplitudes. Experimental Brain Research 92:528–41. [arBF, WJT]
Fitzgibbon E., Goldberg M. or Segraves M. (1985) Short term saccadic adaptation in the monkey. In: Adaptive processes in visual and oculomotor systems, ed. Keller E. & Zee D.. Pergamon. [aBF]
Ford A., White G. T. & Liechtenstein M. (1959) Analysis of eye movements during free search. Journal of the Optical Society of America 49:287–92. [VIB]
Fox P. T., Fox J. M., Raichle M. E. & Urde R. M. (1985) The role of cerebral cortex in the generation of voluntary saccades: A positron emission tomographic study. Journal of Neurophysiology 54:348–69. [ER]
Frens M. A. & Erkelens C. J. (1991) Coordination of hand movements and saccades: Evidence for a common and a separate pathway. Experimental Brain Research 85:682–90. [MHF]
Frost D. & Pöppel E. (1976) Different programming modes of human saccadic eye movements as a function of stimulus eccentricity: Indications of a functional subdivision of the visual field. Biological Cybernetics 23:3948. [rBF, ER]
Fuchs A. F. (1967) Saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements in the monkey. Journal of Physiology, London 191:609–31. [PEH]
Funahashi S., Bruce C. J. & Goldman-Rakic P. S. (1989) Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology 61:331–49. [ER]
Funahashi S., Bruce C. J. & Goldman-Rakic P. S. (1991) Neuronal activity related to saccadic eye movements in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 65:1464–83. [ER]
Gattass R., Oswaldo-Cruz E. & Sousa A. P. B. (1979) Visual receptive fields of units in the pulvinar of Cebus monkey. Brain Research 160:413–30. [DLR]
Gaymard B., Pierrot-Deseilligny C. & Rivaud S. (1990) Impairment of sequences of memory-guided saccades after supplementary motor area lesions. Annals of Neurology 28:622–26. [JDS]
Glickstein M., May J. G. & Mercier B. E. (1985) Corticopontine projection in the macaque: The distribution of labelled cortical cells after large injections of horseradish peroxidase in the pontine nuclei. Journal of Comparative Neurology 235:343–59. [aBF]
Goldberg G. (1985) Supplementary motor area structure and function: Review and hypotheses. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:567616. [JDS]
Goldberg M. E. or Bruce C. J. (1990) Primate frontal eye fields. III. Maintenance of a spatially accurate saccade signal. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:489508. [EH]
Goldberg M. E., Bushnell M. C. & Bruce C. J. (1986) The effect of attentive fixation on eye movements evoked by electrical stimulation of the frontal eye fields. Experimental Brain Research 61:579–84. [aBF]
Goldberg M. E., Colby E. L. & Duhamel J.-L. (1990) Representation of visuomotor space in the parietal lobe of the monkey. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 55:729–39. [ER]
Goldberg M. E. & Wurtz R. (1972) Activity of the superior colliculus in the behaving monkey. II. Effect of attention on neuronal responses. Journal of Neurophysiology 35:560–74. [aBF]
Goldman-Rakic P. S. (1988) Topography of cognition: Parallel distributed networks in primate association cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 11:137–56. [ER]
Goldman-Rakic P. S. (1992) Working memory and the mind. Scientific American 266(9):7379. [ER]
Goldman-Rakic P S. & Selemon L. D. (1990) New frontiers in basal ganglia research. Trends in Neurosciences 13(7):241–44. [SJ]
Gray C. M., Konig P., Engel A. K. & Singer W. (1989) Oscillatory responses in cat visual cortex exhibit intereolumnar synchronization which reflects global stimulus properties. Nature 338:334–37. [ER]
Gray C. M. & Singer W. (1989) Stimulus-specific neuronal oscillations in orientation columns of cat visual cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 86:16981702. [ER]
Guitton D. (1991) Control of saccadic eye and gaze movements by the superior colliculus and basal ganglia. In: Vision and visual dysfunction, vol. 8: Eye movements, ed. Carpenter R.. Macmillan. [SDF]
Guitton D., Buchtel H. A. & Douglas R. M. (1985) Frontal lobe lesions in man cause difficulties in suppressing reflexive glances and in generating goal-directed saccades. Experimental Brain Research 58:455–72. [aBF, SDF]
Haase V. G., Ruhnau E., Indra M. & Poppel E. (1992) Periodic multimodal distribution of saccadic reaction time (in preparation). [ER]
Haddad C. M. & Steinman H. M. (1973) The smallest voluntary saccade: Implications for fixation. Vision Research 13:1075–86. [aBF]
Haenny P. & Schiller P. (1988) State dependent activity in monkey visual cortex. I. Single cell activity in VI and V4 on visual tasks. Experimental Brain Research 69:225–14. [aBF]
Hallett P. E. (1978) Primary and secondary saccades to goals defined by instructions. Vision Research 18:1279–96. [PEH]
Hallett P. E. (1986) Eye movements. In: Handbook of perception and human performance 1. ed. Boff K. R., Kaufman L. & Thomas J. P.. Wiley Interscience. [PEH]
Hallett P. E. & Adams B. D. (1980) The predictability of saccadic latency in a novel voluntary oculomotor task. Vision Research 20:329–39. [PEH]
Hanes D., Tu F. & Schall J. (1992) The effect of temporal context (conditional probability) on saccade latency in macaque. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18:698. [PEH]
Harting J. K., Huerta M. F., Frankfurter A. J., Strominger N. L. & Royce G. J., (1980) Ascending pathways from the monkey superior colliculus: An autoradiographic analysis. Journal of Comparative Neurology 192:853–82. [aBF]
Hawkins H. L., Shafto M. G. & Richardson K. (1988) Effects of target luminance and cue validity on the latency of visual detection. Perception & Psychophysics 44:484–92. [PAR-L]
Heijden A. H. C., Wolters G. & Enkeling M. (1988) The effects of advance location cueing on latencies in a single-letter recognition task. Psychological Research 50:94102. [TB]
Henderson J. M. (1991) Covert visual attention and saccadic eye movements. Proceedings of Sixth European Conference on Eye Movements, ed. Van Rensbergen J., Devijver M. & d'Ydewalle G.. Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven. [VIB]
Henderson J. M. (1992a) Identifying objects across saccades: Effects of extrafoveal preview and flanker object context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 18:521–30. [DC]
Henderson J. M. (1992b) Visual attention and eye movement control during reading and scene perception. In: Eye movements and visual cognition: Scene perception and reading, ed. Rayner K.. Springer-Verlag. [JMH]
Henderson J. M., Pollatsek A. & Rayner K. (1989) Covert visual attention and extrafoveal information use during object identification. Perception & Psychophysics 45:196208. [DC, JMH]
Henson D. B. (1978) Corrective saccades: Effects of altering visual feedback. Vision Research 18:6367. [aBF]
Hikosaka O. (1991) Basal ganglia – possible role in motor coordination and learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 1(4):638–43. [SJ]
Hikosaka O. & Wurtz K. H. (1983a) Effects on eye movements of a GABA agonist and antagonist injected into monkey superior colliculus. Brain Research 272:368–72. [aBF]
Hikosaka O. & Wurtz K. H. (1983b) Visual and oculomotor functions of monkey substantia nigra pars reticulata. III. Memory-contingent visual and saccade responses. Journal of Neurophysiology 49:1268–84. [JEA]
Honda H. & Findlay J. M. (1992) Saccades to targets in three-dimensional space: Dependence of saccadic latency on target location. Perception & Psychophysics 52:167–74. [JMF]
Hood B. M. & Atkinson J. A. (in press) Disengaging visual attention in the infant and adult. Infant Behaviour and Development. [JA]
Huerta M. F. & Kaas J. H. (1990) Supplementary eye field as defined by intracortical microstimulation: Connections in macaques. Journal of Comparative Neurology 293:299330. [JDS]
Hughes H. C. (1984) Effect of flash luminance and positional expectancies on visual response latency. Perception & Psychophysics 36:177–84. [PAR-L]
Inhoff A. W., Pollatsek A., Posner M. I. & Rayner K. (1989) Covert attention and eye movements in reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 41A:6389. [JMH]
Inhoff A. W., Topolski R., Vitu F. & O'Regan J. K. (submitted) Foveal engagement of attention and saccade programming during reading: Lack of express saccades. [AWI]
Inhoff A. W., Topolski R. & Wang J. (1992) Saccade programming during short duration fixations: An examination of copytyping, letter detection, and reading. Acta Psychologica 81:121. [AWI]
Ishida T. & Ikeda M. (1989) Temporal properties of information extraction in reading studied by a text-mask replacement technique. Journal of the Optical Society of America A(6):1624–32. [MHF]
Iwasaki E. (1990) Facilitation of reaction times with GAP paradigm: Comparison of manual and saccadic responses. Ergonomics 33:833–50. [rBF]
Jackson S. & Houghton C. (1992) Basal ganglia function in the control of visuospatial attention: A neural-network model (submitted). [rBF, SJ]
Jay M. F. & Sparks D. L. (1987) Sensorimotor integration in the primate superior colliculus. I. Motor convergence, Journal of Neurophysiology 57:2234. [RMB]
Johnson M. H. (1990) Cortical maturation and the development of visual attention in early infancy. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2:8195. [SDF]
Johnson M. H. (in press) Covert visual attention and the volitional control of eye movements in early infancy. In: Attention and performance XV: Conscious and unconscious processing, ed. Umilta C. & Moscovitch M.. MIT Press. [SDF]
Johnston W. A., Hawley K. J., Plewe S. H., Elliott J. M. G. & DeWitt M. J. (1990) Attention capture by novel stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119:397411. [ER]
Jüttner M. & Wolf W. (1992) Occurrence of human express saccades depends on stimulus uncertainty and stimulus sequence. Experimental Brain Research 89:678–81. [aBF, JMF, PEH, MJ, ER, WJT, FV]
Jüttner M. & Wolf W. (in preparation) Effect of stimulus sequence on the occurrence of human express saccades. [MJ]
Kalesnykas R. P. & Hallett P. E. (1987) The differentiation of visually guided and anticipatory saccades in gap and overlap paradigms. Experimental Brain Research 68:115–21. [aBF, PEH, RMK, PW]
Kalesnykas R. P. & Hallett P. E. (1989) Human saccadic eye movement latency and volition. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 30:184. [PEH]
Kapoula Z. (1985) Evidence for a range effect in the saccadic system. Vision Research 25:1155–57. [aBF]
Kapoula Z. & Robinson D. A. (1986) Saccadic undershoot is not inevitable: Saccades can be accurate. Vision Research 26:735–43. [aBF]
Keele S. W. (1986) Motor control. In: Handbook of perception and human performance. Wiley-Interscience. [PAR-L]
Kimming H. (1986) Express Sakkaden beim Menschen: Die Rolle der Anfmerksamkeit in der Vorbereitungsphase zielgerichteter Blicksprünge. Dissertation, Fachbereich Medizin Universität Freiburg. [aBF, RMB]
Kingstone A. & Klein R. M. (1990) Attention and express saccades. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28:512. [ PAR-L]
Kingstone A. & Klein R. M. (in press a) Visual offsets facilitate saccadic latency: Does pre-disengagement of attention mediate this gap effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. [RMK]
Kingstone A. & Klein R. M. (in press b) What are human express saccades? Perception & Psychophysics. [RMK]
Kingstone A., Klein R. M., Maxner C. & Fisk J. (1992) Attentional systems and Parkinson's disease. Paper presented at Attention: Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives conference, March 26–27. Toronto, Canada. [SJ]
Klein R. (1980) Does oculomotor readiness mediate cognitive control of visual attention? In: Attention and performance VIII, ed. Nickerson R. S.. Erlbaum. [DC, TJC, AWI]
Klein R., Kingstone A. & Pontefraet A. (1992) Orienting of visual attention. In: Eye movements and visual cognition: Scene perception and reading, ed. Rayner K.. Springer. [TB, MHF, RMK]
Knudsen E. L. (1982) Auditory and visual maps of space in the optic tectum of the owl. Journal of Neuroscience 2:1177–94. [RMB]
Konrad H. R., Rea C., Olin B. & Colliver J. (1989) Simultaneous auditory stimuli shorten saccadic latencies. Laryngoscope 99:1230–32. [RMB]
Kornhuber H. H. (1974) Cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia: An introduction to their motor functions. In: The neurosciences: Third study program, ed. Schmitt F. O. & Worden F. G.. MIT Press. [JMF]
Kowler E. (1990) The role of visual and cognitive processes in the control of eye movement. In: Reviews of oculomotor research 4: Eye movements and their role in visual and cognitive processes, ed. Kowler E.. Elsevier. [aBF, MJ, RMK]
Kowler E. & Steinman R. M. (1981) The effect of expectations on slow oculomotor control – III. Guessing unpredictable target displacements. Vision Research 21:191204. [PEH]
Künzle H., Akert K. & Wurtz R. H. (1976) Projection of area 8 (frontal eye field) to superior colliculus in the monkey. An autoradiographic study. Brain Research 117:487–92. [aBF]
Kurtzberg D. & Vaughan H. G., (1982) Topographic analysis of human cortical potentials preceding self-initiated and visually triggered saccades. Brain Research 243:19. [ER]
LaBerge D. & Brown V. (1986) Variations in size of the visual field in which targets are presented: An attentional range effect. Perception & Psychophysics 40:188200. [VIB]
Latanov A., Weber H. & Fischer B. (unpublished observation) The double step effect on express saccades in man and monkey. [aBF]
Latto R. & Coway A. (1971) Fixation changes after frontal eye-field lesions in monkeys. Brain Research 30:2536. [aBF]
Lévy-Schoen A. (1969) Détermination et latence de la réponse oculomotrice à deux stimulus. L'Année Psychologique 69:373–92. [JMF]
Lueck C. J., Crawford T. J., Savage C. J. & Kennard C. (1990) Auditory visual interaction in the generation of saccadic eye movements. Experimental Brain Research 82:149–57. [RMB]
Luria A. R. (1966) Higher cortical functions in man. Tavistock. [RMB]
Lynch J. C. & McLaren J. W. (1989) Deficits of visual attention and saccadic eye movements after lesions of parieto-occipital cortex in monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 61:7490. [RMB]
Lyon D. R. (1990) Large and rapid improvement in form discrimination accuracy following a location precue. Acta Psychologica 73:6982. [TB]
Mackeben M. & Nakayama K. (1993) Express attentional shifts. Vision Research 33:8590. [aBF, HD, KN]
Mangun C. R. & Hillyard S. A. (1991) Modulations of sensory-evoked potentials indicate changes in perceptual processing during visual-spatial priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 17:1057–74. [PAR-L]
Mathers L. H. & Rapisardi S. C. (1973) Visual and somatosensory receptive fields of neurons in the squirrel monkey pulvinar. Brain Research 64:6583. [DLR]
Mayfrank L., Mobashery M., Kimmig H. & Fischer B. (1986) The role of fixation and visual attention in the occurrence of express saccades in man. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Science 235:269–75. [aBF, VIB, DC, RMK, KN, WJT, PW]
McConkie G. W. (1979) On the role and control of eye movements in reading. In: Processing of visible language, vol. 1., ed. Kolers P. A., Wrolstad M. E. & Bouma H.. Plenum. [DC]
McConkie G. W. & Rayner K. (1975) The span of the effective stimulus during a fixation in reading. Perception & Psychophysics 17:578–86. [JMH]
McConkie G. W. & Rayner K. (1976) Asymmetry of the perceptual span in reading. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 8:365–68. [ VIB, JMH]
McLachlan G. J. & Basford K. E. (1987) Mixture models. Marcel Dekker. [MJ]
Mesulam M.-M. (1990) Large-scale neurocognitive networks and distributed processing for attention, language, and memory. Annals of Neurology 28(5):309–25. [SJ]
Miller J. M., Anstis T. & Templeton W. B. (1981) Saccadic plasticity: Parametric adaptive control by retinal feedback. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 7:356–66. [aBF]
Milner B. (1982) Some cognitive effects of frontal-lobe lesions in man. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Biology) 298:211–26. [aBF]
Mink J. W. & Thatch W. T. (1991a) Basal ganglia motor control. I. Nonexclusive relation of pallidal discharge to five movement modes. Journal of Neurophysiology 65(2):273300. [SJ]
Mink J. W. & Thatch W. T. (1991b) Basal ganglia motor control. II. Late pallidal timing relative to movement onset and inconsistent pallidal coding of movement parameters. Journal of Neurophysiology 65(2):273300. [SJ]
Mondor T. A. & Bryden M. P. (1992) On the relation between visual spatial attention and visual field asymmetries. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 44A:529–55. [TB]
Morrison R. E. (1984) Manipulation of stimulus onset delay in reading: Evidence for parallel programming of saccades. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 10:667–82. [VIB, DC, MHF]
Moschovakis A. K., Karabelas A. B. & Highstein S. M. (1988) Structure-function relationships in the primate superior colliculus. II. Morphological identity of presaccadic neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 60:263302. [aBF]
Mountcastle V., Motter B., Steinmetz M. & Sestokas A. (1987) Common and differential effects of attentive fixation on the excitability of parietal and prestriate (V4) cortical visual neurons in the macaque monkey. Journal of Neuroscience 7:2239–55. [aBF]
Munoz D. P. & Wurtz R. H. (1992) Role of the rostral superior colliculus in active visual fixation and execution of express saccades. Journal of Neurophysiology 67:10001002. [rBF, JMF, RMK, DLR, JAMVG]
Murphy T. D. & Eriksen C. W. (1987) Temporal changes in the distribution of attention in the visual field in response to precues. Perception if Psychophysics 42:576–86. [TB]
Mushiake H., Inase M. & Tanji J. (1991) Neuronal activity in the primate premotor, supplementary and precentral motor cortex during visually guided and internally determined sequential movements. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:705–18. [JDS]
Nakayama K. & Mackeben M. (1989) Sustained and transient components of focal visual attention. Vision Research 29:1631–47. [TB, KN]
Neumann O. (1992) Theorien der Aufmerksamkeit: Von Metaphern zu Mechanismen. Psychologische Rundschau 43:83101. [ER]
Niemi P. & Näätänen R. (1981) Foreperiod and simple reaction time. Psychological Bulletin 89:133–62. [JDS]
Oakley M. & Eason R. (1990) The conjoint influence of spatial selective attention and motor set on very short latency VERs. Neuropsychologia 28:487–97. [aBF]
Okada Y. & Miyamoto T. (1989) Formation of long-term potentiation in superior colliculus slices from the guinea pig. Neuroscience Letters 96:108–13. [ER]
Olson R. K., Kliegl R. & Davidson B. J. (1983) Dyslexic and normal readers' eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 9:816–25. [aBF]
Ottes F. P., Van Gisbergen J. A. M. & Eggermont J. J. (1984) Metrics of saccade responses to visual double stimuli: Two different modes. Vision Research 24:1169–79. [JAMVG]
Ottes F. P., Van Gisbergen J. A. M. & Eggermont J. J. (1985) Latency dependence of colour-based target vs. nontarget discrimination by the saccadic system. Vision Research 25:849–62. [IAMVG]
Ottes F. P., Van Gisbergen J. A. M. & Eggermont J. J. (1987) Collicular involvement in a saccadic colour discrimination task. Experimental Brain Research 66:465–78. [JAMVG]
Paige G. D. & Sargent E. W. (1991) Visually-induced adaptive plasticity in the human vestibulo-ocular reflex. Experimental Brain Research 84:2534. [aBF]
Parthasarathy H. B., Schall J. D. & Graybiel A. M. (1992) Distributed by convergent ordering of corticostriatal projections: Analysis of the frontal eye field and the supplementary eye field in the macaque monkey. Journal of Neuroscience 12:4468–88. [JDS]
Pavlidis G. T. (1981) Do eye movements hold the key to dyslexia? Neuropsychologia 19:5764. [aBF]
Pavlidis G. T. (1985) Eye movement differences between dyslexics, normal, and retarded readers while sequentially fixating digits. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 62:820–32. [aBF]
Perron C. & Hallett P. E. (1991) Latencies of eye saccades to coloured targets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 32:898. [PEH]
Perry V. H. & Cowey A. (1984) Retinal ganglion cells that project to the superior colliculus and pretectum in the macaque monkey. Neuroscience 12:1125–37. [aBF]
Petersen S. E., Robinson D. L. & Keys W. (1985) Pulvinar nuclei of the behaving rhesus monkey: Visual responses and their modulations. Journal of Neurophysiology 54:867–86. [DLR]
Petersen S. E., Robinson D. L. & Morris J. D. (1987) The contribution of the pulvinar to visual spatial attention. Neuropsychologia 25:97105. [DLR]
Pierrot-Deseilligny C., Rivaud S., Gaymard B. & Agid Y. (1991a) Cortical control of memory-guided saccades in man. Experimental Brain Research 83:607–17. [aBF]
Pierrot-Deseilligny C., Rivaud S., Gaymard B. & Agid Y. (1991b) Cortical control of reflexive visually-guided saccades. Brain 114:1473–78. [RMB, ER]
Pollatsek A., Bolozky S., Well A. D. & Rayner K. (1981) Asymmetries in the perceptual span for Israeli readers. Brain and Language 14:174–80. [JMH]
Pöppel E., Chen L., Glünder H., Mitzdorf U., Ruhnau E., Schill K. & von Steinbüchel N. (1991) Temporal and spatial constraints for mental modelling. In: Frontiers in knowledge-based modelling, ed. Bhatkar V. & Rege K.. Narose. [ER]
Pöppel E., Schill K. & von Steinbüchel N. (1990) Multistable states in intrahemispheric learning of a sensorimotor task. NcuroReport 1:6972. [ER]
Posner M. I. (1980) Orienting of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 32:325. [DC, AWI, RMK, DLR]
Posner M. I., Crippin P. J., Cohen A. & Rafal R. (1986) Speed of covert orienting of attention and express saccades. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomics Society, New Orleans, November. [VIB]
Posner M. I. & Petersen S. E. (1990) The attention system of the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience 13:2542. [BGB, SJ]
Posner M. I., Petersen S. E., Fox P. T. & Raichle M. E. (1988) Localization of cognitive operations in the human brain. Science 240:1627–31. [RDW]
Posner M. I., Sandson J., Dhawan M. & Shulman G. L. (1989) Is word recognition automatic? A cognitive-anatomical approach, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1(1):5060. [SJ]
Posner M. I., Walker J. A., Friedrich F. J. & Rafal R. D. (1984) Effects of parietal injury on covert orienting of attention. Journal of Neuroscience 4:1863–74. [aBF, RMB, VIB, SJ]
Prablanc C., Masse D. & Echallier J. F. (1978) Error-correcting mechanisms in large saccades. Vision Research 18:551–60. [PEH]
Pylyshyn Z. W. (1989) The role of location indexes in spatial perception: A sketch of the FINST spatial-index model. Cognition 32:6597. [RDW]
Pylyshyn Z. W. & Storm R. W. (1988) Tracking multiple independent targets: Evidence for a parallel tracking mechanism. Spatial Vision 3:179–97. [RDW]
Rafal D. R. & Posner M. I. (1987) Deficits in human visual spatial attention following thalamic lesions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 84:7349–53. [DLR]
Rashbass C. (1961) The relationship between saccadic and smooth tracking eye movements. Journal of Physiology 159:326–38. [aBF]
Rayner K. (1985) Do faulty eye movements cause dyslexia? Developmental Neuropsychology 1:315 [MHF]
Rayner K., Inhoff A. W., Morrison R. E., Slowiaczek M. L. & Bertera J. H. (1981) Masking of foveal and parafoveal vision during eye fixations in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 7:167–79. [MHF]
Rayner K. & Pollatsek A. (1989) The psychology of reading. Prentice Hall. [MHF]
Rayner K., Well A. D. & Pollatsek A. (1980) Asymmetry of the effective visual field in reading. Perception & Psychophysics 27:537–44. [JMH]
Remington R. W. (1980) Attention and saecadic eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 6:726–44. [DC]
Reulen J. P. H. (1984) Latency of visually evoked saecadic eye movements. I. Saccadic latency and the facilitation model. Biological Cybernetics 50:251–62. [aBF. JEA]
Reuter-Lorenz P. A. & Fendrich R. (1992) Oculomotor programming and covert orienting: The effects of central versus peripheral precues. Perception & Psychophysics 52:336–44. [PAH-L]
Reuter-Lorenz P. A., Hughes H. C. & Fendrich R. (1991) The reduction of saccadic latency by prior fixation point offset: An analysis of the “Gap Effect.” Perception & Psychophysics 49:167–75. [aBF, ELC, RMK, PAR-L, FV]
Reuter-Lorenz P. A., Oonk H., Barnes L. & Hughes H. C. (1993) Response specificity of the Gap Effect depends on the presence of a warning signal. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 34(Abslract). [PAR-L]
Rizzolatti G., Riggio L., Dascola I. & Umilta C. (1987) Reorienting attention across the horizontal and vertical meridians: Evidence in favor of a premotor theory of attention. Neuropsychologia 25:3140. [JMF]
Roberts W. A., Eaton S. A. & Salt T. E. (1991) Excitatory amino acid receptors mediate synaptic responses to visual stimuli in superior colliculus neurons of the rat. Neuroscience Letters 129:161–64. [ER]
Robinson D. A. (1964) The mechanies of saccadic eye movements. Journal of Physiology, London 174:245–64. [PEH]
Robinson D. A. & Fuchs A. F. (1969) Eye movements evoked by stimulation of frontal eye fields. Journal of Neurophysiology 32:637–48. [SDF]
Robinson D. L., Goldberg M. E. & Stanton G. B. (1978) Parietal association cortex in the primate: Sensory mechanisms and behavioral modulations. Journal of Neurophysiology 41:910–32. [aBF, DLR]
Robinson D. L. & Peterson S. E. (1992) The pulvinar and visual salience. Trends in Neuroscicnce 15:127–32. [DLR]
Rogal L. E. & Fischer B. (1986) Eye-hand coordination: A model for computing reaction times in a visually guided reach task. Biological Cybernetics 55:263–73. [aBF]
Rogal L. E., Reible G. & Fischer B. (1985) Reaction times of the eye and the hand of the monkey in a visual reach task. Neuroscicnce Letters 58:127–32. [aBF]
Ross L. E. & Ross S. M. (1980) Saccadic latency and warning signals: Stimulus onset, offset, and change as warning events. Perception & Psychophysics 27:251–57. [aBF, RMK]
Ross S. M. & Ross L. E. (1981) Saccadic latency and warning signals: Effects of auditory and visual stimulus onset and offset. Perception & Psychophysics 29:429–37. [aBF, RMK]
Ruelen J. P. H. (1984) Latency of visually evoked saccadic eye movements. Biological Cybernetics 50:251–62. [PW]
Ruhnau E. & Pöppel E. (1991) Adirectional temporal zones in quantum physics and brain physiology. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 30:1083–90. [ER]
Saslow M. G. (1967a) Effects of components of displacement step stimuli upon latency for saccadic eye movements. Journal of the Optical Society of America 57:1024–29. [PEH]
Saslow M. G. (1967b) Latency for saccadic eye movement. Journal of the Optical Society of America 57:1030–33. [aBF]
Schall J. D. (1991a) Neuronal activity related to visually guided saccadic eye movements in the supplementary motor area of rhesus monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:530–58. [JDS]
Schall J. D. (1991b) Neuronal activity related to visually guided saccades in the frontal eye fields of rhesus monkeys: Comparison with supplementary eye fields. Journal of Neurophysiology 66:559–79. [JDS]
Schiller P. H. (1977) The effect of superior colliculns ablation on saccades elicited by cortical stimulation. Brain Research 122:154–56. [MAS]
Schiller P. H., Logothetis N. K., Charles E. R. & Lee K. (1990) The effects of LGN, V4, and MT lesions on visually guided eye movements to stationary targets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences (supplement) 31(4):399. [MAS]
Schiller P. H., Malpeli J. G. & Schein S. J. (1979) Composition of the geniculostriate input to superior colliculus of the rhesus monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 42:1124–33. [JA]
Schiller P. H. & Sandell J. H. (1983) Interactions between visually and electrically elicited saccades before and after superior colliculus and frontal eye field ablations in rhesus monkeys. Experimental Brain Research 49:381–92. [SDF]
Schiller P. H., Sandell J. H. & Maunsell J. H. R. (1987) The effect of frontal eye field and superior colliculus lesions on saccadic latencies in the rhesus monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 57:1033–49. [aBF, JDS, MAS, JAMVG]
Schiller P. H., True S. D. & Conway J. L. (1980) Deficits in eye movements following frontal eye-field and superior colliculus ablations. Journal of Neurophysiology 44:1175–89. [RMB, MAS]
Schlag J. & Schlag-Rey M. (1987) Evidence for a supplementary eye field. Journal of Neurophysiology 57:179200. [JDS]
Schott B., Jeannerod M. & Zahin M. Z. (1966) L'agnosie spatiale unilaterale: Perturbation en secteur des mecanismes d'exploration et de fixation du regard. Journal Medical (Lyon) 47:169–95. [RMB]
Servan-Schreiber D., Printz H. & Cohen J. D. (1990) A network model of catecholamine effects: Gain, signal-to-noise ratio, and behavior. Science 249:892–95. [SDF]
Shebilske W. L. (1976) Extraretinal information in corrective saccades and inflow versus outflow theories of visual direction constancy. Vision Research 16:621–28. [PEH]
Shepherd M., Findlay J. M. & Hockey R. J. (1986) The relationship between eye movements and spatial attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 38A:475–91. [DC, TJC, MHF, JMH]
Shibutani H., Sakata H. & Hyvarinen J. (1984) Saccade and blinking evoked by microstimulation of the posterior parietal association cortex of the monkey. Experimental Brain Research 55:18. [aBF]
Shook B. L., Schlag-Rey M. & Schlag J. (1990) Primate supplementary eye field: I. Comparative aspects of mesencephalic and pontine connections. Journal of Comparative Neurology 301:618–42. [JDS]
Shulman G. L., Remington R. W. & McLean J. P. (1979) Moving attention through visual space. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 5:522–26. [TB]
Smit A. C. & Van Gisbergen J. A. M. (1989) A short-latency transition in saccade dynamics during square-wave tracking and its significance for the differentiation of visually-guided and predictive saceades. Experimental Brain Research 76:6474. [aBF, PEH]
Sommer M. A. (submitted) Express saccades elicited during visual scan in the monkey. [MAS]
Sparks D. L. & Hartwich-Young R. (1989) The deep layers of the superior colliculus. In: Review of oculomotor research, vol. 3: The neurobiology of saccadic eye movements, ed. Wurtz R. H. & Goldberg M. E.. Elsevier. [MAS]
Stein B. E. & Meredith M. A. (1990) Multimodal integration: Neural and behavioral solutions for dealing with stimuli from different modalities. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 606:5170. [RMB]
Steinman R. M. (1986) The need for an eclectic, rather than systems, approach to the study of the primate oculomotor system. Vision Research 26:101–12. [PEH]
Steinman R. M., Cunitz R., Timberlane G. & Herman M. (1967) Voluntary control of microsaccades during maintained monocular fixation. Science 155:1577–79. [VIB]
Steinman R. M., Kowler E. & Collewijn H. (1990) New directions for oculomotor research. Vision Research 30:1845–64. [PEH]
Tarn W. J. or Stelmach L. B. (in press) Viewing behavior: Ocular and attentional disengagement. Perception & Psychophysics. [WJT]
Tanaka M., Weber H. & Creutzfeldt O. D. (1986) Visual properties and spatial distribution of neurones in the visual association area on the prelunate gyrus of the awake monkey. Experimental Brain Research 65:1137. [aBF]
Taumer R., Mie K. & Kommerell G. (1972) Three kinds of reaction mechanisms of the human saccadic system. Biokybernetic 4:236–42. [PEH]
Theeuwes J. (1991) Exogenous and endogenous control of attention: The effect of visual onsets and offsets. Perception & Psychophysics 49:8390. [DC]
Tootell R. B., Hamilton S. L. & Switkes E. (1988) Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. IV. Contrast and magno-parvo streams. Journal of Neuroscience 8:15941609. [aBF]
Tsal V. (1983) Movements of attention across the visual field. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 9:523–30. [TB]
Ullman S. (1984) Visual routines. Cognition 18:97159. [ROW]
Umilta C., Riggio L., Dascola I. & Rizzolatti G. (1991) Differential effects of central and peripheral cues on the reorienting of spatial attention. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 3:247–67. [JMF]
Underwood N. R. & McConkie G. W. (1985) Perceptual span for letter distinctions during reading. Reading Research Quarterly 20:153–62. [JMH]
Van der Heijden A. H. C. (1992) Selective attention in vision. Routledge. [HD]
Van Essen D. C., Anderson C. H. & Felleman D. J. (1992) Information processing in the primate visual system: An integrated systems perspective. Science 255:419–23. [ER]
Warner C. B., Juola J. F. & Koshino H. (1990) Voluntary allocation versus automatic capture of visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics 48:243–51. [TB]
Weber H., Aiple F., Fischer B. & Latanov A. (1992) Dead zone for express saccades. Experimental Brain Research 89:214–22. [aBF]
Weber H. & Fischer B. (1990a) Cortical mechanisms for vision revealed by saccadic eye movements in trained rhesus monkeys. In: Vision, memory, and the temporal lobe, ed. Iwai E.. Elsevier. [aBF]
Weber H. & Fischer B. (1990b) Effect of a local ibotenic acid lesion in the visual association area on the prelunate gyrus (area V4) on saccadic reaction times in trained rhesus monkeys. Experimental Brain Research 81:134–39. [aBF]
Weber H. & Fischer B. (1992) Different modes of visually guided saccades in man determined by reaction time and amplitude. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18:214. [PEH]
Weber H. & Fischer B. (submitted) Suppression of express saccades: The influence of distractors on saccadic reaction time in man. [rBF]
Weber H., Fischer B., Bach M. & Aiple F. (1991) Occurrence of express saccades under isoluminance and low contrast luminance conditions. Visual Neuroscience 7:505–10. [aBF, PEH]
Weber H., Latanov A. & Fischer B. (1993) Context dependent gain changes of express and regular saccades in man and monkey. Experimental Brain Research 93:335–44. [aBF]
Wenban-Smith M. G. & Findlay J. M. (1991) Express saccades: Is there a separate population in humans? Experimental Brain Research 87:218–22. [aBF, TB, ELC, TJC, JMF, RMK, JDS, MGW-S, WJT, FV, PW]
Wortis S. B. & Pfeffer A. Z. (1948) Unilateral audio-spatial agnosia. Journal of Nercous and Mental Disease 108:181–86. [RMB]
Wright M. J., Burns R. J., Geffen G. M. & Geffen L. B. (1990) Covert orientation of visual attention in Parkinson's disease: An impairment in the maintenance of attention. Neuropsychologia 28(2): 151–59. [SJ]
Wright R. D. & Ward L. M. (1992) The control of visual attention. Unpublished manuscript. [RDW]
Wyman D. & Steinman R. M. (1973a) Small step tracking: Implications for the oculomotor “dead zone.” Vision Research 13:2165–72. [aBF]
Wyman D. & Steinman R. M. (1973b) Latency characteristics of small saccades. Vision Research 13:2173–75. [aBF]
Yantis S. & Johnson D. N. (1990) Mechanisms of attentional priority. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16:812–25. [ROW]
Yantis S. & Jonides J. (1984) Abrupt visual onsets and selective attention: Evidence from visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 10:601–21. [DC]
Yantis S. & Jonides J. (1990) Abrupt visual onsets and selective attention: Voluntary versus automatic allocation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16:121–34. [DC]
Young L. & Stark L. (1963) Variable feedback experiments testing a sampled data model for eye tracking movements. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Transactions in Human Factors in Electronics HFE-4:3851. [PEH]
Zahn J. R., Abel L. A. & Dell'Osso L. F. (1978) Audio-ocular response characteristics. Sensory Processes 2:3237. [RMB]
Zahn J. R., Abel L. A., Dell'Osso L. F. & Daroff R. B. (1979) The audio-ocular response: Intersensory delay. Sensory Processes 3:6065. [RMB]
Zambarbieri D., Schmid R., Maganes G. & Prablanc C. (1982) Saccadic responses evoked by presentation of visual and auditory targets. Experimental Brain Research 47:417–27. [RMB]
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 4 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 55 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.