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Observation versus experimentation in natural-history teaching in Portuguese secondary schools: educational laws from 1836 to 1933

  • INÊS GOMES (a1)
Abstract

The idea that a public and secular institution was needed to prepare citizens for higher education proliferated throughout Europe during the nineteenth century. However, because of local political, economic and social contexts the underlying model of what is now meant by secondary education has developed differently in each country. This essay provides a historical account of the development of secondary education in Portugal, in what concerns the study of nature (zoology, botany, geology and mineralogy) in liceus, during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In particular, the importance given to specimens and collections will be emphasized. The emergence of laboratory-based teaching never replaced traditional approaches centred on observation of specimens. By focusing on the Portuguese case, this article aims ultimately to contribute to a broader understanding of the secondary-educational model implemented throughout Europe in the nineteenth century.

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This work was funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (uid/his/00286/2013). I also acknowledge the fellowships awarded (sfrh/bd/ 47653 /2008). I would like to thank Isabel Zilhão, who read the manuscript and made many comments and suggestions. This paper also benefited greatly from the discussion with Marta Lourenço, Teresa Salomé Mota, Melanie Keene and Leoncio López-Ocón Cabrera.

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References
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1 See Green, Andy, Education and State Formation: The Rise of Education Systems in England, France and the USA, London: Macmillan, 2004; Anderson, Robert, ‘The idea of the secondary school in nineteenth-century Europe’, Paedagogica Historica (2004) 40, pp. 93106.

2 See, for example, Simon, Josep, ‘The Franco-British communication and appropriation of Ganot's Physique (1851–1881)’, in Simon, Josep and Herran, Néstor (eds.), Beyond Borders: Fresh Perspectives in History of Science, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008, pp. 141168. The importance of cross-national and comparative studies of science, technology and medicine has been explored in two special issues of History of Science (2012) 50, pp. 251375, and Science & Education (2013) 22, pp. 763920.

3 Anderson, op. cit. (1). On the Portuguese educational system of the nineteenth century see de Albuquerque, Luís, Estudos de História, 6 vols., Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, 1974–1978, vol. 6; de Carvalho, Rómulo, História do ensino em Portugal desde a fundação da nacionalidade até ao fim do regime de Salazar-Caetano, Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1987; Proença, Maria Cândida (ed.), O Sistema de Ensino em Portugal, Séculos XIX–XX, Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 1998; Fernandes, Rogério, O Pensamento Pedagógico em Portugal, Lisbon: Instituto de Cultura e Língua Portuguesa, 1992.

4 Decreto de 17 de Novembro de 1836, Diário do Governo n.° 275/1836.

5 The 1836 decree determined the construction of secondary schools in each capital district, which meant eighteen secondary schools on the mainland. In 1950 its number increased to thirty-five.

6 Zoology, botany, geology and mineralogy were usually taught under the same subject heading, the designation of which – natural history, natural sciences, biology and so on, for example – has changed over the years.

7 The 28 May 1926 coup d’état established a military dictatorship. In 1933 a new Constitution entered into force, which institutionalized the Estado Novo (New State), which ruled until the revolution of 25 April 1974.

8 PRISC, Portuguese Research Infrastructure of Scientific Collections, at www.prisc.pt, accessed 30 September 2014, original emphasis.

9 For example, Simon, Josep, Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón and García-Belmar, Antonio, ‘Nineteenth-century scientific instruments in Spanish secondary schools’, in Lourenço, Marta C. and Carneiro, Ana (eds.), The Laboratorio Chimico Ouverture: Spaces and Collections in the History of Science, Lisbon, Lisbon: MCUL, 2009, pp. 167184; Simon, Josep and Cuenca-Lorente, Mar, ‘Science education and the material culture of the nineteenth-century classroom: physics and chemistry in Spanish secondary schools’, Science & Education (2012) 21, pp. 227244.

10 The importance of studies using objects as primary sources for research in the history of science education has been increasing during the last decade. See, for example, Heering, Peter and Wittje, Roland (eds.), Learning by Doing: Experiments and Instruments in the History of Science Teaching, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2011; or the thematic issue of Science Education (2012) 21, pp. 151288, The History of Experimental Science Teaching.

11 Macedo, Marta, Projectar e construir a nação: Engenheiros e território em Portugal no século XIX, Lisbon: ICS, 2012, p. 75.

12 The history of science has privileged a set of countries, namely France, Great Britain and Germany. However, as pointed by Carolino, attention to the countries of the European periphery in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries challenges their usual perception as passive receivers and sees them instead as interesting sites of active engagement, appropriating different models and creating their own educational systems. Carolino, Luís, ‘The making of an academic tradition: the foundation of the Lisbon Polytechnic School and the development of higher technical education in Portugal (1779–1837)’, Paedagogica Historica (2012) 28, pp. 391410, 410.

13 Torgal, Luís Reis and Vargues, Isabel Nobre, A revolução de 1820 e a instrução pública, Porto: Paisagem Editora, 1984, pp. 3940, 62; Albuquerque, op. cit. (3), p. 65.

14 Torgal and Vargues, op. cit. (13), pp. 9–10. See also Torgal, Luís Reis, ‘A instrução pública’, in Mattoso, José (ed.), História de Portugal, 9 vols., Lisbon: Círculo de Leitores, 1993, vol. 5, pp. 609651.

15 Between 1828 and 1834.

16 A broad view of the history of Portugal can be found in Disney, Anthony R., A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009; Ramos, Rui, Sousa, Bernado V. and Monteiro, Nuno G., História de Portugal, Lisbon: Esfera dos Livros, 2009.

17 Fox, Robert and Weisz, George, The Organization of Science and Technology in France 1808–1914, Cambridge and Paris: Cambridge University Press and Editions de la maison des sciences de l'homme, 1980, p. 1.

18 On museological practices in eighteenth-century Portugal see Brigola, João, Colecções, gabinetes e museus em Portugal no século XVIII, Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian e Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, 2003. On natural history in particular see Carvalho, Rómulo de, A História Natural em Portugal no século XVIII, Lisbon: Instituto de Cultura e Língua Portuguesa, Ministério da Educação, 1987.

19 Many specimens came from exotic colonized places. Dezallier d'Argenville (1680–1765), for example, referred to specimens from the King João V (1689–1759) collection in his work. Argenville, Désallier, La Conchyliologie, ou Histoire naturelle des coquilles de mer, d'eau douce, terrestres et fossiles, avec un traité de la zoomorphose, ou représentation des animaux qui les habitent, Paris: Chez Guillaume de Bure fils, 1780, pp. 555556. For the foreign interest in Portuguese collections see Brigola, op. cit. (18), pp. 73–82.

20 For example Jacob de Castro Sarmento (1691–1762) or Luís António Verney (1713–1792).

21 In the following years the Natural History Museum of Ajuda became devoted to naturalistic investigations. Its collection grew mostly as a result of the ‘philosophical voyages’ to the Portuguese overseas territories, but also due to the shipments of different individuals. On its history see Brigola, op. cit. (18), pp. 98–138, 231–361.

22 Founded in Lisbon in 1290 under the designation Studium Generale (Estudo Geral), the university went through a number of relocations until it was moved permanently to its current location, in Coimbra, in 1537. A major reform according to the plans of Marquis de Pombal (1699–1782) occurred in 1772, creating six faculties: theology, canon law, civil law, medicine, mathematics and philosophy. The University of Coimbra remained largely unchanged until the twentieth century, remaining the one and only university in Portugal until 1911. For the natural sciences in the 1770s university reform see da Costa, A.M. Amorim, ‘As ciências naturais na reforma pombalina da universidade: “estudo de rapazes, não ostentação de príncipes”’, in Araújo, Ana Cristina (ed.), O Marquês de Pombal e a Universidade, Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra, 2014, pp. 179208.

23 de Carvalho, Rómulo, A actividade pedagógica na Academia das Ciências de Lisboa nos séculos XVIII e XIX, Lisbon: Publicações do II centenário da Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, 1981, pp. 14, 1820; Gouveia, Henrique Coutinho, A evolução dos museus nacionais portugueses: tentativa de caracterização, Rio de Janeiro: Seminário Museus Nacionais – Perfil e Perspectivas, 1988, p. 4.

24 Before the expulsion in 1759 the Society of Jesus was in charge of thirty-seven colleges in the Portuguese Empire (sixteen colleges in Portugal, one in Madeira, three in the Azores, twelve in Brazil, one in Angola, three in India and one in Macao). The Jesuits were responsible for the education of about twenty thousand pre-university students in Portugal. Pombal's secondary-education system led to a massive decrease in the number of students. The number of twenty thousand pre-university students was only reached again in Portugal in the 1930s. Moreover, Pombal's secondary-education system was based on isolated classes rather then on an organized cursus as Jesuit colleges were. Leitão, Henrique and Romeiras, Francisco Malta, ‘The role of science in the history of Portuguese anti-Jesuitism’, Journal of Jesuit Studies (2015) 2, pp. 7799. See also de Andrade, António Alberto Banha, A Reforma Pombalina dos Estudos Secundários (1759–1771), Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, 1981.

25 See, for example, Olesko, Kathryn M., Physics as a Calling: Discipline and Practice in the Königsberg Seminar for Phisics, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991, pp. 317365; Goodson, Ivor F., ‘Becoming a school subject’, in Goodson, Subject Knowledge: Readings for the Study of School Subjects, London: Routledge, 1998, pp. 2037; Stichweh, Rudolf, ‘La structuration des disciplines dans les universités allemandes au XIX e siècle’, Histoire de l’éducation (1994) 62, pp. 5573; Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory, ‘Nature, not books: scientists and the origins of the nature-study movement in the 1890s’, Isis (2005) 96, pp. 324352.

26 Deputy José Alexandre de Campos discourse in the parliament (Câmara dos Senhores Deputados), on 12 May 1843, Diário da Câmara dos Senhores Deputados, pp. 178–187, at http://debates.parlamento.pt.

27 Deputy José Alexandre de Campos discourse in the parliament (Câmara dos Senhores Deputados), on 11 May 1843, Diário da Câmara dos Senhores Deputados, pp. 168–173, at http://debates.parlamento.pt.

28 Decreto de 17 de Novembro de 1836, Diário do Governo n.° 275/1836.

29 Decreto de 17 de Novembro de 1836, Diário do Governo n.° 275/1836.

30 Simon, Bertomeu-Sánchez and García-Belmar, op. cit. (9), p. 168. On this issue see also Donnelly, James F., ‘The “humanist” critique of the place of science in the curriculum in the nineteenth century, and its continuing legacy’, History of Education (2002) 31, pp. 535555.

31 Arts. 53, 63 and 64, Decreto de 17 de Novembro de 1836, Diário do Governo n.° 275/1836.

32 Art. 68, Decreto de 17 de Novembro de 1836, Diário do Governo n.° 275/1836. This is the only decree that refers to an experimental garden.

33 Art. 82, Decreto de 10 de Abril de 1860, Diário de Lisboa n.° 133/1860.

34 Art. 84, Decreto de 31 de Março de 1873, Diário do Governo n.° 77/1873.

35 Carta de Lei de 14 de Junho de 1880, Diário do Governo n.° 138/1880.

36 Edital (s.d.), Diário do Governo n.° 122/1856.

37 Portaria (s.d.), Diário do Governo n.° 241/1880.

38 Art. 42, Decreto de 12 de Agosto de 1886, Diário do Governo n.° 195/1886.

39 Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (hereafter ANTT), Consulta do Conselho Superior de Instrução Pública (CSIP) sobre a criação da cadeira de ‘Princípios de física e química, e introdução à história natural’ no Liceu de Ponta Delgada, com data de 5 de Dezembro de 1854 (MR, M 3502); ANTT, Consulta do CSIP sobre o meio de comprar utensílios para a cadeira de ‘Princípios de física e química, e introdução à história natural’ no Liceu de Ponta Delgada, com data de 19 de Junho de 1855 (MR, M 3502); ANTT, Nota do CSIP com a relação dos utensílios necessários para a de cadeira princípios de física e química, e introdução à história natural no Liceu de Ponta Delgada, com data de 2 de Outubro de 1855 (MR, M 3502); Carlos Beato, ‘Os liceus e as ciências (1836–1860): Um estudo sobre o processo de criação das disciplinas de ciências físicas e naturais nos liceus portugueses’, PhD thesis, Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa, 2011, p. 392; Inês Gomes, ‘Os Museus Escolares de História Natural: Análise Histórica e Perspectivas de Futuro (1836–1975)’, PhD thesis, Faculdade de Ciências, Lisbon, 2014, pp. 126–129; Inês Gomes, ‘The scientific heritage of Portuguese secondary schools: a historical approach’, Paedagogica Historica (2017), at https://doi.org/10.1080/00309230.2017.1409771.

40 Kohler, Robert E., ‘Lab history: reflections’, Isis (2008) 99, pp. 761768, 762.

41 ANTT, Minuta da consulta, Relatório, e Projectos de Reforma da Instrução Primária e Secundária, com data de 3 de Dezembro de 1838 (MR, M 3499). On the difficulties of implementing the 1836 decree see also, for example, ANTT, Esclarecimentos do Conselho Geral Director do Ensino Primário e Secundário aos quesitos apresentados pelo deputado Roque Joaquim Fernandez Thomaz nas Cortes, com data de 16 e Fevereiro de 1838 (MR, M 2127).

42 do Ó, Jorge Ramos, O governo de si mesmo: modernidade pedagógica e encenações disciplinares do aluno liceal (último quartel do século XIX – meados do século XX), Lisbon: Educa, 2003, pp. 208224.

43 Barroso, João, ‘A influência do regime de classes na organização pedagógica e na administração do Liceu’, in Fernandes, Rogério and Magalhães, Justino (eds.), Para a história do ensino liceal em Portugal: Actas dos colóquios do I° Centenário da reforma de Jaime Moniz, Braga: Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências da Educação/Centro de Estudos em Educação e Psicologia, 1999, pp. 1636, 18.

44 See Proença, Maria Cândida, A Reforma de Jaime Moniz: Antecedentes e Destino Histórico, Lisbon: Edições Colibri, 1997, pp. 173244, 363–369.

45 Studies done by Jaime Moniz, prior to the preparation of the reform of 1894–1895, were published in 1919 by the State Department of Public Instruction, allowing us to understand in depth the pedagogical thinking of the author. Moniz, Jaime, Estudos de ensino Secundário, Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional, 1919. In Germany the aims of secondary education were not simply to prepare students for higher education. Its objectives were much broader and in that context the teaching of the different disciplines was valued not only for the knowledge and skills that were taught but for the mental faculties that the various disciplines, as a whole, allowed to develop. This led Moniz to defend so vehemently the regime of classes as opposed to the regime by disciplines that prevailed in Portugal, making the system of Portuguese secondary education particularly disorganized. Ramos do Ó, op. cit. (42), pp. 228–229.

46 Valente, Vasco Pulido, O Estado liberal e o ensino: Os liceus portugueses (1834–1930), Lisbon: Gabinete de Investigações Sociais, 1973, p. 64.

47 Nóvoa, António, Barroso, João and do Ó, Jorge Ramos, ‘O todo poderoso Império do Meio’, in Nóvoa, António and Santa-Clara, Ana Teresa (eds.), ‘Liceus de Portugal’: Histórias, Arquivos, Memórias, Porto: Asa, 2003, pp. 1773, 36–37; do Ó, Jorge Ramos, Ensino liceal (1836–1975), Lisbon: Secretaria-geral do Ministério da Educação, 2009, pp. 89, 43; and Bento Cavadas, ‘A evolução dos manuais escolares de Ciências Naturais do ensino secundário em Portugal 1836–2005’, PhD thesis, Facultad de Educación, Universidad de Salamanca, 2008, p. 257. On this reform see Proença, op. cit. (44); and Ramos do Ó, op. cit. (42), pp. 224–275.

48 Nóvoa, Barroso and Ramos do Ó, op. cit. (47), p. 37.

49 Ramos do Ó, op. cit. (42), pp. 230, 252–260.

50 Decreto de 22 de Dezembro de 1894, Diário do Governo n.° 292/1894.

51 Decreto de 14 de Setembro de 1895, Diário do Governo n.° 208/1895.

52 In this regard see Rosenthal, Dorothy B. and Bybee, Rodger W., ‘Emergence of the biology curriculum: a science of life or a science of living’, in Popkewitz, Thomas S. (ed.), The Formation of the School Subjects: The Struggle for Creating an American Institution, New York: The Falmer Press, 1987, pp. 123144, 132. In 1926 and 1927, syllabi used terms such as ‘biological sciences’ and ‘geological sciences’ rather than ‘natural sciences’. For the use of different terminologies in science teaching see also Goodson, Ivor, ‘História de uma Disciplina Escolar: As Ciências’, in Goodson, A Construção Social do Currículo, Lisbon: Educa, 1997, pp. 5378, 66.

53 Decreto de 14 de Setembro de 1895, Diário do Governo n.° 208/1895.

54 Decreto de 14 de Setembro de 1895, Diário do Governo n.° 208/1895.

55 Decreto de 14 de Setembro de 1895, Diário do Governo n.° 208/1895.

56 Arquivo da Universidade de Coimbra, Processo do Professor Paulino de Oliveira – Carta enviada pela DGIP ao director do Museu de Coimbra, Manuel Paulino d'Oliveira, a 11 de Março de 1896.

57 ANTT, Correspondência entre a Universidade de Coimbra e a DGIP ao longo de 1898 (MR M 3806 (processo 12 e 73); M 3809 (processo 393); M 3810 (processo 778)); Gomes, ‘The scientific heritage of Portuguese secondary schools’, op. cit. (39), pp. 144–146.

58 Decreto de 29 de Agosto de 1905, Diário do Governo n.° 194/1905.

59 Pestana, Alicia, La educación en Portugal, Madrid: Junta para Amparo de Estudios y Investigaciones Científicas, 1915, p. 73.

60 Art. 5, Decreto de 29 de Agosto de 1905, Diário do Governo n.° 194/1905.

61 Art. 3, Decreto de 29 de Agosto de 1905, Diário do Governo n.° 194/1905.

62 Art. 6, Decreto de 29 de Agosto de 1905, Diário do Governo n.° 194/1905. Subsequent reforms even detailed the number of hours per week that should be assigned to practical teaching.

63 Art. 39, Decreto de 29 de Agosto de 1905, Diário do Governo n.° 194/1905.

64 Decreto n.° 3, de 3 de Novembro de 1905, Diário do Governo n.° 250/1905.

65 Declaração do Ministério da Educação Nacional, Diário do Governo n.° 278/1937, I Série.

66 Art. 202, Decreto n.° 36:508, de 17 de Setembro de 1947, Diário do Governo n.° 216/1947, I Série.

67 Pimentel, Guilherme F., ‘A propósito das provas práticas de ciências naturais dos exames do 7.° ano’, Labor (1953) 132, pp. 632635.

68 Arquivo da Secretaria Geral do Ministério da Educação, Notas de requisição da Comissão de Reapetrechamento das Escolas Superiores e Secundárias.

69 Costa, Maria Joaquina Prates, ‘A observação no ensino das ciências naturais do 2.° ciclo. Exemplificação com um plano de lição’, Palestra (1959–1960) 7, pp. 184186.

70 As ciências naturais no campo da investigação, elaboração e montagem de laboratórios’, Palestra (1966–1967) 29, pp. 81105.

71 Gomes, ‘Os Museus Escolares de História Natural’, op. cit. (39), pp. 53–66; Gomes, ‘The scientific heritage of Portuguese secondary schools’, op. cit. (39), pp. 144–146.

72 Gires, Francis (ed.), L'Empire des sciences … naturelles: Cabinets d'histoire naturelle des lycées impériaux de Périgueux & Angoulême, Niort: ASEISTE, 2013, pp. 145347; Martínez, José Damián López (ed.), Las ciencias en la escuela: El material científico y pedagógico de la Escuela Normal de Murcia, Murcia: edit.um, 2012.

73 Carvalho, op. cit. (3), p. 651.

74 Carvalho, op. cit. (3), p. 682.

75 Portaria n.° 230, de 21 de Setembro de 1914, Diário do Governo n.° 171/1914, I Série.

76 Decreto n.° 896, de 26 de Setembro de 1914, Diário do Governo n.° 175/1914, I Série.

77 Art. 1, Portaria n.° 239, de 26 de Setembro de 1914, Diário do Governo n.° 175/1914, I Série.

78 Art. 2, Portaria n.° 239, de 26 de Setembro de 1914, Diário do Governo n.° 175/1914, I Série.

79 Art. 3, Portaria n.° 239, de 26 de Setembro de 1914, Diário do Governo n.° 175/1914, I Série.

80 Art. 4, Portaria n.° 239, de 26 de Setembro de 1914, Diário do Governo n.° 175/1914, I Série.

81 Art. 9, Portaria n.° 239, de 26 de Setembro de 1914, Diário do Governo n.° 175/1914, I Série.

82 Goodson, ‘História de uma Disciplina Escolar’, op. cit. (52).

83 Rudolph, John L., ‘Turning science to account: Chicago and the general science movement in secondary education, 1905–1920’, Isis (2005) 96, pp. 353389, 353. See also Jenkins, Edgar W., ‘Science, sentimentalism or social control? The nature study movement in England and Wales, 1899–1914’, History of Education: Journal of the History of Education Society (1981) 10, pp. 3343; Sánchez, José Ramón Bertomeu and Castel, Josep Simon, ‘Viejos objetos y nuevas perspectivas historiográficas: la cultura material de la ciencia en las aulas del siglo XIX’, in López-Ocón, Leoncio, Aragón, Santiago and Pedrazuela, Mario (eds.), Aulas con memoria: Ciencia, educación y patrimonio en los institutos históricos de Madrid (1837–1936), Madrid: CEIMES/Doce Calles/Comunidad de Madrid, 2012, pp. 6163; Dewey, John, ‘Science as subject matter and as method’, Science (1910) 31, pp. 121127.

84 Ruiz-Castel, Pedro, ‘Scientific instruments for education in early twentieth-century Spain’, Annals of Science (2008) 65, pp. 519527, 522; Armstrong, Henry Edward, The Teaching of Science Method and Other Papers on Education, London: Macmillan, 1903, p. 237, cited in Bertomeu Sánchez and Simon Castel, op. cit. (83), p. 61; Jenkins, Edgar W., ‘Some sources for the history of science education in the twentieth century, with particular reference to secondary schools’, Studies in Science Education (1980) 7, pp. 2786, 36–38.

85 Hulin, Nicole, ‘La conception de l'enseignment de la physique dans la réforme de 1902’, in Hulin (ed.), Physique et humanités scientifiques: Autour de la réforme de l'enseignement de 1902. Etudes et documents, Villeneuve d'Ascq: Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 2000, pp. 2943, 35; Belhoste, Bruno, ‘L'enseignement secondaire français et les sciences au début du XXe siècle: La réforme de 1902 des plans d’études et des programmes’, Revue d'histoire des sciences (1990) 43, pp. 371400.

86 Jenkins, op. cit. (84), pp. 44–46.

87 López-Ocón, Leoncio, ‘Introducción: Reflexiones sobre la modernidad en las aulas de bachillerato en el primer tercio del siglo xx’, in López-Ocón (ed.), Aulas modernas: Nuevas perspectivas sobre las reformas de la enseñanza secundaria en la época de la JAE (1907–1939), Madrid: Universidad Carlos III, 2014, pp. 946, 22.

88 López-Ocón, op. cit. (87); Leoncio López-Ocón, ‘La importancia de una circular de 1906 para el equipa-miento científico de los institutos’, in Actas de las VIII Jornadas de la Asociación nacional para la defensa del patrimonio de los institutos históricos. Badajoz 2–4 mayo 2014, at https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B34YLF1irl09S0dsLWVuWlNNNjA/edit, accessed 10 October 2017.

89 Arquivo da Secretaria-geral do Ministério da Educação, Inventários enviados pelos liceus à Direcção Geral do Ensino Secundário em resposta a circular de 4 de Agosto de 1928, DGEL Série 23; Cx. 1751 (Livro 11, n.° 918).

90 Universities should provide their museums and laboratories for secondary-education teachers wishing to improve their technical knowledge to better carry out their new duties: Art. 6, Portaria n.° 239, de 26 de Setembro de 1914, Diário do Governo n.° 175/1914, I Série.

91 Decreto n.° 16:362, de 14 de Janeiro de 1929, Diário do Governo n.° 11/1929, I Série.

92 Decreto n.° 16:362, de 14 de Janeiro de 1929, Diário do Governo n.° 11/1929, I Série.

93 Gomes, opera cit. (39); Catarina Leal, ‘Na Sombra da História Natural: O Ensino Liceal das Ciências Biológicas e Geológicas (1895–1954)’, MSc thesis, Universidade de Lisboa, 2007; Teresa Salomé Mota, ‘História do ensino da geologia em Portugal: análise dos manuais do ensino liceal no Estado Novo (1947–1974)’, MSc thesis, Universidade do Minho, Braga, 2001.

94 Fox and Weisz, op. cit. (17), p. 1.

95 Carolino, op. cit. (12) , p. 409.

96 Ramos do Ó, op. cit. (42), pp. 165–173.

97 ANTT, Consulta do Conselho Geral Director do Ensino Primário e Secundário, com data de 10 de Julho de 1840 (MR, M 3499).

98 João Fernandes, ‘Analysing activities in the Portuguese secondary schools’ Science Learning Studios’, PhD thesis, Almada, FCT-UNL, 2017, pp. 27–64.

99 Fernandes, op. cit. (98), pp. 227–284, esp. 281–282.

100 Fernandes, op. cit. (98), p. 284.

101 Fernandes, op. cit. (98), p. 282.

102 Edital (s.d.), Diário do Governo n.° 122/1856.

103 Decreto de 14 de Setembro de 1895, Diário do Governo n.° 208/1895.

104 See, for instance, Candeias, António, ‘Primeira República Portuguesa (1910–1926): educação, ruptura e continuidade, um balanço crítico’, in Martins, Ernesto Candeias (ed.), Actas do V Encontro Ibérico de História da Educação: Renovação Pedagógica, Coimbra: Alma Azul, 2005, pp. 161192.

105 Leal, op. cit. (93), p. 81.

106 Arquivo Histórico do Colégio Militar, Relatório do director da sexta classe relativo ao ano lectivo de 1925–1926; Relatório sobre o funcionamento das aulas de ciências naturais da sexta classe de ciências, pelo professor Botelho de Medeiros, relativo ao ano lectivo de 1931–1932.

107 Leal, op. cit. (93), pp. 80–84.

108 Lourenço, Marta C. and Dias, José Pedro Sousa, ‘“Time capsules” of science: museums, collections, and scientific heritage in Portugal’, Isis (2017) 108, pp. 390398, 395–397.

109 Lourenço and Dias, op. cit. (108).

This work was funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (uid/his/00286/2013). I also acknowledge the fellowships awarded (sfrh/bd/ 47653 /2008). I would like to thank Isabel Zilhão, who read the manuscript and made many comments and suggestions. This paper also benefited greatly from the discussion with Marta Lourenço, Teresa Salomé Mota, Melanie Keene and Leoncio López-Ocón Cabrera.

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BJHS Themes
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