1Goldmann, E, Galea, S. Mental health consequences of disasters. Annu Rev Public Health 2014; 35: 169–83.
2Norris, FH, Friedman, MJ, Watson, PJ. 60,000 disaster victims speak: part II. Summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry 2002; 65: 240–60.
3Norris, FH. Disaster research methods: past progress and future directions. J Trauma Stress 2006; 19: 173–84.
4Galea, S. The long-term health consequences of disasters and mass traumas. CMAJ 2007; 176: 1293–4.
5Hull, AM, Alexander, DA, Klein, S. Survivors of the Piper Alpha oil platform disaster: long-term follow-up study. Br J Psychiatry 2002; 181: 433–8.
6Arnberg, FK, Hultman, CM, Michel, P-O, Lundin, T. Fifteen years after a ferry disaster: clinical interviews and survivors’ self-assessment of their experience. Eur J Psychotraumatol 2013; 4: 10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.20650.
7Boe, HJ, Holgersen, KH, Holen, A. Mental health outcomes and predictors of chronic disorders after the North Sea oil rig disaster: 27-year longitudinal follow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis 2011; 199: 49–54.
8McFarlane, AC, Van Hooff, M. Impact of childhood exposure to a natural disaster on adult mental health: 20-year longitudinal follow-up study. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 195: 142–8.
9Kristensen, P, Heir, T, Herlofsen, PH, Langsrud, Ø, Weisæth, L. Parental mental health after the accidental death of a son during military service: 23-year follow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis 2012; 200: 63–8.
10Thoits, PA. Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. JHSB 2011; 52: 145–61.
11Santini, ZI, Koyanagi, A, Tyrovolas, S, Mason, C, Haro, JM. The association between social relationships and depression: a systematic review. J Affect Disord 2015; 175: 53–65.
12Ozer, EJ, Best, SR, Lipsey, TL, Weiss, DS. Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 2003; 129: 52–73.
13Brewin, CR, Andrews, B, Valentine, JD. Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000; 68: 748.
14Kaniasty, K, Norris, FH. Longitudinal linkages between perceived social support and posttraumatic stress symptoms: sequential roles of social causation and social selection. J Trauma Stress 2008; 21: 274–81.
15Shallcross, SL, Arbisi, PA, Polusny, MA, Kramer, MD, Erbes, CR. Social causation versus social erosion: comparisons of causal models for relations between support and PTSD symptoms. J Trauma Stress 2016; 29: 167–75.
16Thoresen, S, Birkeland, MS, Wentzel-Larsen, T, Blix, I. Loss of trust may never heal. Institutional trust in disaster victims in a long-term perspective: associations with social support and mental health. Front Psychol 2018; 9: 1204.
17Thoresen, S, Myhre, M, Wentzel-Larsen, T, Aakvaag, HF, Hjemdal, OK. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population. Eur J Psychotraumatol 2015; 6: 10.3402/ejpt.v6.26259.
18Derogatis, LR, Lipman, RS, Rickels, K, Uhlenhuth, EH, Covi, L. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): a self-report symptom inventory. Behav Sci 1974; 19: 1–15.
19Tambs, K, Moum, T. How well can a few questionnaire items indicate anxiety and depression? Acta Psychiatr Scand 1993; 87: 364–7.
20Strand, BH, Dalgard, OS, Tambs, K, Rognerud, M. Measuring the mental health status of the Norwegian population: a comparison of the instruments SCL-25, SCL-10, SCL-5 and MHI-5 (SF-36). Nord J psychiatry 2003; 57: 113–8.
21Joseph, S, Williams, R, Yule, W. Crisis support, attributional style, coping style, and post-traumatic symptoms. Pers Individ Diff 1992; 13: 1249–51.
22Cohen, J. Statistical power analysis. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 1992; 1: 98–101.
23Elklit, A, Andersen, LB. SCANDINAVIAN STAR. En undersøgelse af de fysiske, psykologiske og sociale eftervirkninger af en katastrofe (Danish) [Scandinavian Star. An Investigation into the Somatic, Psychological, and Social Consequences of a Disaster]. Psykologisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet, 1994.
24Elklit, A, Andersen, LB, Arctander, T. SCANDINAVIAN STAR. Anden del. De fysiske, psykologiske og sociale eftervirkninger 3½ år efter katastrofen (Danish). [Scandinavian Star. Second part. The somatic, psychological, and social consequences 3½ years after the disaster]. Psykologisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet, 1995.
25Arnberg, FK, Eriksson, NG, Hultman, CM, Lundin, T. Traumatic bereavement, acute dissociation, and posttraumatic stress: 14 years after the MS Estonia disaster. J Trauma Stress 2011; 24: 183–90.
26Green, BL, Lindy, JD, Grace, MC, Gleser, GC, Leonard, AC, Korol, M, et al. Buffalo Creek survivors in the second decade: stability of stress symptoms. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1990; 60: 43.
27Bonanno, GA. Loss, trauma, and human resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? Am Psychol 2004; 59: 20.
28Arnberg, FK, Hultman, CM, Michel, PO, Lundin, T. Social support moderates posttraumatic stress and general distress after disaster. J Trauma Stress 2012; 25: 721–7.
29Birkeland, MS, Hansen, MB, Blix, I, Solberg, Ø, Heir, T. For whom does time heal wounds? Individual differences in stability and change in posttraumatic stress after the 2011 Oslo bombing. J Trauma Stress 2017; 30: 19–26.
30Birkeland, MS, Knatten, CK, Hansen, MB, Hem, C, Heir, T. Long-term relationships between perceived social support and posttraumatic stress after the 2011 Oslo bombing: a three-year longitudinal study. J Affect Disord 2016; 202: 230–5.
31Charuvastra, A, Cloitre, M. Social bonds and posttraumatic stress disorder. Annu Rev Psychol 2008; 59: 301.
32Birkeland, MS, Nielsen, MB, Hansen, MB, Knardahl, S, Heir, T. Like a bridge over troubled water? A longitudinal study of general social support, colleague support, and leader support as recovery factors after a traumatic event. Eur J Psychotraumatol 2017; 8: 1302692.
33Nickerson, A, Creamer, M, Forbes, D, McFarlane, A, O'Donnell, M, Silove, D, et al. The longitudinal relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and perceived social support in survivors of traumatic injury. Psychol Med 2017; 47: 115–26.
34Kessler, RC, Price, RH, Wortman, CB. Social factors in psychopathology: stress, social support, and coping processes. Annu Rev Psychol 1985; 36: 531–72.
35Clapp, JD, Beck, JG. Understanding the relationship between PTSD and social support: the role of negative network orientation. Behav Res Ther 2009; 47: 237–44.
36Davis, RC, Brickman, E, Baker, T. Supportive and unsupportive responses of others to rape victims: effects on concurrent victim adjustment. Am J Community Psychol 1991; 19: 443–51.
37Shevlin, M, McElroy, E, Murphy, J. Loneliness mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology: evidence from the adult psychiatric morbidity survey. Soc Psychiatr Psychiatr Epidemiol 2015; 50: 591–601.
38Blix, I, Kanten, AB, Skogbrott Birkeland, M, Thoresen, S. Imagining what could have happened: types and vividness of counterfactual thoughts and the relationship with posttraumatic stress reactions. Front Psychol 2018; 9: 515.
39Thoresen, S, Jensen, TK, Wentzel-Larsen, T, Dyb, G. Social support barriers and mental health in terrorist attack survivors. J Affect Disord 2014; 156: 187–93.
40Smith, AJ, Felix, ED, Benight, CC, Jones, RT. Protective factors, coping appraisals, and social barriers predict mental health following community violence: a prospective test of social cognitive theory. J Trauma Stress 2017; 30: 245–53.
41Dyregrov, K. Micro-sociological analysis of social support following traumatic bereavement: unhelpful and avoidant responses from the community. Omega 2004; 48: 23–44.
42Hussain, A, Weisaeth, L, Heir, T. Nonresponse to a population-based postdisaster postal questionnaire study. J Trauma Stress 2009; 22: 324–8.
43Stene, LE, Dyb, G. Research participation after terrorism. An open cohort study of survivors and parents after the 2011 Utøya attack in Norway. BMC Res Notes 2016; 9: 57.
44Bos, CK, Ullberg, S, Hart, P. The long shadow of disaster: memory and politics in Holland and Sweden. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters 2005; 23: 5–26.