Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Retrospective parental assessment of childhood neurodevelopmental problems: the use of the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in adults

  • Tove Lugnegård (a1) and Susanne Bejerot (a2)

Abstract

Background

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism are increasingly recognised in adults. For a diagnostic evaluation, parental information on childhood development is needed. However, no instruments that retrospectively describe neurodevelopmental problems in childhood are validated for evaluating adults. The 181-item parent-report questionnaire Five to Fifteen (FTF) is nevertheless frequently used for assessments in adulthood.

Aims

To examine if FTF is reliable for obtaining retrospective neurodevelopmental history among young adults.

Method

Details of parents who had assessed their children with the FTF for neuropsychiatric evaluation were retrieved and they were asked to complete the FTF again 10–19 years later. Agreements between original and retrospective scorings were analysed.

Results

Long-term reliability for FTF varies considerably between individual items. Several difficulties are reported as more severe at the retrospective scoring than at the original scoring. A selection of 24 items (FTF-Brief) with good agreement over time, is presented for use in adult psychiatry settings.

Conclusion

Neuropsychiatric symptoms may fluctuate over time and become more prominent when demands increase. Informants' recollections of their child's neurodevelopmental symptoms may be a selection of symptoms that are longstanding rather than present at a specific age in childhood.

Declaration of interest

None.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Retrospective parental assessment of childhood neurodevelopmental problems: the use of the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Retrospective parental assessment of childhood neurodevelopmental problems: the use of the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Retrospective parental assessment of childhood neurodevelopmental problems: the use of the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in adults
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence: Susanne Bejerot, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Campus USÖ, SE-70182 Örebro, Sweden. Email: susanne.bejerot@oru.se

References

Hide All
1Polyzoi, M, Ahnemark, E, Medin, E, Ginsberg, Y. Estimated prevalence and incidence of diagnosed ADHD and health care utilization in adults in Sweden - a longitudinal population-based register study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018; 14: 1149–61.
2Xu, G, Strathearn, L, Liu, B, Yang, B, Bao, W. Twenty-year trends in diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children and adolescents, 1997-2016. JAMA Network Open 2018; 1: e181471.
3Brugha, TS, Spiers, N, Bankart, J, Cooper, S-A, McManus, S, Scott, FJ, et al. Epidemiology of autism in adults across age groups and ability levels. Br J Psychiatry 2016; 209: 498503.
4Deberdt, W, Thome, J, Lebrec, J, Kraemer, S, Fregenal, I, Ramos-Quiroga, JA, et al. Prevalence of ADHD in nonpsychotic adult psychiatric care (ADPSYC): a multinational cross-sectional study in Europe. BMC Psychiatry 2015; 15: 242.
5Ryden, E, Bejerot, S. Autism spectrum disorders in an adult psychiatric population: a naturalistic cross-sectional controlled study. Clin Neuropsychiatry 2008; 5: 1321.
6American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 (5th edn). American Psychiatric Association, 2013.
7World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: ICD-10 (2nd edn). World Health Organization, 2004.
8Barkley, RA, Fischer, M, Smallish, L, Fletcher, K. The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 2002; 111: 279–89.
9Möricke, E, Buitelaar, JK, Rommelse, NNJ. Do we need multiple informants when assessing autistic traits? The degree of report bias on offspring, self, and spouse ratings. J Autism Dev Disord 2016; 46: 164–75.
10Kadesjö, B, Janols, L-O, Korkman, M, Mickelsson, K, Strand, G, Trillingsgaard, A, et al. The FTF (Five to Fifteen): the development of a parent questionnaire for the assessment of ADHD and comorbid conditions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004; 13 (Suppl 3): 313.
11Korkman, M, Jaakkola, M, Ahlroth, A, Pesonen, AE, Turunen, MM. Screening of developmental disorders in five-year-olds using the FTF (Five to Fifteen) questionnaire: a validation study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004; 13 (Suppl 3): 31–8.
12Trillingsgaard, A, Damm, D, Sommer, S, Jepsen, JRM, Østergaard, O, Frydenberg, M, et al. Developmental profiles on the basis of the FTF (Five to Fifteen) questionnaire. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004; 13 (Suppl 3): 3963.
13Landis, JR, Koch, GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 1977; 33: 159–74.
14Kooij, JJS, Boonstra, AM, Swinkels, SHN, Bekker, EM, de Noord, I, Buitelaar, JK. Reliability, validity, and utility of instruments for self-report and informant report concerning symptoms of ADHD in adult patients. J Atten Disord 2008; 11: 445–58.
15Sibley, MH, Pelham, WE Jr, Molina, BSG, Gnagy, EM, Waxmonsky, JG, Waschbusch, DA, et al. When diagnosing ADHD in young adults emphasize informant reports, DSM items, and impairment. J Consult Clin Psychol 2012; 80: 1052–61.
16Du Rietz, E, Cheung, CH, McLoughlin, G, Brandeis, D, Banaschewski, T, Asherson, P, et al. Self-report of ADHD shows limited agreement with objective markers of persistence and remittance. J Psychiatr Res 2016; 82: 91–9.
17Mörstedt, B, Corbisiero, S, Bitto, H, Stieglitz, RD. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood: concordance and differences between self- and informant perspectives on symptoms and functional impairment. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0141342.
18Souchay, C, Guillery-Girard, B, Pauly-Takacs, K, Wojcik, DZ, Eustache, F. Subjective experience of episodic memory and metacognition: a neurodevelopmental approach. Front Behav Neurosci 2013; 7: 212.
19Skodzik, T, Holling, H, Pedersen, A. Long-term memory performance in adult ADHD. J Atten Disord 2017; 21: 267–83.
20Miller, CJ, Newcorn, JH, Halperin, JM. Fading memories: retrospective recall inaccuracies in ADHD. J Atten Disord 2010; 14: 714.
21Mannuzza, S, Klein, RG, Klein, DF, Bessler, A, Shrout, P. Accuracy of adult recall of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 1882–8.
22Billstedt, E, Gillberg, IC, Gillberg, C. Autism in adults: symptom patterns and early childhood predictors. Use of the DISCO in a community sample followed from childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2007; 48: 1102–10.
23Taylor, JL, Seltzer, MM. Changes in the autism behavioral phenotype during the transition to adulthood. J Autism Dev Disord 2010; 40: 1431–46.
24Noren Selinus, E, Molero, Y, Lichtenstein, P, Anckarsater, H, Lundstrom, S, Bottai, M, et al. Subthreshold and threshold attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in childhood: psychosocial outcomes in adolescence in boys and girls. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2016; 134: 533–45.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Open
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2056-4724
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-open
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Lugnegård and Bejerot supplementary material
Lugnegård and Bejerot supplementary material 1

 Unknown (209 KB)
209 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Lugnegård and Bejerot supplementary material
Lugnegård and Bejerot supplementary material 2

 PDF (182 KB)
182 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Retrospective parental assessment of childhood neurodevelopmental problems: the use of the Five to Fifteen questionnaire in adults

  • Tove Lugnegård (a1) and Susanne Bejerot (a2)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *