Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Jesuit and gentleman planter: Ingle’s rebellion and the litigation of Thomas Copley S.J.

  • Helen Kilburn (a1)

Abstract

Father Thomas Copley S.J. (d. 1652) was born in Madrid in 1595/6 to an exiled English Catholic family. He joined the Maryland mission in 1637 under the alias Philip Fisher. In 1645 in the midst of the English Civil War, Richard Ingle, captain of the Reformation and under the authority of a Parliamentary Letter of Marque, plundered Maryland. Ingle, who mostly pursued wealthy Catholics, brought to England under arrest the Jesuit priests Thomas Copley and Andrew White on charges related to the legislation, An Act Against Jesuits, Seminary Priests and Other Such Disobedient Persons (1585). This article examines the proceedings of the High Court of Admiralty and the High Court of Chancery that relate to Ingle’s Rebellion (1645-1646). In particular, it examines the methods employed by Fr. Copley not only to escape execution but also to pursue Richard Ingle for damages to property and person. It therefore delineates the intersections between national allegiance, civil rights, and confessional adherence in Catholic and non-Catholic imaginations in both England and her empire. Importantly, this case study illustrates how English Jesuits navigated and used an immature English imperial jurisprudence to their advantage.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Jesuit and gentleman planter: Ingle’s rebellion and the litigation of Thomas Copley S.J.
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Jesuit and gentleman planter: Ingle’s rebellion and the litigation of Thomas Copley S.J.
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Jesuit and gentleman planter: Ingle’s rebellion and the litigation of Thomas Copley S.J.
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Footnotes

Hide All
*

I would like to thank my supervisor Dr. Natalie Zacek, as well as the attendees of the EMBIC Conference (2017) organised by Durham University and University of Notre Dame, and the Transatlantic Conversations Workshop (2018) organised by The Obama Institute and the Society of Early Americanists for their valuable feedback in the early stages of writing this article. I would also like to thank a number of organisations for their support of this research: the English Catholic History Association through the ECHA grant; the Maryland Historical Society through the Lord Baltimore Fellowship, the Catholic Record Society through the David Rogers Research Fund and the PhD Studentship in British and Irish Catholic History; and the Andrew C. Duncan Catholic History Trust.

Footnotes

References

Hide All

1 Cecil Calvert (1605-1675) and his siblings were raised in the Church of England until his father’s conversion to Catholicism in 1625. The former was educated at Trinity College at Oxford University before marrying the daughter of Sir Thomas Arundel of Wardour, Anne Arundel (d. 1649) in 1629. Calvert never travelled to Maryland and governed by proxy from England. See: ‘Calvert, Cecilius, 2nd Lord Baltimore (1605-1675),’ A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature 1635-1789, in Edward C. Papenfuse, Alan F. Day, David W. Jordan, and Gregory A. Stiverson, eds. Archives of Maryland Online (hereafter AOMOL), 426: 186-87.

2 Little is known of Richard Ingle (c. 1609-1653). He lived in Stepney, Middlesex and in 1642 claimed that he had been trading tobacco for ten years although he is first recorded as a master of ship in 1639. See, Riordan, Timothy B., The Plundering Time: Maryland and the English Civil War 1645-1646 (Baltimore, MD: The Maryland Historical Society, 2004), 28-29.

3 Riordan, The Plundering Time, 163, 199-200, 201-202, 291-292, 329-330.

4 Leonard Calvert (c. 1606-1647) led the expedition to Maryland in 1633 as the colony’s first governor. In March 1634 he and a small number of colonists made landfall at St. Clements Island on Maryland’s lower western shore. He returned to England in 1641/1642 and again in 1643/1644 during which time he fathered two children by Anne Brent (?-?). ‘Calvert, Leonard (c. 1606-1647),’ A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature 1635-1789, Papenfuse et. al., in AOMOL, 426: 190.

5 Riordan, The Plundering Time, 133-135.

6 Giles Brent (c.1600-1671/72) arrived in Maryland in 1638 as a free emigrant with his siblings Margaret (1601-1671), Mary (?-1658), and Fulke (?-1656). He married Mary Kittamaquund the daughter of the Piscataway Tayac (Chief) following her family’s conversion to Roman Catholicism. The Brents migrated to Virginia c. 1649. Brent held the position of acting governor during Leonard Calvert’s absence in England in 1641/1642 and 1643/44. See: ‘Brent, Giles, (c.1600-1671/72)’, A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature 1635-1789, Papenfuse et. al., in AOMOL, 426: 161-162. John Lewgar (1602-1665) was a Catholic convert and former Church of England minster. He immigrated to Maryland with his family in 1634. Between 1637 and 1648 he was Secretary of the colony. Alongside Jerome Hawley (1590-1638), Lewgar co-authored A Brief Relation of Maryland (1634/5) to attract colonists to Maryland. After the death of his wife, Lewgar took Holy Orders and died as Lord Baltimore’s chaplain in London in 1665. See: ‘Lewgar, John (1602-1665),’ A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature 1635-1789, Papenfuse et. al., in AOMOL, 426: 533. Cuthbert Fenwick (1614-1655) arrived in Maryland from Virginia as an indentured servant of Thomas Cornwaleys, most likely as his attorney. By 1637/1638 he was free and by 1650 an independent planter engaged in local politics, and a supporter of the Cornwaleys and Jesuit faction who unsuccessfully challenged Lord Baltimore to provide for the Roman Catholic Church in Maryland. See: ‘Fenwick, Cuthbert, (1614-1675),’ A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature 1635-1789, Papenfuse et. al., in AOMOL, 426: 319.

7 Thomas Copley (1596-1652) [alias Philip Fisher] was the eldest son of William Copley of Gatton and born in exile in Madrid. He trained at Liège, Louvain and Ghent and gained experience on the English mission at the House of Probation of St. Ignatius in Clerkenwell, London. He arrived as superior of the Maryland mission in 1637. See: Edward Spillane (ed.), ‘Philip Fisher,’ The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909), 6: 83-84; Thomas McCoog, ed., ‘Philip Fisher,’ English and Welsh Jesuits 1555-1650, Part 1: A-F, Catholic Record Society Series, 74 (1995), 169-170. Andrew White (c. 1579-1656) was born in London in 1579, educated at the English College of Saint Albans in Valladolid, Spain, and later at the English College of Seville. He continued his studies at Douai, France, where he was ordained about 1605. He joined the English mission intended to reinstitute Catholicism in England, but was apprehended and exiled in 1606, following the Gunpowder Plot. White then joined the Society of Jesus and took up professorships of scriptural studies and theology in Louvain, Liège and Lisbon. On 25th March 1634, he landed at St. Clement’s Island in Maryland. White died in England in 1656, having been refused by the English Provincial, Edward Knott, to return to Maryland due to ill health. See: Thomas McCoog, ed., ‘Andrew White,’ English and Welsh Jesuits 1555-1650, Part 2: G-Z, Catholic Record Society Series, 75 (1995), 329-330.

8 ‘Examination of Henry Stockton,’ Answer 17, [5 August 1645], section K, in Cornwaleys vs. Ingle, Examinations, High Court of Admiralty, HCA 13/60, The National Archives (TNA). Kew, London.

9 Thomas Cornwaleys (c. 1605-1675/1676) was a member of the English Catholic gentry who immigrated to Maryland in 1633/1634. He was the most important investor in the colony outside of the Lord Baltimore’s immediate family. Cornwaleys was an active merchant in tobacco and ‘Indian trade’ and often returned to England. His estate in Maryland was vast and he transported at least seventy-one indentured servants between 1643 and 1651. See: ‘Cornwaleys (Cornwallis), Thomas (ca. 1605-1675/6)’, A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature 1635-1789, Papenfuse et. al, in AOMOL, 426: 234-235.

10 Riordan, The Plundering Time, 111-115.

11 Ibid., 3-5.

12 Ibid., 243-244.

13 For recent scholarship on English anti-Catholicism see: Questier, Michael, ‘Loyalty, Religion and State Power in Early Modern England: English Romanism and the Jacobean Oath of Allegiance,’ The Historical Journal 40,2 (1997): 311-329 ; Shell, Alison, Catholicism, Controversy and the English Literary Imagination, 1588-1660 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999) ; Marotti, Arthur F., ed., Catholicism and Anti-Catholicism in Early Modern English Texts (Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, 1999) ; Wiener, Carol Z., ‘The Beleaguered Isle: A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism,’ Past & Present 51 (1971): 27-62 .

14 For the scholarship of the ‘Protestant Empire’ see: Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707–1837 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992) ; Gardinia Pestana, Carla, Protestant Empire: Religion and the Making of the British Atlantic World (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009) ; Sutto, Antoinette, Loyal Protestants & Dangerous Papists: Maryland and the Politics of Religion in the English Atlantic 1630–1690 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015) ; Block, Kristen, Ordinary Lives in the Early Caribbean: Religion, Colonial Competition, and the Politics of Profit (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2012) ; Games, Alison, The Web of Empire: English Cosmopolitans in an Age of Expansion, 1560-1660 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2008) ch. 7 ; Glickman, Gabriel, ‘Protestantism, Colonization, and the New England Company in Restoration Politics,’ The Historical Journal 59,2 (2016): 365-391 .

15 Suranyi, Anna, The Genius of the English Nation: Travel Writing and National Identity in Early Modern England (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008), 50 .

16 Duffy, Eamon, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England 1400-1580, 2nd edn. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005), 11-22 , 53-68, 91-95; Walsham, Alexandra, The Reformation of the Landscape: Religion, Identity, and Memory in Early Modern Britain and Ireland (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 3 .

17 McClain, Lisa, Lest We Be Damned: Practical Innovation and Lived Experience among Catholics in Protestant England, 1559-1642 (London: Routledge, 2004), 3 ; Walsham, Alexandra, Church Papists: Catholicism, Conformity and Confessional Polemic in Early Modern England (Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1993), 10-11 , 13-14, 95, 118. The Jesuits became so closely aligned with the malignant ‘papist’ image in popular discourse that even English Catholics questioned whether the Jesuit mission did more harm than good to their cause. This division amongst Catholics led to the Appellant Controversy (1598-1602) and the Blackloist Conspiracy (1649). See: McCoog, Thomas, The Society of Jesus in Ireland, Scotland, and England, 1598-1606: Lest Our Lamp Be Entirely Extinguished (Leiden: Brill, 2017), 11 ; Tutino, Stefania, Thomas White and the Blackloists: Between Politics and Theology during the English Civil War (Abingdon: Routledge, 2017), 57-78 ; Questier, Michael, Catholicism and Community in Early Modern England: Politics, Aristocratic Patronage and Religion, c. 1550-1640 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 296 , 298, 299, 340, 432.

18 Shepard, Alexandra, Accounting for Oneself: Worth, Status, and the Social Order in Early Modern England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 140-141 .

19 Clive Emsley, Tim Hitchcock and Robert Shoemaker, ‘London History - Currency, Coinage and the Cost of Living,’ Old Bailey Proceedings Online. https://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Coinage.jsp [Accessed 19/11/2018].

20 Shepard, Accounting for Oneself, 141.

21 ‘An Act Concerning Religion,’ [1649] in AOMOL, 1: 244-247, 245.

22 Now digitised as an open access database, the Archives of Maryland Online (AOMOL).

23 Alexandra Walsham, Charitable Hatred: Tolerance and Intolerance in England 1500-1700 (Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 2006), 2-4.

24 For example, On Tuesday 1 May 1666, Edward Erbery was arraigned by the General Assembly in St. Mary’s City, Maryland for having called ‘the whole howse Papists, Rogues, Turdy rogues, &c.’ and also called the lower house ‘a Company of turdy fellowes… & [who] were ashamed of the place from whence wee came.’ Erbery claimed that he had been drunk on the night in question and did not remember having ever said that of which he was accused. He was condemned to suffer thirty-nine lashes, after which the sheriff was to return him to the Assembly, where he would ‘publickly… aske them forgiuness.’ ‘Trial of Edward Erbery’ [May 1666], in AOMOL, 2: 55-56. [Accessed 24/09/2018]. See also: Nuesse, C. J., ‘Social Thought among American Catholics in the Colonial Period,’ The American Catholic Sociological Review 7, (1946): 43-52 ; Graham, Michael,’Popish Plots: Protestant Fears in Early Colonial Maryland, 1676-1689,’ The Catholic Historical Review 79 (1993): 197-216 ; Stanwood, Owen, ‘The Protestant Moment: Antipopery, the Revolution of 1688-1689, and the Making of an Anglo-American Empire,’ Journal of British Studies 46 (2007): 481-508 .

25 ‘An Act to prevent the Growth of Popery within this Province,’ [3rd October 1704] in AOMOL, 26: 340.

26 George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore (c. 1580-1632) was born in Kipling, Yorkshire to an established Roman Catholic family. He and his father converted to Anglicanism after their conviction for recusancy in 1580. Calvert attended Trinity College at Oxford and became a prominent statesman allied to Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury (1563-1612). Calvert obtained his barony in 1624 when he left the service of King James I after failing to secure the Spanish Match and having announced his reconversion to Roman Catholicism. See John D. Krugler, ‘Calvert, George, First Baron Baltimore, (1579/80-1632), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (hereafter ODNB) (May 2010). https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/4420 [Accessed 25/01/2019]. For the terms of the Maryland Charter see: ‘The Charter of Maryland: 1632,’ in AOMOL, 549: 13.

27 David Armitage, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 63.

28 Braddick, Michael J., State Formation in Early Modern England, c. 1550-1700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 337, 345-346 ; Hirst, Derek, Dominion: England and Its Island Neighbours, 1500-1707 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 12, 144-146 .

29 Armitage, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire, 68; Gabriel Glickman, ‘A British Catholic Community? Ethnicity, Identity and Recusant Politics, 1660-1750,’ in James Kelly and Susan Royal eds. Early Modern English Catholicism: Identity, Memory and Counter-Reformation, 60-81 at 63.

30 Armitage, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire, 24-25; Canny, Nicholas P., The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: A Pattern Established 1565-76 (Hassocks: Harvester Press, 1976), 50-51 , 63-65, 75-80 and ch. 6.

31 Alan Orr, D., Treason and the State: Law, Politics, and Ideology in the English Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 73 .

32 ‘An Act for the Settling of Ireland,’ [August 1652] Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660, ed. C. H. Firth, and R. S. Rait (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1911), 598-603. British History Online (BHO) http://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/acts-ordinances-interregnum/pp598-603. [Accessed 01/10/2018].

33 Wells, Jennifer, ‘English Law, Irish Trials and Cromwellian State Building in the 1650s,’ Past & Present, 227 (2015): 80 , 89-90.

34 Ibid., 81.

35 Ibid., 89.

36 Ibid., 89-90.

37 Washburn, Wilcomb E., ‘The Moral and Legal Justifications for Dispossessing the Indians,’ in James Morton Smith, ed. Seventeenth-Century America: Essays in Colonial History (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959), 15 ; Wells, ‘English Law, Irish Trials and Cromwellian State Building in the 1650s’, 85.

38 Armitage, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire, 24.

39 Krugler, John, English and Catholic: The Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004), 122-123 ; Thornton, Tim, ‘The Palatinate of Durham and the Maryland Charter,’ The American Journal of Legal History 45,3 (2001): 235-255 at 242-244 ; Martinez, Albert J. Jr., ‘The Palatinate Clause of the Maryland Charter, 1632-1776: From Independent Jurisdiction to Independence’, The American Journal of Legal History 50, 3 (2008-2010): 305-325 at 305-307.

40 Sir Edmund Plowden (c. 1591-1659) was born into a recusant family and was the grandson of the renowned legal scholar and author of Plowden’s Commentaries, Edmund Plowden (c. 1518-1585) who served as treasurer of the Middle Temple between 1566 and 1572. See, Edward C. Carter and Clifford Lewis, ‘Sir Edmund Plowden and the New Albion Charter, 1632-1785,’ The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 83, 2 (1959): 150–179 at 150-151.

41 The Irish and English Privy Councils were both established in the 13th century and provided the link between the executive and Parliament. However, the authority of the Irish Privy Council was limited in comparison to its English counterpart. See Stanbridge, Karen, Toleration and State Institutions: British Policy towards Catholics in Eighteenth Century Ireland and Quebec (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2003), 36, 42 .

42 Roper, L. H., ‘New Albion: Anatomy of an English Colonisation Failure, 1632–1659Itinerario 32, 1: 39-57 .

43 The Committee for Compounding with Delinquents was established alongside the Sequestration Committee in 1643 with the purpose of raising funds for Parliament by allowing Royalists to compound (pay a fine) for the return of their sequestered estates. See Roper, ‘New Albion’, 42; Carter II, Edward C. and Lewis III, Clifford, ‘Sir Edmund Plowden and the New Albion Charter, 1632-1785 ,’ The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 83, 2 (1959): 150-179 ,

p. 170; Manganiello, Stephen C., The Concise Encyclopaedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 1639-1660 (Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2004), 125 .

44 27 Eliz.1, c. 2 (1585). See Henry Bettenson and Chris Maunder, eds. Documents of the Christian Church, 4th ed (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 257-259 at 258.

45 ‘St. Henry Morse (1595-1645)’ in Joseph N. Tylenda, Jesuit Saints & Martyrs: Short Biographies of the Saints, Blessed, Venerables, and Servants of God of the Society of Jesus (Chicago: Loyola Press, 1998), 22-30.

46 Bettenson and Maunder, Documents of the Christian Church, 258.

47 Ibid., 259.

48 Peter Lake and Michael Questier, ‘Margaret Clitherow, Catholic Nonconformity, Martyrology and the Politics of Religious Change in Elizabethan England,’ Past and Present 185 (2004): 43-90 at 44-45.

49 Orr, Treason and the State, ch. 1, 11.

50 25 Edward III, 5, c. 2.

51 Orr, Treason and the State, 15.

52 General Archives S.J., Anglia, Historia, iv., 125-140, 857-864: a MS. draft in the handwriting of H. More, 863-864, [1645] reprinted in Thomas Hughes S.J., History of the Society of Jesus in North America: Colonial and Federal, 1, pt. 1 [Documents] (London: Longmans, Green, 1908), 125-126. More’s account of the Copley and White trial was omitted from the published version of Historia Missionis Anglicanae. c.f.: Henry More SJ, Historia Missionis Anglicanae Societatis Iesu, ab Anno Salutis, MDLXXX. ad DCXIX. et. Vice-Provinciae primum, tum Provinciae, ad ejusdem saeculi annum XXXV. Collectore Henrico Moro, ejusdem Societatis Sacerdote. Audomari: typis Thomae Geubels MDCLX. (St. Omers, 1660). The account is also extant in a redaction made by Father Nathaniel Southwell from the More MS. See: General Archives S.J., Anglia, Historia, iii. f. 227, 228, [1645].

53 John Bollandus S.J., Antwerp, ‘Extract from a letter,’ [1 March 1648], General Archives SJ, Anglia, Necrologia reprinted in Hughes S.J., History of the Society of Jesus in North America 1, pt. 1 [Documents]: 128.

54 Thomas Hughes S.J., History of the Society of Jesus in North America: Colonial and Federal 1 [Text] (London: Longman, Green, 1908), 367-368.

55 Ibid., 367.

56 ‘Court and Testamentary Business ‘[1648-9], in AOMOL (Maryland State Archives Publication Series, 1999) 4: 479. http://aomol.msa.maryland.gov/html/index.html [Accessed 03/12/2018].

57 Kaplan, Benjamin, Divided by Faith: Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009), 185-188 . See also Matthew Lockwood’s work on the medieval roots of foreign privilege in English law: Lockwood, Matthew, “Love ye therefore the strangers’: Immigration and the Criminal Law in Early Modern England,” Continuity and Change 29, 3 (2014): 349-371 , 350-351. Other avenues of research that may prove informative are: the limits of royal privilege, especially in light of the suspension of Parliament under Charles I (1625-1649); and the legal process of applications for naturalization and denizenship.

58 For the English Catholic struggle to reconcile their faith with the Oath of Allegiance (1606) and the Oath of Supremacy (1559) which acknowledged the Sovereign as Supreme Governor of all matters spiritual and temporal, see: Michael Questier, ‘Loyalty, Religion and State Power in Early Modern England: English Romanism and the Jacobean Oath of Allegiance,’ The Historical Journal 40, 2 (1997): 311-329 at 314-316; Tutino, Thomas White and the Blackloists, esp. chs. 3 and 4.

59 ‘Thomas Copley to Lord Baltimore’ [3 April 1638], The Calvert Papers 1, [S.l.] (The Maryland Historical Society (Dec. 1888). Reprint. (London: Forgotten Books, 2015), 162.

60 ‘Act Against Jesuits and Seminarists’ (1585) in Bettenson and Maunder, eds., Documents of the Christian Church, 250-261.

61 An Act for meinteing the Lord Proprietaries Title to the Lands of this Province [19 March 1638/9] AOMOL 1: 41-42 [Accessed 02/10/18]; Krugler, English and Catholic, 169-178; E. A Livingstone (ed.) ‘Mortmain,’ The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014) http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199659623.001.0001/acref-9780199659623-e-3923 [Accessed 02/10/2018]

62 Krugler, English and Catholic, 178.

63 ‘Libel of Thomas Copley and the Brents against the Reformation’ [1645] Libels, High Court of Admiralty, HCA 24/176, No. 205, NA.

64 For a transcription of the two inventories submitted as part of Copley and Brent’s libel, see Anon., ‘Richard Ingle in Maryland,’ Maryland Historical Society Magazine Vol. 1, No. 2 (1906) 124-141 at 139-140.

65 ‘Examinations of John Lewgar, Thomas Cornwaleys, and Giles Brent,’ Section K, in Cornwaleys vs. Ingle; Copley et al. vs. Ingle, Examinations, High Court of Admiralty, HCA 13/60, NA.

66 ‘Examination of Thomas Cornwaleys,’ Answer 10, [8 August 1645], Section K, in Copley et al. vs. Ingle, Examinations, High Court of Admiralty, HCA 13/60, NA.

67 ‘Cornwaleys vs. Ingle [1645],’ Examinations, Court of Chancery, C24 690/14, NA; Cornwaleys vs. Ingle [1645], Bills and Answers, Court of Chancery, C24 15/23, NA.

68 Riordan, Plundering Time, 254; Christopher Brooks and Michael Lobban, eds., Communities & Courts in Britain, 1150-1900 (London: A&C Black, 1997), 89.

69 “Capt. Ingle, who assisted the Protestants against the Papists in Maryland, Petition, to be relieved in Actions brought against him for it by Cornwallis & al,’ [24 February 1646] Journal of the House of Lords (JHL) 8, (1645-1647) (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1767-1830): 183-186. British History Online. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/lords-jrnl/vol8/pp183-186.

70 Answer of Richard Ingle to a libel of Thomas Cornwaleys and Alan Lane [31 July 1645] in Cornwaleys vs. Ingle, Answers, High Court of Admiralty, HCA 13/119, NA; ‘Capt. Ingle, who assisted the Protestants’ [24 February 1646], JHL 8 (1645-1647): 186; Durston, Gregory, The Admiralty Sessions, 1536-1834: Maritime Crime and the Silver Oar (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017), 206 .

71 Coates, Ben, The Impact of the English Civil War on the Economy of London, 1642-1650 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), 40 .

72 ‘Bill of Thomas Cornwaleys’ [22 August 1645] in Cornwaleys vs. Ingle, Bills and Answers, Court of Chancery, C24 15/23, NA; Examination of John Lewgar, Answer 14, [26 September 1645] in Cornwaleys vs. Ingle, Court of Chancery, Examinations, C24 690/14, NA.

73 Examination of John Lewgar, Answer 14, [26 September 1645] in C24 690/14, NA.

74 ‘Report from the Comtee of forraigne Plantacons cone Maryland.’ [1645] in AOMOL 3: 164.

75 ‘Answer of Richard Ingle to a libel of Thomas Copley et al.,’ Answer 11 [29 September 1645], Answers, High Court of Admiralty, HCA 13/119, NA.

76 Riordan, The Plundering Time, 215.

77 Examination of John Lewgar, Question 13, [26 September 1645] in C24 690/14, NA.

78 William Berkeley (1605-1677) was a member of the aristocracy and established church who governed Virginia from 1642 until his death in 1677. He was a courtier, adventurer, and even playwright but he best remembered for governing Virginia during Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676. See: Warren M. Billings, ‘Berkeley, Sir William’ (1605-1677), ONDB, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/2225. [Accessed 25/01/2019].

79 Anon., ‘Richard Ingle in Maryland’, 129-130; Riordan, The Plundering Time, 249.

80 Ordinance to indemnify Persons that shall reduce Maryland, [25 December 1645] in JHL 8, 1645-1647: 66-69; ‘Paper from the Committee for Plantations, about reducing Maryland; and for an Indemnification for Persons employed for that Service,’ [25 December 1645] in JHL 8, 1645-1647: 66-69; Ordinance for settling Maryland under the Command of Protestants, [24 February 1646] in JHL 8, 1645-1647:186; Ordinance for settling the Government of Maryland, [28 March 1646] in JHL 8, 1645-1647: 241-145; Ordinance about Maryland, [24 November 1646] in JHL 8, 1645-1647: 576-577; ‘L. Baltimore to be heard, about his Patent for Maryland,’ [28 November 1646] in JHL 8, 1645-1647: 581-583; ‘L. Baltimore’s Cause concerning Maryland,’ [22 Jan 1647] in JHL 8, 1645-1647: 682-684; ‘L. Baltimore’s Cause concerning Maryland,’ [23 Jan 1647] in JHL 8, 1645-1647: 684-685; ‘Maryland,’ [31 August 1652], in Journal of the House of Commons (JHC) 7 1651-1660 (London, 1802): 172-173. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/commons-jrnl/vol7/pp172-173 [Accessed 25 January 2019].

81 ‘Court and Testamentary Business’ [1649] in AOMOL 10: 211-13.

82 ‘L. Calvert to Lt. William Lewis,’ [1646] in AOMOL 3: 178-179. In 1651 Copley also reissued land patented to Cuthbert Fenwick in trust in 1641 to Fenwick again, but also to Ralph Crouch: ‘Certificate of Survey for St. Inigoes’ [1 October 1651], Land Office and Prerogative Court Records of Colonial Maryland, 1634-2012 (Patent Record), Liber AB&H, f. 173, The Maryland State Archives (MSA), Annapolis: MD.; ‘Patent for St. Inigoes’ [4 November 1651], Patents, Liber RRO, f. 8, MSA.

83 Krugler, English and Catholic, 182-183.

84 Fatovic, Clement, ‘The Anti-Catholic Roots of Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Freedom in English Political Thought,’ Journal of the History of Ideas 66, 1 (2005), 37-58 at 38-39.

* I would like to thank my supervisor Dr. Natalie Zacek, as well as the attendees of the EMBIC Conference (2017) organised by Durham University and University of Notre Dame, and the Transatlantic Conversations Workshop (2018) organised by The Obama Institute and the Society of Early Americanists for their valuable feedback in the early stages of writing this article. I would also like to thank a number of organisations for their support of this research: the English Catholic History Association through the ECHA grant; the Maryland Historical Society through the Lord Baltimore Fellowship, the Catholic Record Society through the David Rogers Research Fund and the PhD Studentship in British and Irish Catholic History; and the Andrew C. Duncan Catholic History Trust.

Keywords

Jesuit and gentleman planter: Ingle’s rebellion and the litigation of Thomas Copley S.J.

  • Helen Kilburn (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed