Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-tj2md Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-19T21:04:05.232Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Seasonal variation in vitamin D status of Japanese infants starts to emerge at 2 months of age: a retrospective cohort study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 August 2022

Keigo Takahashi
Affiliation:
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Saitama City Hospital, Saitama, Japan
Takeshi Arimitsu
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Kaori Hara-Isono
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Kazushige Ikeda*
Affiliation:
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Saitama City Hospital, Saitama, Japan
*
*Corresponding author: Dr K. Ikeda, fax +81 48 873 7982, email kazuiked@keio.jp

Abstract

Vitamin D seasonality has been reported in adults and children, suggesting that sunlight exposure has effects on 25(OH)D production. While vitamin D deficiency among infants has received significant attention, little is known about the extent to which vitamin D status during early infancy is affected by sunlight exposure. Here, we retrospectively analysed serum 25(OH)D levels of 692 samples obtained from healthy infants aged 1–2 months born at Saitama City Hospital, Japan (latitude 35·9° North) between August 2017 and September 2021. Data regarding the frequency of outdoor activities, formula intake and BMI were also collected and analysed. Month-to-month comparisons of vitamin D levels revealed significant variation in 25(OH)D levels in breastfed infants starting at 2 months, with maximal and minimal levels in September and January, respectively. An outdoor activity score of 0 was most common at 1 month (83·9 %) and a score of 3 was most common at 2 months (81·2 %), suggesting an increased amount of sunlight exposure at 2 months. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the amount of formula intake to be significantly associated with vitamin D status at both 1 (t = 17·96) and 2 months (t = 16·30). Our results comprise the first evidence that seasonal variation of vitamin D begins at 2 months among breastfed infants from East Asia, though dietary intake appears to be the major determinant of vitamin D status. These findings provide new insights into the influence of dietary and non-dietary factors on vitamin D status during early infancy.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Braegger, C, Campoy, C, Colomb, V, et al. (2013) Vitamin D in the healthy European paediatric population. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 56, 692701.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spiro, A & Buttriss, JL (2014) Vitamin D: an overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe. Nutr Bull 39, 322350.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ali, AA, Cui, X, Pertile, RAN, et al. (2020) Developmental vitamin D deficiency increases foetal exposure to testosterone. Mol Autism 11, 96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hibbs, AM, Ross, K, Kerns, LA, et al. (2018) Effect of vitamin D supplementation on recurrent wheezing in black infants who were born preterm: the D-Wheeze randomized clinical trial. JAMA 319, 20862094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zittermann, A, Schleithoff, SS & Koerfer, R (2005) Putting cardiovascular disease and vitamin D insufficiency into perspective. Br J Nutr 94, 483492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eyles, D, Burne, T & McGrath, J (2011) Vitamin D in fetal brain development. Semin Cell Dev Biol 22, 629636.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martineau, AR, Jolliffe, DA, Hooper, RL, et al. (2017) Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ 356, i6583.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holick, MF (2017) The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 18, 153165.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holick, MF (2018) Photobiology of vitamin D. In Vitamin D, vol. 2, pp. 4554 [Feldman, D, Pike, JW and Bouillon, R, editors]. London: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elsori, DH & Hammoud, MS (2018) Vitamin D deficiency in mothers, neonates and children. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 175, 195199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Misra, M, Pacaud, D, Petryk, A, et al. (2008) Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics 122, 398417.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jain, V, Gupta, N, Kalaivani, M, et al. (2011) Vitamin D deficiency in healthy breastfed term infants at 3 months & their mothers in India: seasonal variation & determinants. Indian J Med Res 133, 267273.Google ScholarPubMed
Ozcan, A, Kendirci, M, Kondolot, M, et al. (2017) Evaluation of vitamin D prophylaxis in 3–36-month-old infants and children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 30, 543549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wall, CR, Grant, CC & Jones, I (2013) Vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed infants aged 2–3 months. Arch Dis Child 98, 176179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Balk, SJ, Binns, HJ, Brumberg, HL, et al. (2011) Ultraviolet radiation: a hazard to children and adolescents. Pediatrics 127, e791e817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ando, E, Morisaki, N, Asakura, K, et al. (2018) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels showed strong seasonality but lacked association with vitamin D intake in 3-year-old Japanese children. Br J Nutr 120, 10341044.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ono, Y, Suzuki, A, Kotake, M, et al. (2005) Seasonal changes of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels in a normal Japanese population. J Bone Miner Metab 23, 147151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shibata, M, Suzuki, A, Sekiya, T, et al. (2011) High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in pregnant Japanese women with threatened premature delivery. J Bone Miner Metab 29, 615620.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tomimoto, K & Kinjou, M (2018) Assessment of vitamin D sufficiency in breastfed infants in one area in northern Japan. J Jpn Pediatr Soc 122, 15631571.Google Scholar
Hara, K, Ikeda, K, Koyama, Y, et al. (2018) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels of 1-month-old term infants in Tokyo using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Acta Paediatr 107, 532533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
David, F (2018) Relevant lab values in adults and children. In Vitamin D: Biochemistry, Physiology and Diagnostics, vol. 1, xxxvii [D Feldman, editor]. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (2012) An Evaluation Manual of Growth and Development during Infancy. https://www.niph.go.jp/soshiki/07shougai/hatsuiku/index.files/katsuyou.pdf (accessed January 2022).Google Scholar
Japan Meteorological Agency (2020) Average values of meterological parameters in Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. https://www.data.jma.go.jp/obd/stats/etrn/view/nml_sfc_ym.php?prec_no=44&block_no=47662 (accessed January 2022).Google Scholar
Japan Meterological Agency (2020) Average values of meterological parameters in Saitama, Tokyo, Japan. https://www.data.jma.go.jp/obd/stats/etrn/view/nml_amd_ym.php?prec_no=43&block_no=0363&year=&month=&day=&view= (accessed January 2022).Google Scholar
Zakharova, I, Klimov, L, Kuryaninova, V, et al. (2019) vitamin D insufficiency in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Front Endocrinol 10, 103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hara, K, Ikeda, K, Koyama, Y, et al. (2018) Comparison of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in infants and postpartum women. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 31, 11051111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, C, Curtis, EM, Moon, RJ, et al. (2018) Consequences of perinatal vitamin D deficiency on later bone health. In Vitamin D: Biochemistry, Physiology and Diagnostics, vol. 1, pp. 709726 [Feldman, D, editor]. London: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, PS, Bates, CJ, Cole, TJ, et al. (1999) Vitamin D: seasonal and regional differences in preschool children in Great Britain. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 195198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasahara, AK, Singh, RJ & Noymer, A (2013) Vitamin D (25OHD) serum seasonality in the United States. PLOS ONE 8, e65785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saliba, W, Rennert, HS, Kershenbaum, A, et al. (2012) Serum 25(OH)D concentrations in sunny Israel. Osteoporos Int 23, 687694.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saadi, HF, Nagelkerke, N, Benedict, S, et al. (2006) Predictors and relationships of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentration with bone turnover markers, bone mineral density, and vitamin D receptor genotype in Emirati women. Bone 39, 11361143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsugawa, N, Nishino, M, Kuwabara, A, et al. (2021) Comparison of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in human breast milk between 1989 and 2016–2017. Nutrients 13, 573.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lagunova, Z, Porojnicu, LC, Lindberg, F, et al. (2009) The dependency of vitamin D status on body mass index, gender, age and season. Anticancer Res 29, 37133720.Google ScholarPubMed
Strucińska, M, Rowicka, G, Dyląg, H, et al. (2015) Dietary intake of vitamin D in obese children aged 1–3 years. Rocz Państwowego Zakładu Hig 66, 353360.Google ScholarPubMed