1Brand-Miller, J, Hayne, S, Petocz, P, et al. (2003) Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 26, 2261–2267.
2Asp, NG, Van Amelsvoort, JMM & Hautvast, JGJ (1996) Nutritional implications of resistant starch. Nutr Res Rev 9, 1–31.
3Topping, DL & Clifton, PM (2001) Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiol Rev 81, 1031–1064.
4Brown, IL, McNaught, KJ & Moloney, E (1995) Hi-maize™: new directions in starch technology and nutrition. Food Aust 47, 272–275.
5Edwards, CA & Rowland, IR (1992) Bacterial fermentation in the colon and its measurement. In Dietary Fibre. A Component of Food, pp. 119–136 [Schweizer, TF and Edwards, CA, editors]. London: Springer Verlag.
6Nordgaard, I, Mortensen, PB & Langkilde, AM (1995) Small intestinal malabsorption and colonic fermentation of resistant starch and resistant peptides to short-chain fatty acids. Nutrition 11, 129–137.
7Weaver, GA, Krause, JA, Miller, TL, et al. (1992) Cornstarch fermentation by the colonic microbial community yields more butyrate than does cabbage fiber fermentation; cornstarch fermentation rates correlate negatively with methanogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 70–77.
8Cummings, JH, Beatty, ER, Kingman, SM, et al. (1996) Digestion and physiological properties of resistant starch in the human large bowel. Br J Nutr 75, 733–747.
9Langkilde, AM, Champ, M & Andersson, H (2002) Effects of high-resistant-starch banana flour (RS(2)) on in vitro fermentation and the small-bowel excretion of energy, nutrients, and sterols: an ileostomy study. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 104–111.
10Clarke, JM, Bird, AR, Topping, DL, et al. (2007) Excretion of starch and esterified short-chain fatty acids by ileostomy subjects after the ingestion of acylated starches. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1146–1151.
11Van Soest, JJG, Tournois, H, deWit, D, et al. (1995) Short-range structure in (partially) crystalline potato starch determined with attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy. Carbohydr Res 279, 201–214.
12Sevenous, O, Hill, SE, Farhat, IA, et al. (2002) Organisation of the external region of the starch granules as determined by infrared spectroscopy. Int J Biol Macromol 31, 79–85.
13Htoon, A, Shrestha, AK, Flanagan, BM, et al. (2009) Effects of processing high amylose maize starches under controlled conditions on structural organisation and amylose digestibility. Carbohydr Polym 75, 236–245.
14Hoover, R (2001) Composition, molecular structure, and physicochemical properties of tuber and root starches: a review. Carbohydr Polym 45, 253–267.
15Tester, RF, Karkalas, J & Qi, X (2004) Starch-composition, fine structure and architecture. J Cereal Sci 39, 151–165.
16Shi, YC, Capitani, T, Trzasko, P, et al. (1998) Molecular structure of a low-amylopectin starch and other high-amylose maize starches. J Cereal Sci 27, 289–299.
17Cairns, P, Morris, VJ, Botham, RL, et al. (1996) Physicochemical studies on resistant starch in vitro and in vivo. J Cereal Sci 23, 265–275.
18Liu, Q, Charlet, G, Yelle, S, et al. (2002) Phase transition in potato starch–water system I. Starch gelatinization at high moisture level. Food Res Int 35, 397–407.
19Symonds, EL, Kritas, S, Omari, TI, et al. (2004) A combined 13CO2/H2 breath test can be used to assess starch digestion and fermentation in humans. J Nutr 134, 1193–1196.
20Champ, MM, Molis, C, Flourie, B, et al. (1998) Small-intestinal digestion of partially resistant cornstarch in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 705–710.
21Morita, T, Kasaoka, S, Hase, K, et al. (1999) Psyllium shifts the fermentation site of high-amylose cornstarch toward the distal colon and increases fecal butyrate concentration in rats. J Nutr 129, 2081–2087.
22Botham, RL, Cairns, P, Faulks, RM, et al. (1997) Physicochemcial characterisation of barley carbohydrates resistant to digestion in a human ileostomate. Cereal Chem 74, 29–33.
23Faisant, N, Champ, M, Colonna, P, et al. (1993) Structural features of resistant starch at the end of the human small intestine. Eur J Clin Nutr 47, 285–296.
24Faisant, N, Buleon, A, Colonna, P, et al. (1995) Digestion of raw banana starch in the small intestine of healthy humans: structural features of resistant starch. Br J Nutr 73, 111–123.
25Faisant, N, Gallant, DJ, Bouchet, B, et al. (1995) Banana starch breakdown in the human small intestine studied by electron microscopy. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 98–104.
26Noakes, M, Clifton, PM, Nestel, PJ, et al. (1996) Effect of high-amylose starch and oat bran on metabolic variables and bowel function in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 944–951.
27Le Leu, RK, Brown, IL, Hu, Y, et al. (2003) Effect of resistant starch on genotoxin-induced apoptosis, colonic epithelium, and lumenal contents in rats. Carcinogenesis 24, 1347–1352.
28Brown, IL (2004) Applications and uses of resistant starch. J AOAC Int 87, 727–732.
29Bird, AR, Vuaran, M, Brown, I, et al. (2007) Two high-amylose maize starches with different amounts of resistant starch vary in their effects on fermentation, tissue and digesta mass accretion, and bacterial populations in the large bowel of pigs. Br J Nutr 97, 134–144.
30Schweizer, TP, Anderson, H, Langkilde, AM, et al. (1990) Nutrients excreted in ileostomy effluents after consumption of mixed diets with beans or potatoes. II. Starch, dietary fibre and sugars. Eur J Clin Nutr 44, 567–575.
31Noah, L, Guillon, F, Bouchet, B, et al. (1998) Digestion of carbohydrate from white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in healthy humans. J Nutr 128, 977–985.
32Rehman, Zia-ur, Salariya, AM & Zafar, SI (2001) Effect of processing on available carbohydrate content and starch digestibility of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem 73, 351–355.
33Fleming, SE, Fitch, MD & Chansler, MW (1989) High-fiber diets: influence on characteristics of cecal digesta including short-chain fatty acid concentrations and pH. Am J Clin Nutr 50, 93–99.
34Topping, DL, Illman, RJ, Clarke, JM, et al. (1993) Dietary fat and fiber alter large bowel and portal venous volatile fatty acids and plasma cholesterol but not biliary steroids in pigs. J Nutr 123, 133–143.
35Morita, T, Kasaoka, S, Ohhashi, A, et al. (1998) Resistant proteins alter cecal short-chain fatty acid profiles in rats fed high amylose cornstarch. J Nutr 128, 1156–1164.
36Berry, CS (1986) Resistant starch: formation and measurement of starch that survives exhaustive digestion with amylolytic enzymes during the determination of dietary fibre. J Cereal Sci 4, 301–314.
37Bird, AR, Brown, IL & Topping, DL (2000) Starches, resistant starches, the gut microflora and human health. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 1, 25–37.
38Parker, R & Ring, SG (2001) Aspects of the physical chemistry of starch. J Cereal Sci 34, 1–17.
39Shamai, K, Bianco-Peled, H & Shimoni, E (2003) Polymorphism of resistant starch type III. Carbohydr Polym 54, 363–369.
40Eerlingen, RC & Delcour, JA (1995) Formation, analysis, structure and properties of type III enzyme resistant starch. J Cereal Sci 22, 129–138.
41Goodfellow, BJ & Wilson, RH (1990) A Fourier transform IR study of the gelation of amylose and amylopectin. Biopolymers 30, 1183–1189.
42Gudmundsson, M & Eliasson, AC (1992) Comparison of thermal and viscoelastic properties of four waxy starches and the effect of added surfactant. Starch/Stärke 44, 379–385.
43Englyst, HN, Kingman, SM & Cummings, JH (1992) Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, Suppl. 2, S33–S50.
44Topping, DL, Morell, MK, King, RA, et al. (2003) Resistant starch and health – Himalya 292, a novel barley cultivar to deliver benefits to consumers. Starch/Stärke 55, 539–545.
45Ahmed, R, Bird, AR, Li, Z, et al. (2007) Bioengineering cereal carbohydrates to improve human health. Cereal Foods World 52, 182–187.