1 Key, TJ, Thorogood, M, Appleby, PN, et al. (1996) Dietary habits and mortality in 11 000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17 year follow up. BMJ 313, 775–779.
2 Steinmetz, KA & Potter, JD (1996) Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 1027–1039.
3 Dauchet, L, Amouyel, P & Dallongeville, J (2005) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Neurology 65, 1193–1197.
4 He, FJ, Nowson, CA & MacGregor, GA (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lancet 367, 320–326.
5 He, FJ, Nowson, CA, Lucas, M, et al. (2007) Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens 21, 717–728.
6 Lock, K, Pomerleau, J, Causer, L, et al. (2005) The global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables: implications for the global strategy on diet. Bull World Health Organ 83, 100–108.
7 Knekt, P, Kumpulainen, J, Järvinen, R, et al. (2002) Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 560–568.
8 McKeever, TM & Britton, J (2004) Diet and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170, 725–729.
9 Arts, ICW & Hollman, PCH (2005) Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 317S–325S.
10 Nestle, M (1999) Animal v. plant foods in human diets and health: is the historical record unequivocal? Proc Nutr Soc 58, 211–218.
11 Weisburger, JH (2002) Lifestyle, health and disease prevention: the underlying mechanisms. Eur J Cancer Prev 11, Suppl. 2, S1–S7.
12 Kang, JH, Ascherio, A & Grodstein, F (2005) Fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitive decline in aging women. Ann Neurol 57, 713–720.
13 Joseph, JA, Shukitt-Hale, B & Lau, FC (2007) Fruit polyphenols and their effects on neuronal signaling and behavior in senescence. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1100, 470–485.
14 Knopman, DS (2009) Mediterranean diet and late-life cognitive impairment: a taste of benefit. JAMA 302, 686–687.
15 Galli, RL, Shukitt-Hale, B, Youdim, KA, et al. (2002) Fruit polyphenolics and brain aging: nutritional interventions targeting age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits. Ann N Y Acad Sci 959, 128–132.
16 Ortega, RM, Requejo, AM, Andres, P, et al. (1997) Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 803–809.
17 Huijbregts, PP, Feskens, EJ, Räsänen, L, et al. (1998) Dietary patterns and cognitive function in elderly men in Finland, Italy and The Netherlands. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 826–831.
18 Lee, L, Kang, SA, Lee, HO, et al. (2001) Relationships between dietary intake and cognitive function level in Korean elderly people. Public Health 115, 133–138.
19 Polidori, MC, Pratico, D, Mangialasche, F, et al. (2009) High fruit and vegetable intake is positively correlated with antioxidant status and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. J Alzheimers Dis 17, 921–927.
20 Sabia, S, Nabi, H, Kivimaki, M, et al. (2009) Health behaviors from early to late midlife as predictors of cognitive function: The Whitehall II study. Am J Epidemiol 170, 428–437.
21 Morris, MC, Evans, DA, Tangney, CC, et al. (2006) Associations of vegetable and fruit consumption with age-related cognitive change. Neurology 67, 1370–1376.
22 Hughes, TF, Andel, R, Small, BJ, et al. (2010) Midlife fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of dementia in later life in Swedish twins. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 18, 413–420.
23 Refsum, H, Nurk, E, Smith, AD, et al. (2006) The Hordaland Homocysteine Study: a community-based study of homocysteine, its determinants, and associations with disease. J Nutr 136, Suppl. 6, 1731S–1740S.
25 Bjartveit, K, Foss, OP, Gjervig, T, et al. (1979) The cardiovascular disease study in Norwegian counties: background and organization. Acta Med Scand 634, Suppl., 1–70.
26 Nurk, E, Drevon, CA, Refsum, H, et al. (2007) Cognitive performance among the elderly and dietary fish intake: the Hordaland Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1470–1478.
27 Kendrick, DC (1985) Kendrick Cognitive Tests for the Elderly. Windsor, UK: The NFER-NELSON Publishing Company Ltd.
28 Reitan, RM (1958) Validity of the trail making test as an indicator of organic brain damage. Percept Mot Skills 8, 271–276.
29 Wechsler, D (1981) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. New York, NY: The Psychological Corporation.
30 Folstein, MF, Folstein, SE & McHugh, PR (1975) ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12, 189–198.
31 Benton, A & Hamsher, K (1989) Multilingual Aphasia Examination. Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates.
32 Andersen, LF, Solvoll, K & Drevon, CA (1996) Very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids as biomarkers for intake of fish and n-3 fatty acid concentrates. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 305–311.
33 Nes, M, Andersen, LF, Solvoll, K, et al. (1992) Accuracy of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire applied in elderly Norwegian women. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, 809–821.
34 Nurk, E, Tell, GS, Vollset, SE, et al. (2002) Plasma total homocysteine and hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Arch Intern Med 162, 1374–1381.
35 Fiskerstrand, T, Refsum, H, Kvalheim, G, et al. (1993) Homocysteine and other thiols in plasma and urine: automated determination and sample stability. Clin Chem 39, 263–271.
36 Molloy, AM & Scott, JM (1997) Microbiological assay for serum, plasma, and red cell folate using cryopreserved, microtiter plate method. Methods Enzymol 281, 43–53.
37 Zigmond, AS & Snaith, RP (1983) The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 67, 361–370.
38 Bjelland, I, Dahl, AA, Haug, TT, et al. (2002) The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. An updated literature review. J Psychosom Res 52, 69–77.
39 Grant, WB (1999) Dietary links to Alzheimer's disease: 1999 update. J Alzheimers Dis 1, 197–201.
40 Smith, AP, Clark, R & Gallagher, J (1999) Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: effects on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function. Physiol Behav 67, 9–17.
41 Rahman, A, Baker, P, Allman, RM, et al. (2007) Dietary factors and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling elderly. J Nutr Health Aging 11, 49–54.
42 Jacobs, DR Jr, Meyer, HE & Solvoll, K (2001) Reduced mortality among whole grain bread eaters in men and women in the Norwegian County Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 137–143.
43 Prättälä, R, Helasoja, V & Mykkänen, H (2001) The consumption of rye bread and white bread as dimensions of health lifestyles in Finland. Public Health Nutr 4, 813–819.
44 Abu-Saad, K, Shai, I, Kaufman-Shriqui, V, et al. (2009) Bread type intake is associated with lifestyle and diet quality transition among Bedouin Arab adults. Br J Nutr 102, 1513–1522.
45 Mori, K, Inatomi, S, Ouchi, K, et al. (2009) Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 23, 367–372.
46 Kris-Etherton, PM, Hu, FB, Ros, E, et al. (2008) The role of tree nuts and peanuts in the prevention of coronary heart disease: multiple potential mechanisms. J Nutr 138, 1746S–1751S.
47 Ovesen, LF (2005) Øget indtag af grøntsager og frugt nedsœtter risikoen for iskœmisk hjertesygdom (Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of ischemic heart disease). Ugeskr Laeger 167, 2742–2747.
48 Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C, et al. (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 348, 2599–2608.
49 Smith, AD (2008) The worldwide challenge of the dementias: a role for B vitamins and homocysteine? Food Nutr Bull 29, Suppl. 2, S143–S172.
50 Pratico, D (2008) Evidence of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease brain and antioxidant therapy: lights and shadows. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1147, 70–78.
51 Nurk, E, Refsum, H, Drevon, CA, et al. (2009) Intake of flavonoid-rich wine, tea, and chocolate by elderly men and women is associated with better cognitive test performance. J Nutr 139, 120–127.
52 Brevik, A, Vollset, SE, Tell, GS, et al. (2005) Plasma concentration of folate as a biomarker for the intake of fruit and vegetables: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 434–439.
53 Lee, Y, Kim, J & Back, JH (2009) The influence of multiple lifestyle behaviors on cognitive function in older persons living in the community. Prev Med 48, 86–90.
54 Burns, A & Iliffe, S (2009) Alzheimer's disease. BMJ 338, b158.
55 Nurk, E, Refsum, H, Tell, GS, et al. (2005) Plasma total homocysteine and memory in the elderly: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Ann Neurol 58, 847–857.
56 Launer, LJ (2005) The epidemiologic study of dementia: a life-long quest? Neurobiol Aging 26, 335–340.
57 Whalley, LJ, Dick, FD & McNeill, G (2006) A life-course approach to the aetiology of late-onset dementias. Lancet Neurol 5, 87–96.