1Ferri CP, Prince M, Brayne C, et al. (2005) Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. Lancet 366, 2112–2117.
2Alzheimer's Association (2008) 2008 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement 4, 110–133.
3Petersen RC (2004) Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. J Intern Med 256, 183–194.
4Chertkow H, Nasreddine A, Joanette Y, et al. (2007) Mild cognitive impairment and cognitive impairment, no dementia: part A, concepts and diagnosis. Alzheimers Dement 3, 266–282.
5Mitchell AJ & Shiri-Feshki M (2009) Rate of progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia – meta-analysis of 41 robust inception cohort studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand 119, 252–265.
6Crook TH, Bartus RT, Ferris SH, et al. (1986) Age-associated memory impairment: proposed diagnostic criteria and measures of clinical change. Dev Neuropsychol 2, 261–276.
7Neilsen H, Lolk A & Kragh-Sorensen P (1998) Age-associated memory impairment – pathological memory decline or normal aging? Scand J Psychol 39, 33–37.
8Goldman WP & Morris JC (2001) Evidence that age-associated memory impairment is not a normal variant of aging. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 15, 72–79.
9Reid LM & MacLullich AMJ (2006) Subjective memory complaints and cognitive impairment in older people. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 22, 471–485.
10Saykin AJ, Wishart HA, Rabin LA, et al. (2006) Older adults with cognitive complaints show brain atrophy similar to that of amnestic MCI. Neurology 76, 834–842.
11Cotman CW (2000) . In The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research, pp. 114–143 [Stern P and Carstensen L, editors]. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
12Franceschi C, Capri M, Monti D, et al. (2007) Inflammaging and anti-inflammaging: a systematic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans. Mech Ageing Dev 128, 92–105.
13Giunta B, Fernandez F, Nilolic WV, et al. (2008) Inflammaging as a prodrome to Alzheimer's disease. J Neuroinflammation 5, 51–65.
14Ishige K, Schubert D & Sagar Y (2001) Flavonoids protect neuronal cells by three different mechanisms. Free Radic Biol Med 30, 433–446.
15Joseph JA, Arendash G, Gordon M, et al. (2003) Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer's disease model. Nutr Neurosci 6, 153–162.
16Olszanecki R, Gebska A, Kozlovski VI, et al. (2002) Flavonoids and nitric oxide synthase. J Physiol Pharm 53, 571–584.
17Conte A, Pellegrini S & Tagliazucchi D (2003) Synergistic protection of PC12 cells from β-amyloid toxicity by resveratrol and catechin. Brain Res Bull 62, 29–38.
18O'Byrne DJ, Devaraj S, Grundy SM, et al. (2002) Comparison of the antioxidant effects of Concord grape juice flavonoids and α-tocopherol on markers of oxidative stress in healthy adult. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1367–1374.
19Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ & Paganga G (1996) Structure–antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 20, 933–956.
20Mullin W, Marks SC & Crozier A (2007) Evaluation of phenolic compounds in commercial fruit juices and fruit drinks. J Agric Food Chem 55, 3148–3157.
21Singh M, Arseneault M, Sanderson T, et al. (2008) Challenges for research on polyphenols from foods in Alzheimer's disease: bioavailability, metabolism, and cellular and molecular mechanisms. J Agric Food Chem 56, 4855–4873.
22Youdim KA, Shukitt-Hale B & Joseph JA (2004) Flavonoids and the brain: interactions at the blood–brain barrier and their physiological effects on the central nervous system. Free Radic Biol Med 37, 1683–1693.
23Youdim KA, Qaiser MZ, Begley D, et al. (2004) Flavonoid permeability across an in situ model of the blood–brain barrier. Free Radic Biol Med 36, 592–604.
24Andres-Lacueva C, Shukitt-Hale B, Galli RL, et al. (2005) Anthocyanins in aged blueberry-fed rats are found centrally and may enhance memory. Nutr Neurosci 8, 111–120.
25Williams CM, El Moshen MA, Vauzour D, et al. (2008) Blueberry-induced changes in spatial working memory correlate with changes in hippocampal CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Free Radic Biol Med 45, 295–305.
26Chou EJ, Keevil JG, Aeschlimann S, et al. (2001) Effect of ingestion of purple grape juice on endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 88, 553–555.
27Freedman JE, Parker C, Li L, et al. (2001) Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation 103, 2792–2798.
28Kalaria RN (2000) The role of cerebral ischemia in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 21, 321–330.
29Rober AE, Garani Z, Alexandrov AV, et al. (2006) Interaction of cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration: transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and Alzheimer's disease. Neurol Res 28, 672–678.
30Skoog I & Gustafson D (2003) Hypertension, hypertension-clustering factors and Alzheimer's disease. Neurol Res 25, 675–680.
31Swan FE, Carmelli D & La Rue A (1998) Systolic blood pressure tracking over 25 to 30 years and cognitive performance in older adults. Stroke 29, 2334–2340.
32Dai Q, Bornstein AR, Wu Y, et al. (2006) Fruit and vegetable juices and Alzheimer's disease: The Kame Project. Am J Med 119, 751–759.
33Nurk E, Refsum H, Drevon CA, et al. (2009) Intake of flavonoid-rich wine, tea and chocolate by elderly men and women is associated with better cognitive test performance. J Nutr 139, 120–127.
34Letenneur L, Proust-Lima C, Le Gouge A, et al. (2007) Flavonoid intake and cognitive decline over a 10-year period. Am J Epidemiol 165, 1364–1371.
35Shukitt-Hale B, Carey A, Simon L, et al. (2006) Effects of Concord grape juice on cognitive and motor deficits in aging. Nutrition 22, 295–302.
36Krikorian R, Zimmerman ME & Fleck DE (2004) Inhibitory control in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brain Cogn 54, 257–259.
37Hughes CP, Berg L, Danziger WL, et al. (1982) A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 140, 566–572.
38Lynch CA, Walsh C, Blanco A, et al. (2006) The clinical dementia rating sum of box score in mild dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 21, 40–43.
39Willis LM, Shukitt-Hale B & Joseph JA (2009) Recent advances in berry supplementation and age-related cognitive decline. Cur Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12, 91–94.
40Delis DC, Kramer JH, Kaplan E, et al. (2000) California Verbal Learning Test, 2nd ed.San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.
41Krikorian R (1996) Independence of verbal and spatial paired associate learning. Brain Cogn 32, 219–223.
42Greenaway MC, Lacritz LH, Binegar D, et al. (2006) Patterns of verbal memory performance in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and normal aging. Cogn Behav Neurol 19, 79–84.
43Fowler KS, Saling MM, Conway EL, et al. (2001) Paired associate performance in the early detection of DAT. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 8, 58–71.
44Sahakian B, Downes J, Eagger S, et al. (1990) Sparing of attentional relative to mnemonic function in a subgroup of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Neuropsychologia 28, 1197–1213.
45Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, et al. (1983) Development and validation of a geriatric depresssion rating scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 17, 37–49.
46Sheeber LB, Sorensen ED & Howe SR (1996) Data analytic techniques for treatment outcome studies with pretest/posttest measurements: an extensive primer. J Psychiatr Res 30, 185–199.
47Cohen J (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed.New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
48Olin JT, Schneider LS, Eaton EM, et al. (1992) The Geriatric Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory as screening instruments in an older adult outpatient population. Psychol Assess 4, 190–192.
49Griffin WS (2008) Perispinal etanercept: potential as an Alzheimer therapeutic. J Neuroinflammation 5, 3.
50Tobinick EL & Gross H (2008) Rapid cognitive improvement in Alzheimer's disease following perispinal etanercept administration. J Neuroinflammation 5, 2.
51Shukitt-Hale B, Lau FC & Joseph JA (2008) Berry fruit supplementation and the aging brain. J Agric Food Chem 56, 636–641.
52Kalt W, Blumberg JB, McDonald JE, et al. (2008) Identification of anthocyanins in the liver, eye, and brain of blueberry-fed pigs. J Agric Food Chem 56, 705–712.
53Casadesus G, Shukitt-Hale B, Stellwagen HM, et al. (2004) Modulation of hippocampal plasticity and cognitive behavior by short-term blueberry supplementation in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci 7, 309–316.
54Martineau LC, Couture A, Spoor D, et al. (2006) Anti-diabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Phytomedicine 13, 612–623.
55Tsuda T (2008) Regulation of adipocyte function by anthocyanins: possibility of preventing the metabolic syndrome. J Agric Food Chem 56, 642–646.