Skip to main content

Cooked navy and black bean diets improve biomarkers of colon health and reduce inflammation during colitis

  • Claire Zhang (a1) (a2), Jennifer M. Monk (a1) (a2), Jenifer T. Lu (a1) (a2), Leila Zarepoor (a1) (a2), Wendy Wu (a1), Ronghua Liu (a1), K. Peter Pauls (a3), Geoffrey A. Wood (a4), Lindsay Robinson (a2), Rong Tsao (a1) and Krista A. Power (a1) (a2)...

Common beans contain non-digestible fermentable components (SCFA precursors) and phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins) with demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vivo effect of cooked whole-bean flours, with differing phenolic compound levels and profiles, in a mouse model of acute colitis. C57BL/6 mice were fed a 20 % navy bean or black bean flour-containing diet or an isoenergetic basal diet (BD) for 2 weeks before the induction of experimental colitis via 7 d dextran sodium sulphate (DSS, 2 % (w/v) in the drinking-water) exposure. Compared with the BD, both bean diets increased caecal SCFA and faecal phenolic compound concentrations (P< 0·05), which coincided with both beneficial and adverse effects on colonic and systemic inflammation. On the one hand, bean diets reduced mRNA expression of colonic inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-9, IFN-γ and IL-17A) and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 (P< 0·05), while systemically reduced circulating cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-17A, P< 0·05) and DSS-induced oxidative stress. On the other hand, bean diets enhanced DSS-induced colonic damage as indicated by an increased histological injury score and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 and FasL mRNA expression) (P< 0·05). In conclusion, bean-containing diets exerted both beneficial and adverse effects during experimental colitis by reducing inflammatory biomarkers both locally and systemically while aggravating colonic mucosal damage. Further research is required to understand the mechanisms through which beans exert their effects on colonic inflammation and the impact on colitis severity in human subjects.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cooked navy and black bean diets improve biomarkers of colon health and reduce inflammation during colitis
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cooked navy and black bean diets improve biomarkers of colon health and reduce inflammation during colitis
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cooked navy and black bean diets improve biomarkers of colon health and reduce inflammation during colitis
      Available formats
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Dr K. A. Power, fax +1 226 217 8183, email
Hide All
1 Bischoff, SC (2011) ‘Gut health’: a new objective in medicine? BMC Med 9, 24.
2 Cerf-Bensussan, N & Gaboriau-Routhiau, V (2010) The immune system and the gut microbiota: friends or foes? Nat Rev Immunol 10, 735744.
3 Zhu, Y, Michelle Luo, T, Jobin, C, et al. (2011) Gut microbiota and probiotics in colon tumorigenesis. Cancer Lett 309, 119127.
4 Sanz, Y, Santacruz, A & Gauffin, P (2010) Gut microbiota in obesity and metabolic disorders. Proc Nutr Soc 69, 434441.
5 Harris, K, Kassis, A, Major, G, et al. (2012) Is the gut microbiota a new factor contributing to obesity and its metabolic disorders? J Obes 2012, 879151.
6 Kelly, D & Mulder, IE (2012) Microbiome and immunological interactions. Nutr Rev 70, Suppl. 1, S18S30.
7 Dilis, V & Trichopoulou, A (2009) Nutritional and health properties of pulses. Mediterr J Nutr Metab 1, 149157.
8 Gebrelibanos, M, Tesfaye, D, Raghavendra, Y, et al. (2013) Nutritional and health implications of legumes. Int J Pharm Sci Res 4, 12691279.
9 Mathers, JC (2002) Pulses and carcinogenesis: potential for the prevention of colon, breast and other cancers. Br J Nutr 88, Suppl. 3, S273S279.
10 Finley, JW, Burrell, JB & Reeves, PG (2007) Pinto bean consumption changes SCFA profiles in fecal fermentations, bacterial populations of the lower bowel, and lipid profiles in blood of humans. J Nutr 137, 23912398.
11 Henningsson, AM, Nyman, EM & Bjorck, IM (2001) Content of short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut of rats fed processed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours varying in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates. Br J Nutr 86, 379389.
12 Hernandez-Salazar, M, Osorio-Diaz, P, Loarca-Pina, G, et al. (2010) In vitro fermentability and antioxidant capacity of the indigestible fraction of cooked black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.). J Sci Food Agric 90, 14171422.
13 Vergara-Castaneda, HA, Guevara-Gonzalez, RG, Ramos-Gomez, M, et al. (2010) Non-digestible fraction of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Bayo Madero suppresses colonic aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-induced rats. Food Funct 1, 294300.
14 Hayde, VC, Ramon, GG, Lorenzo, GO, et al. (2012) Non-digestible fraction of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulates signalling pathway genes at an early stage of colon cancer in Sprague–Dawley rats. Br J Nutr 108, Suppl. 1, S145S154.
15 Correa, P (1981) Epidemiological correlations between diet and cancer frequency. Cancer Res 41, 36853690.
16 Lanza, E, Hartman, TJ, Albert, PS, et al. (2006) High dry bean intake and reduced risk of advanced colorectal adenoma recurrence among participants in the polyp prevention trial. J Nutr 136, 18961903.
17 Bobe, G, Barrett, KG, Mentor-Marcel, RA, et al. (2008) Dietary cooked navy beans and their fractions attenuate colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-induced ob/ob mice. Nutr Cancer 60, 373381.
18 Bobe, G, Sansbury, LB, Albert, PS, et al. (2008) Dietary flavonoids and colorectal adenoma recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 13441353.
19 Campos-Vega, R, Reynoso-Camacho, R, Pedraza-Aboytes, G, et al. (2009) Chemical composition and in vitro polysaccharide fermentation of different beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Food Sci 74, T59T65.
20 Cruz-Bravo, RK, Guevara-Gonzalez, R, Ramos-Gomez, M, et al. (2011) Fermented nondigestible fraction from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 modulates HT-29 cell behavior. J Food Sci 76, T41T47.
21 Lin, L-Z, Harnly, JM, Pastor-Corrales, MS, et al. (2008) The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem 107, 399410.
22 Leonel, AJ & Alvarez-Leite, JI (2012) Butyrate: implications for intestinal function. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15, 474479.
23 Hamer, HM, Jonkers, D, Venema, K, et al. (2008) Review article: the role of butyrate on colonic function. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 27, 104119.
24 Roediger, WE (1980) Role of anaerobic bacteria in the metabolic welfare of the colonic mucosa in man. Gut 21, 793798.
25 Langlands, SJ, Hopkins, MJ, Coleman, N, et al. (2004) Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel. Gut 53, 16101616.
26 Kim, YS & Milner, JA (2007) Dietary modulation of colon cancer risk. J Nutr 137, 2576S2579S.
27 Butzner, JD, Parmar, R, Bell, CJ, et al. (1996) Butyrate enema therapy stimulates mucosal repair in experimental colitis in the rat. Gut 38, 568573.
28 Di Sabatino, A, Morera, R, Ciccocioppo, R, et al. (2005) Oral butyrate for mildly to moderately active Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 22, 789794.
29 Scheppach, W, Sommer, H, Kirchner, T, et al. (1992) Effect of butyrate enemas on the colonic mucosa in distal ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 103, 5156.
30 Segain, JP, Raingeard de la Bletiere, D, Bourreille, A, et al. (2000) Butyrate inhibits inflammatory responses through NF-kappaB inhibition: implications for Crohn's disease. Gut 47, 397403.
31 Steinhart, AH, Hiruki, T, Brzezinski, A, et al. (1996) Treatment of left-sided ulcerative colitis with butyrate enemas: a controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 10, 729736.
32 Tedelind, S, Westberg, F, Kjerrulf, M, et al. (2007) Anti-inflammatory properties of the short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate: a study with relevance to inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 13, 28262832.
33 Cardona, F, Andres-Lacueva, C, Tulipani, S, et al. (2013) Benefits of polyphenols on gut microbiota and implications in human health. J Nutr Biochem 24, 14151422.
34 Guajardo-Flores, D, Serna-Saldivar, SO & Gutierrez-Uribe, JA (2013) Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem 141, 14971503.
35 Kumazaki, M, Noguchi, S, Yasui, Y, et al. (2013) Anti-cancer effects of naturally occurring compounds through modulation of signal transduction and miRNA expression in human colon cancer cells. J Nutr Biochem 24, 18491858.
36 Banerjee, N, Kim, H, Talcott, S, et al. (2013) Pomegranate polyphenolics suppressed azoxymethane-induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci and inflammation: possible role of miR-126/VCAM-1 and miR-126/PI3K/AKT/mTOR. Carcinogenesis 34, 28142822.
37 Sung, MK & Park, MY (2013) Nutritional modulators of ulcerative colitis: clinical efficacies and mechanistic view. World J Gastroenterol 19, 9941004.
38 Yao, J, Wang, JY, Liu, L, et al. (2010) Anti-oxidant effects of resveratrol on mice with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis. Arch Med Res 41, 288294.
39 Romier, B, Schneider, YJ, Larondelle, Y, et al. (2009) Dietary polyphenols can modulate the intestinal inflammatory response. Nutr Rev 67, 363378.
40 Kim, SJ, Kim, MC, Um, JY, et al. (2010) The beneficial effect of vanillic acid on ulcerative colitis. Molecules 15, 72087217.
41 Park, MY, Ji, GE & Sung, MK (2012) Dietary kaempferol suppresses inflammation of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Dig Dis Sci 57, 355363.
42 Dong, WG, Liu, SP, Yu, BP, et al. (2003) Ameliorative effects of sodium ferulate on experimental colitis and their mechanisms in rats. World J Gastroenterol 9, 25332538.
43 Ulluwishewa, D, Anderson, RC, McNabb, WC, et al. (2011) Regulation of tight junction permeability by intestinal bacteria and dietary components. J Nutr 141, 769776.
44 Suzuki, T & Hara, H (2011) Role of flavonoids in intestinal tight junction regulation. J Nutr Biochem 22, 401408.
45 Tuohy, KM, Conterno, L, Gasperotti, M, et al. (2012) Up-regulating the human intestinal microbiome using whole plant foods, polyphenols, and/or fiber. J Agric Food Chem 60, 87768782.
46 Hervert-Hernández, D & Goñi, I (2011) Dietary polyphenols and human gut microbiota: a review. Food Rev Int 27, 154169.
47 Etxeberria, U, Fernandez-Quintela, A, Milagro, FI, et al. (2013) Impact of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich dietary sources on gut microbiota composition. J Agric Food Chem 61, 95179533.
48 Rubin, DC, Shaker, A & Levin, MS (2012) Chronic intestinal inflammation: inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated colon cancer. Front Immunol 3, 107.
49 Lakatos, PL & Lakatos, L (2008) Risk for colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: changes, causes and management strategies. World J Gastroenterol 14, 39373947.
50 Sha, S, Xu, B, Wang, X, et al. (2013) The biodiversity and composition of the dominant fecal microbiota in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 75, 245251.
51 Fabia, R, Ar'Rajab, A, Johansson, ML, et al. (1993) Impairment of bacterial flora in human ulcerative colitis and experimental colitis in the rat. Digestion 54, 248255.
52 Takaishi, H, Matsuki, T, Nakazawa, A, et al. (2008) Imbalance in intestinal microflora constitution could be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Int J Med Microbiol 298, 463472.
53 Sasaki, M & Klapproth, JM (2012) The role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. J Signal Transduct 2012, 704953.
54 de Wouters, T, Dore, J & Lepage, P (2012) Does our food (environment) change our gut microbiome (‘in-vironment’): a potential role for inflammatory bowel disease? Dig Dis 30, Suppl. 3, 3339.
55 Lih-Brody, L, Powell, SR, Collier, KP, et al. (1996) Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defenses in mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 41, 20782086.
56 Barbosa, DS, Cecchini, R, El Kadri, MZ, et al. (2003) Decreased oxidative stress in patients with ulcerative colitis supplemented with fish oil ω-3 fatty acids. Nutrition 19, 837842.
57 Forrest, CM, Gould, SR, Darlington, LG, et al. (2003) Levels of purine, kynurenine and lipid peroxidation products in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Adv Exp Med Biol 527, 395400.
58 Kruidenier, L, Kuiper, I, Lamers, CB, et al. (2003) Intestinal oxidative damage in inflammatory bowel disease: semi-quantification, localization, and association with mucosal antioxidants. J Pathol 201, 2836.
59 Xavier, RJ & Podolsky, DK (2007) Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 448, 427434.
60 Gecse, K, Roka, R, Sera, T, et al. (2012) Leaky gut in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and inactive ulcerative colitis. Digestion 85, 4046.
61 Kiesslich, R, Duckworth, CA, Moussata, D, et al. (2012) Local barrier dysfunction identified by confocal laser endomicroscopy predicts relapse in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 61, 11461153.
62 Gersemann, M, Wehkamp, J & Stange, EF (2012) Innate immune dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease. J Intern Med 271, 421428.
63 McGuckin, MA, Eri, R, Simms, LA, et al. (2009) Intestinal barrier dysfunction in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis 15, 100113.
64 Atreya, I, Atreya, R & Neurath, MF (2008) NF-kappaB in inflammatory bowel disease. J Intern Med 263, 591596.
65 Lennard-Jones, JE, Longmore, AJ, Newell, AC, et al. (1960) An assessment of prednisone, salazopyrin, and topical hydrocortisone hemisuccinate used as out-patient treatment for ulcerative colitis. Gut 1, 217222.
66 Carter, MJ, Lobo, AJ & Travis, SPL (2004) Guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut 53, V1V16.
67 Gionchetti, P, Rizzello, F, Lammers, KM, et al. (2006) Antibiotics and probiotics in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 12, 33063313.
68 Dignass, A, Lindsay, JO, Sturm, A, et al. (2012) Second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis Part 2: current management. J Crohns Colitis 6, 9911030.
69 Manz, M, Vavricka, SR, Wanner, R, et al. (2012) Therapy of steroid-resistant inflammatory bowel disease. Digestion 86, Suppl. 1, 1115.
70 Gonzalez, R, Ballester, I, Lopez-Posadas, R, et al. (2011) Effects of flavonoids and other polyphenols on inflammation. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51, 331362.
71 Irving, GR, Karmokar, A, Berry, DP, et al. (2011) Curcumin: the potential for efficacy in gastrointestinal diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 25, 519534.
72 Neuman, MG & Nanau, RM (2012) Inflammatory bowel disease: role of diet, microbiota, life style. Transl Res 160, 2944.
73 Tighe, MP, Cummings, JR & Afzal, NA (2011) Nutrition and inflammatory bowel disease: primary or adjuvant therapy. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14, 491496.
74 Vernia, P, Annese, V, Bresci, G, et al. (2003) Topical butyrate improves efficacy of 5-ASA in refractory distal ulcerative colitis: results of a multicentre trial. Eur J Clin Invest 33, 244248.
75 Rodriguez-Cabezas, ME, Galvez, J, Lorente, MD, et al. (2002) Dietary fiber down-regulates colonic tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide production in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitic rats. J Nutr 132, 32633271.
76 Vieira, EL, Leonel, AJ, Sad, AP, et al. (2012) Oral administration of sodium butyrate attenuates inflammation and mucosal lesion in experimental acute ulcerative colitis. J Nutr Biochem 23, 430436.
77 Nishimura, T, Andoh, A, Hashimoto, T, et al. (2010) Cellobiose prevents the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. J Clin Biochem Nutr 46, 105110.
78 Koleva, PT, Valcheva, RS, Sun, X, et al. (2012) Inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides have divergent effects on colitis and commensal microbiota in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Br J Nutr 108, 16331643.
79 Rodriguez-Cabezas, ME, Camuesco, D, Arribas, B, et al. (2010) The combination of fructooligosaccharides and resistant starch shows prebiotic additive effects in rats. Clin Nutr 29, 832839.
80 Moreau, NM, Martin, LJ, Toquet, CS, et al. (2003) Restoration of the integrity of rat caeco-colonic mucosa by resistant starch, but not by fructo-oligosaccharides, in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis. Br J Nutr 90, 7585.
81 Andujar, I, Recio, MC, Giner, RM, et al. (2011) Inhibition of ulcerative colitis in mice after oral administration of a polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract is mediated by the inhibition of STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation in colon cells. J Agric Food Chem 59, 64746483.
82 Larrosa, M, Gonzalez-Sarrias, A, Yanez-Gascon, MJ, et al. (2010) Anti-inflammatory properties of a pomegranate extract and its metabolite urolithin-A in a colitis rat model and the effect of colon inflammation on phenolic metabolism. J Nutr Biochem 21, 717725.
83 Baliga, MS, Joseph, N, Venkataranganna, MV, et al. (2012) Curcumin, an active component of turmeric in the prevention and treatment of ulcerative colitis: preclinical and clinical observations. Food Funct 3, 11091117.
84 Beninger, CW & Hosfield, GL (1999) Flavonoid composition of three genotypes of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) differing in seed coat color. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 124, 514518.
85 Espinosa-Alonso, LG, Lygin, A, Widholm, JM, et al. (2006) Polyphenols in wild and weedy Mexican common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem 54, 44364444.
86 Ranilla, LG, Genovese, MI & Lajolo, FM (2007) Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of seed coat and cotyledon from Brazilian and Peruvian bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem 55, 9098.
87 Masoodi, I, Tijjani, BM, Wani, H, et al. (2011) Biomarkers in the management of ulcerative colitis: a brief review. Ger Med Sci 9, Doc03.
88 Charpentier, C, Marion-Letellier, R, Savoye, G, et al. (2012) Magnetic resonance colonography in rats with TNBS-induced colitis: a feasibility and validation study. Inflamm Bowel Dis 18, 19401949.
89 Sugawara, T & Miyazawa, T (2001) Beneficial effect of dietary wheat glycolipids on cecum short-chain fatty acid and secondary bile acid profiles in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 47, 299305.
90 Sutivisedsak, N, Cheng, HN, Willett, JL, et al. (2010) Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolics from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Res Int 43, 516519.
91 Espín, JC, González-Barrio, R, Cerdá, B, et al. (2007) Iberian pig as a model to clarify obscure points in the bioavailability and metabolism of ellagitannins in humans. J Agric Food Chem 55, 1047610485.
92 Li, H, Deng, Z, Liu, R, et al. (2011) Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of a purple tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). J Agric Food Chem 59, 1180311811.
93 Zhishen, J, Mengcheng, T & Jianming, W (1999) The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 64, 555559.
94 Campos-Vega, R, García-Gasca, T, Guevara-Gonzalez, R, et al. (2012) Human gut flora-fermented nondigestible fraction from cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modifies protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation in human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 60, 1244312450.
95 Bienvenu, JA, Monneret, G, Gutowski, MC, et al. (1998) Cytokine assays in human sera and tissues. Toxicology 129, 5561.
96 Saemann, MD, Bohmig, GA, Osterreicher, CH, et al. (2000) Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium butyrate on human monocytes: potent inhibition of IL-12 and up-regulation of IL-10 production. Faseb J 14, 23802382.
97 Leung, CH, Lam, W, Ma, DL, et al. (2009) Butyrate mediates nucleotide-binding and oligomerisation domain (NOD) 2-dependent mucosal immune responses against peptidoglycan. Eur J Immunol 39, 35293537.
98 Blais, M, Seidman, EG & Asselin, C (2007) Dual effect of butyrate on IL-1beta-mediated intestinal epithelial cell inflammatory response. DNA Cell Biol 26, 133147.
99 Romagnani, P, Lasagni, L, Annunziato, F, et al. (2004) CXC chemokines: the regulatory link between inflammation and angiogenesis. Trends Immunol 25, 201209.
100 Topping, DL & Clifton, PM (2001) Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiol Rev 81, 10311064.
101 Krzystek-Korpacka, M, Neubauer, K, Berdowska, I, et al. (2010) Impaired erythrocyte antioxidant defense in active inflammatory bowel disease: impact of anemia and treatment. Inflamm Bowel Dis 16, 14671475.
102 Zhu, H & Li, YR (2012) Oxidative stress and redox signaling mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease: updated experimental and clinical evidence. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 237, 474480.
103 Rezaie, A, Parker, RD & Abdollahi, M (2007) Oxidative stress and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease: an epiphenomenon or the cause? Dig Dis Sci 52, 20152021.
104 Singh, UP, Singh, NP, Busbee, B, et al. (2012) Alternative medicines as emerging therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases. Int Rev Immunol 31, 6684.
105 Oz, HS, Chen, TS, McClain, CJ, et al. (2005) Antioxidants as novel therapy in a murine model of colitis. J Nutr Biochem 16, 297304.
106 Millar, AD, Rampton, DS, Chander, CL, et al. (1996) Evaluating the antioxidant potential of new treatments for inflammatory bowel disease using a rat model of colitis. Gut 39, 407415.
107 Tham, DM, Whitin, JC & Cohen, HJ (2002) Increased expression of extracellular glutathione peroxidase in mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis. Pediatr Res 51, 641646.
108 Te Velde, AA, Pronk, I, de Kort, F, et al. (2008) Glutathione peroxidase 2 and aquaporin 8 as new markers for colonic inflammation in experimental colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases: an important role for H2O2? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20, 555560.
109 Trivedi, PP & Jena, GB (2012) Dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis leads to increased hematopoiesis and induces both local as well as systemic genotoxicity in mice. Mutat Res 744, 172183.
110 Kwon, KH, Murakami, A, Tanaka, T, et al. (2005) Dietary rutin, but not its aglycone quercetin, ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice: attenuation of pro-inflammatory gene expression. Biochem Pharmacol 69, 395406.
111 Camuesco, D, Comalada, M, Concha, A, et al. (2006) Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of combined quercitrin and dietary olive oil supplemented with fish oil, rich in EPA and DHA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, in rats with DSS-induced colitis. Clin Nutr 25, 466476.
112 Villegas, I, Alarcon de la Lastra, C, Orjales, A, et al. (2003) A new flavonoid derivative, dosmalfate, attenuates the development of dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 3, 17311741.
113 Melgar, S, Karlsson, L, Rehnstrom, E, et al. (2008) Validation of murine dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis using four therapeutic agents for human inflammatory bowel disease. Int Immunopharmacol 8, 836844.
114 Islam, MS, Murata, T, Fujisawa, M, et al. (2008) Anti-inflammatory effects of phytosteryl ferulates in colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice. Br J Pharmacol 154, 812824.
115 Ruiz, PA, Braune, A, Holzlwimmer, G, et al. (2007) Quercetin inhibits TNF-induced NF-kappaB transcription factor recruitment to proinflammatory gene promoters in murine intestinal epithelial cells. J Nutr 137, 12081215.
116 Kim, H, Kong, H, Choi, B, et al. (2005) Metabolic and pharmacological properties of rutin, a dietary quercetin glycoside, for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Pharm Res 22, 14991509.
117 Deguchi, Y, Andoh, A, Inatomi, O, et al. (2007) Curcumin prevents the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. Dig Dis Sci 52, 29932998.
118 Akiyama, S, Nesumi, A, Maeda-Yamamoto, M, et al. (2012) Effects of anthocyanin-rich tea ‘Sunrouge’ on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice. Biofactors 38, 226233.
119 Piberger, H, Oehme, A, Hofmann, C, et al. (2011) Bilberries and their anthocyanins ameliorate experimental colitis. Mol Nutr Food Res 55, 17241729.
120 Kidd, VJ (1998) Proteolytic activities that mediate apoptosis. Annu Rev Physiol 60, 533573.
121 Goretsky, T, Dirisina, R, Sinh, P, et al. (2012) p53 mediates TNF-induced epithelial cell apoptosis in IBD. Am J Pathol 181, 13061315.
122 Rieder, F, Karrasch, T, Ben-Horin, S, et al. (2012) Results of the 2nd scientific workshop of the ECCO (III): basic mechanisms of intestinal healing. J Crohns Colitis 6, 373385.
123 Iizuka, M & Konno, S (2011) Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells. World J Gastroenterol 17, 21612171.
124 Ho, SB, Dvorak, LA, Moor, RE, et al. (2006) Cysteine-rich domains of muc3 intestinal mucin promote cell migration, inhibit apoptosis, and accelerate wound healing. Gastroenterology 131, 15011517.
125 Deshpande, SS, Sathe, SK & Salunkhe, DK (1984) Dry beans of Phaseolus: a review. Part 3. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 21, 137195.
126 Kumar, S, Verma, AK, Das, M, et al. (2013) Clinical complications of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption. Nutrition 29, 821827.
127 Zhu, Z, Jiang, W & Thompson, HJ (2012) Edible dry bean consumption (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulates cardiovascular risk factors and diet-induced obesity in rats and mice. Br J Nutr 108, Suppl. 1, S66S73.
128 Rondini, EA & Bennink, MR (2012) Microarray analyses of genes differentially expressed by diet (black beans and soy flour) during azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. J Nutr Metab 2012, 351796.
129 Hughes, JS, Ganthavorn, C & Wilson-Sanders, S (1997) Dry beans inhibit azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. J Nutr 127, 23282333.
130 Key, FB, McClean, D & Mathers, JC (1996) Tissue hypertrophy and epithelial proliferation rate in the gut of rats fed on bread and haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Br J Nutr 76, 273286.
131 Kumar, V, Sinha, AK, Makkar, HP, et al. (2012) Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 52, 899935.
132 Hou, J & Sellin, J (2010) Diet, nutrition and inflammatory bowel disease. Therapy 7, 179189.
133 Nanau, RM & Neuman, MG (2012) Nutritional and probiotic supplementation in colitis models. Dig Dis Sci 57, 27862810.
134 Abia, R, Buchanan, CJ, Saura-Calixto, F, et al. (1993) Structural changes during the retrogradation of legume starches modify the in vitro fermentation. J Agric Food Chem 41, 18561863.
135 Jenkins, DJ, Kendall, CW, Augustin, LS, et al. (2012) Effect of legumes as part of a low glycemic index diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 172, 16531660.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Zhang Supplementary Material
Figures and Tables

 PDF (354 KB)
354 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 55
Total number of PDF views: 329 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 695 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.