1Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
2 NR Rodriguez , NM Di Marco & S Langley (2009) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41, 709–731.
4 SM Phillips , JW Hartman & SB Wilkinson (2005) Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 134S–139S.
5 SM Phillips (2004) Protein requirements and supplementation in strength sports. Nutrition 20, 689–695.
6 SM Phillips (2006) Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to metabolic advantage. App Physiol Nutr Metab 31, 647–654.
7 MA Tarnopolsky (2004) Protein requirements for endurance athletes. Nutrition 20, 662–668.
8 MJ Rennie & KD Tipton (2000) Protein and amino acid metabolism during and after exercise and the effects of nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr 20, 457–483.
9 LM Burke (2001) Energy needs of athletes. Can J Appl Physiol 26, S202–S219.
10 LM Burke , GR Cox , NK Culmmings , et al. (2001) Guidelines for daily carbohydrate intake: do athletes achieve them? Sports Med 31, 267–299.
11 LM Burke , B Kiens & JL Ivy (2004) Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. J Sports Sci 22, 15–30.
12 LM Burke , G Millet & MA Tarnopolsky (2007) Nutrition for distance events. J Sports Sci 25, Suppl. 1, S29–S38.
13 G Biolo , B Ciocchi , M Stulle , et al. (2007) Calorie restriction accelerates the catabolism of lean body mass during 2 wk of bed rest. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 366–372.
14 G Biolo , F Agostini , B Simunic , et al. (2008) Positive energy balance is associated with accelerated muscle atrophy and increased erythrocyte glutathione turnover during 5 wk of bed rest. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 950–958.
15 A Astrup , J Dyerberg , P Elwood , et al. (2011) The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010? Am J Clin Nutr 93, 684–688.
16 WM Rand , PL Pellett & VR Young (2003) Meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies for estimating protein requirements in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 109–127.
17 DJ Millward & JP Rivers (1988) The nutritional role of indispensable amino acids and the metabolic basis for their requirements. Eur J Clin Nutr 42, 367–393.
18 DJ Millward & JP Rivers (1989) The need for indispensable amino acids: the concept of the anabolic drive. Diabetes Metab Rev 5, 191–211.
19 J Babraj , DJ Cuthbertson , P Rickhuss , et al. (2002) Sequential extracts of human bone show differing collagen synthetic rates. Biochem Soc Trans 30, 61–65.
20 JA Babraj , K Smith , DJ Cuthbertson , et al. (2005) Human bone collagen synthesis is a rapid, nutritionally modulated process. J Bone Miner Res 20, 930–937.
21 K Heinemeier , H Langberg , JL Olesen , et al. (2003) Role of TGF-beta1 in relation to exercise-induced type I collagen synthesis in human tendinous tissue. J Appl Physiol 95, 2390–2397.
22 MJ Rennie , H Wackerhage , EE Spangenburg , et al. (2004) Control of the size of the human muscle mass. Annu Rev Physiol 66, 799–828.
23 IM Nakshabendi , R McKee , S Downie , et al. (1999) Rates of small intestinal mucosal protein synthesis in human jejunum and ileum. Am J Physiol 277, E1028–E1031.
24 IM Nakshabendi , W Obeidat , RI Russell , et al. (1995) Gut mucosal protein synthesis measured using intravenous and intragastric delivery of stable tracer amino acids. Am J Physiol 269, E996–E999.
25 VR Young (1986) Nutritional balance studies: indicators of human requirements or of adaptive mechanisms? J Nutr 116, 700–703.
26 VR Young , A Wayler , C Garza , et al. (1984) A long-term metabolic balance study in young men to assess the nutritional quality of an isolated soy protein and beef proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 39, 8–15.
27 S McKenzie , SM Phillips , SL Carter , et al. (2000) Endurance exercise training attenuates leucine oxidation and BCOAD activation during exercise in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 278, E580–E587.
28 SM Phillips , SA Atkinson , MA Tarnopolsky , et al. (1993) Gender differences in leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance in endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol 75, 2134–2141.
29 LS Lamont , AJ McCullough & SC Kalhan (1999) Comparison of leucine kinetics in endurance-trained and sedentary humans. J Appl Physiol 86, 320–325.
30 LS Lamont , AJ McCullough & SC Kalhan (2001) Relationship between leucine oxidation and oxygen consumption during steady-state exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33, 237–241.
31 LS Lamont , AJ McCullough & SC Kalhan (2001) Gender differences in leucine, but not lysine, kinetics. J Appl Physiol 91, 357–362.
32 BF Miller , JL Olesen , M Hansen , et al. (2005) Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise. J Physiol 567, 1021–1033.
33 M Sheffield-Moore , CW Yeckel , E Volpi , et al. (2004) Post exercise protein metabolism in older and younger men following moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287, E513–E522.
34 F Carraro , CA Stuart , WH Hartl , et al. (1990) Effect of exercise and recovery on muscle protein synthesis in human subjects. Am J Physiol 259, E470–E476.
35 JW Hartman , DR Moore & SM Phillips (2006) Resistance training reduces whole-body protein turnover and improves net protein retention in untrained young males. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 31, 557–564.
36 DR Moore , NC Del Bel , KI Nizi , et al. (2007) Resistance training reduces fasted- and fed-state leucine turnover and increases dietary nitrogen retention in previously untrained young men. J Nutr 137, 985–991.
37 GE Butterfield & DH Calloway (1984) Physical activity improves protein utilization in young men. Br J Nutr 51, 171–184.
38 KS Todd , GE Butterfield & DH Calloway (1984) Nitrogen balance in men with adequate and deficient energy intake at three levels of work. J Nutr 114, 2107–2118.
39 SM Phillips , KD Tipton , A Aarsland , et al. (1997) Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 273, E99–E107.
40 DJ Millward & AA Jackson (2004) Protein/energy ratios of current diets in developed and developing countries compared with a safe protein/energy ratio: implications for recommended protein and amino acid intakes. Public Health Nutr 7, 387–405.
41 NA Burd , JE Tang , DR Moore , et al. (2009) Exercise training and protein metabolism: influences of contraction, protein intake, and sex-based differences. J Appl Physiol 106, 1692–1701.
42 SL Miller , KD Tipton , DL Chinkes , et al. (2003) Independent and combined effects of amino acids and glucose after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35, 449–455.
43 BB Rasmussen , KD Tipton , SL Miller , et al. (2000) An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 88, 386–392.
44 KD Tipton , AA Ferrando , SM Phillips , et al. (1999) Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol 276, E628–E634.
45 KD Tipton , BB Rasmussen , SL Miller , et al. (2001) Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281, E197–E206.
46 KD Tipton , TA Elliott , MG Cree , et al. (2004) Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36, 2073–2081.
47 DR Moore , MJ Robinson , JL Fry , et al. (2009) Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 161–168.
48 KD Tipton & RR Wolfe (2001) Exercise, protein metabolism, and muscle growth. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 11, 109–132.
49 RR Wolfe (2000) Protein supplements and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 551S–557S.
50 JE Friedman & PW Lemon (1989) Effect of chronic endurance exercise on retention of dietary protein. Int J Sports Med 10, 118–123.
51 PJ Reeds & PJ Garlick (2003) Protein and amino acid requirements and the composition of complementary foods. J Nutr 133, 2953S–2961S.
52 JC Anthony , TG Anthony , SR Kimball , et al. (2001) Signaling pathways involved in translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by leucine. J Nutr 131, 856S–860S.
53 JC Anthony , F Yoshizawa , TG Anthony , et al. (2000) Leucine stimulates translation initiation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. J Nutr 130, 2413–2419.
54 JC Anthony , AK Reiter , TG Anthony , et al. (2002) Orally administered leucine enhances protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats in the absence of increases in 4E-BP1 or S6K1 phosphorylation. Diabetes 51, 928–936.
55 DR Bolster , MA Pikosky , PC Gaine , et al. (2005) Dietary protein intake impacts human skeletal muscle protein fractional synthetic rates after endurance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 289, E678–E683.
56 D Cuthbertson , K Smith , J Babraj , et al. (2005) Anabolic signaling deficits underlie amino acid resistance of wasting, aging muscle. FASEB J 19, 422–424.
57 KD Tipton , BE Gurkin , S Matin , et al. (1999) Non essential amino acids are not necessary to stimulate net muscle protein synthesis in healthy volunteers. J Nutr Biochem 10, 89–95.
58 E Volpi , H Kobayashi , M Sheffield-Moore , et al. (2003) Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 250–258.
59 DR Moore , JE Tang , NA Burd , et al. (2009) Differential stimulation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis with protein ingestion at rest and after resistance exercise. J Physiol 597, 897–904.
60 JL Bowtell , GP Leese , K Smith , et al. (1998) Modulation of whole body protein metabolism, during and after exercise, by variation of dietary protein. J Appl Physiol 85, 1744–1752.
61 DJ Millward (2004) Macronutrient intakes as determinants of dietary protein and amino acid adequacy. J Nutr 134, 1588S–1596S.
62 DJ Millward (1998) Metabolic demands for amino acids and the human dietary requirement: Millward and Rvers (1988) revisited. J Nutr 128, 2563S–2576S.
63 MR Quevedo , GM Price , D Halliday , et al. (1994) Nitrogen homoeostasis in man: diurnal changes in nitrogen excretion, leucine oxidation and whole body leucine kinetics during a reduction from a high to a moderate protein intake. Clin Sci (Lond) 86, 185–193.
64 GM Price , D Halliday , PJ Pacy , et al. (1994) Nitrogen homeostasis in man: influence of protein intake on the amplitude of diurnal cycling of body nitrogen. Clin Sci (Lond) 86, 91–102.
65 PA Deuster , SB Kyle , PB Moser , et al. (1986) Nutritional survey of highly trained women runners. Am J Clin Nutr 44, 954–962.
66 A Singh , PA Deuster , BA Day , et al. (1990) Dietary intakes and biochemical markers of selected minerals: comparison of highly trained runners and untrained women. J Am Coll Nutr 9, 65–75.
67 DB Snead , CC Stubbs , JY Weltman , et al. (1992) Dietary patterns, eating behaviors, and bone mineral density in women runners. Am J Clin Nutr 56, 705–711.
68 KA Beals & MM Manore (1998) Nutritional status of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. J Am Diet Assoc 98, 419–425.
69 JD MacDougall , S Ray , DG Sale , et al. (1999) Muscle substrate utilization and lactate production. Can J Appl Physiol 24, 209–215.
70 CP Lambert & MG Flynn (2002) Fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise: application to bodybuilding. Sports Med 32, 511–522.
71 RA Robergs , DR Pearson , DL Costill , et al. (1991) Muscle glycogenolysis during differing intensities of weight-resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 70, 1700–1706.
72 B Essen-Gustavsson & PA Tesch (1990) Glycogen and triglyceride utilization in relation to muscle metabolic characteristics in men performing heavy-resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 61, 5–10.
73 PA Tesch , EB Colliander & P Kaiser (1986) Muscle metabolism during intense, heavy-resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 55, 362–366.
74 GG Haff , MJ Lehmkuhl , LB McCoy , et al. (2003) Carbohydrate supplementation and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 17, 187–196.
75 HV Kuhnlein & O Receveur (2007) Local cultural animal food contributes high levels of nutrients for Arctic Canadian Indigenous adults and children. J Nutr 137, 1110–1114.
76 HV Kuhnlein , R Soueida & O Receveur (1996) Dietary nutrient profiles of Canadian Baffin Island Inuit differ by food source, season, and age. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 155–162.
77 PM Risica , ED Nobmann , LE Caulfield , et al. (2005) Springtime macronutrient intake of Alaska natives of the Bering Straits Region: the Alaska Siberia Project. Int J Circumpolar Health 64, 222–233.
78 ED Nobmann , T Byers , AP Lanier , et al. (1992) The diet of Alaska Native adults: 1987-1988. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 1024–1032.
79 D Feskanich , WC Willett , MJ Stampfer , et al. (1996) Protein consumption and bone fractures in women. Am J Epidemiol 143, 472–479.
80 HJ Wengreen , RG Munger , NA West , et al. (2004) Dietary protein intake and risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in elderly residents of Utah. J Bone Miner Res 19, 537–545.
81 RG Munger , JR Cerhan & BC Chiu (1999) Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 147–152.
82 JP Bonjour (2005) Dietary protein: an essential nutrient for bone health. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 526S–536S.
83 MM Bamman , JR Shipp , J Jiang , et al. (2001) Mechanical load increases muscle IGF-I and androgen receptor mRNA concentrations in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280, E383–E390.
84 M Hameed , RW Orrell , M Cobbold , et al. (2003) Expression of IGF-I splice variants in young and old human skeletal muscle after high resistance exercise. J Physiol 547, 247–254.
85 BC Nindl , WJ Kraemer , JO Marx , et al. (2001) Overnight responses of the circulating IGF-I system after acute, heavy-resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 90, 1319–1326.
86 DK Layman , RA Boileau , DJ Erickson , et al. (2003) A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr 133, 411–417.
87 DK Layman , H Shiue , C Sather , et al. (2003) Increased dietary protein modifies glucose and insulin homeostasis in adult women during weight loss. J Nutr 133, 405–410.
88 MB Zemel (2003) Mechanisms of dairy modulation of adiposity. J Nutr 133, 252S–256S.
89 MB Zemel , W Thompson , A Milstead , et al. (2004) Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res 12, 582–590.
90 JJ Pins & JM Keenan (2006) Effects of whey peptides on cardiovascular disease risk factors. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 8, 775–782.
91 AM Bernstein , L Treyzon & Z Li (2007) Are high-protein, vegetable-based diets safe for kidney function? A review of the literature. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 644–650.
92 DP Richardson , AH Wayler , NS Scrimshaw , et al. (1979) Quantitative effect of an isoenergetic exchange of fat for carbohydrate on dietary protein utilization in healthy young men. Am J Clin Nutr 32, 2217–2226.
93 E Borsheim , MG Cree , KD Tipton , et al. (2004) Effect of carbohydrate intake on net muscle protein synthesis during recovery from resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 96, 674–678.
94 LS Chow , RC Albright , ML Bigelow , et al. (2006) Mechanism of insulin's anabolic effect on muscle: measurements of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown using aminoacyl-tRNA and other surrogate measures. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E729–E736.
95 JW Krieger , HS Sitren , MJ Daniels , et al. (2006) Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 260–274.
96 DK Layman , E Evans , JI Baum , et al. (2005) Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women. J Nutr 135, 1903–1910.
97 SM Phillips , KD Tipton , AA Ferrando , et al. (1999) Resistance training reduces the acute exercise-induced increase in muscle protein turnover. Am J Physiol 276, E118–E124.
98 S Mettler , N Mitchell & KD Tipton (2010) Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42, 326–337.
99 MA Pikosky , TJ Smith , A Grediagin , et al. (2008) Increased protein maintains nitrogen balance during exercise-induced energy deficit. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40, 505–512.
100 LM Burke , B Kiens & JL Ivy (2004) Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. J Sports Sci 22, 15–30.
101 L Holm , B Esmarck , M Mizuno , et al. (2006) The effect of protein and carbohydrate supplementation on strength training outcome of rehabilitation in ACL patients. J Orthop Res 24, 2114–2123.
102 LL Andersen , G Tufekovic , MK Zebis , et al. (2005) The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength. Metabolism 54, 151–156.
103 B Esmarck , JL Andersen , S Olsen , et al. (2001) Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. J Physiol 535, 301–311.
104 JW Hartman , JE Tang , SB Wilkinson , et al. (2007) Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 373–381.
105 PJ Cribb & A Hayes (2006) Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38, 1918–1925.
106 AR Josse , JE Tang , MA Tarnopolsky , et al. (2010) Body composition and strength changes in women with milk and resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42, 1122–1130.