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Determination of the anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of l-glutamine and l-alanine, or dipeptide, supplementation in rats submitted to resistance exercise

  • Raquel Raizel (a1) (a2), Jaqueline Santos Moreira Leite (a1), Thaís Menezes Hypólito (a1), Audrey Yule Coqueiro (a1), Philip Newsholme (a2), Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat (a2) (a3) and Julio Tirapegui (a1)...
Abstract

We evaluated the effects of chronic oral supplementation with l-glutamine and l-alanine in their free form or as the dipeptide l-alanyl-l-glutamine (DIP) on muscle damage, inflammation and cytoprotection, in rats submitted to progressive resistance exercise (RE). Wistar rats (n 8/group) were submitted to 8-week RE, which consisted of climbing a ladder with progressive loads. In the final 21 d before euthanasia, supplements were delivered in a 4 % solution in drinking water. Glutamine, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), TNF-α, specific IL (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were evaluated in plasma. The concentrations of glutamine, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10, as well as NF-κB activation, were determined in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) skeletal muscle. HSP70 level was assayed in EDL and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). RE reduced glutamine concentration in plasma and EDL (P<0·05 v. sedentary group). However, l-glutamine supplements (l-alanine plus l-glutamine (GLN+ALA) and DIP groups) restored glutamine levels in plasma (by 40 and 58 %, respectively) and muscle (by 93 and 105 %, respectively). GLN+ALA and DIP groups also exhibited increased level of HSP70 in EDL and PBMC, consistent with the reduction of NF-κB p65 activation and cytokines in EDL. Muscle protection was also indicated by attenuation in plasma levels of CK, LDH, TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as an increase in IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1. Our study demonstrates that chronic oral l-glutamine treatment (given with l-alanine or as dipeptide) following progressive RE induces cyprotective effects mediated by HSP70-associated responses to muscle damage and inflammation.

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      Determination of the anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of l-glutamine and l-alanine, or dipeptide, supplementation in rats submitted to resistance exercise
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Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: R. Raizel, email raqzel@usp.br; V. F. Cruzat, email vinifc@usp.br
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