This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2 PJ Turnbaugh , M Hamady , T Yatsunenko , et al. (2009) A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature 457, 480–484.
3 J Qin , Y Li , Z Cai , et al. (2012) A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes. Nature 490, 55–60.
4 A Cotillard , SP Kennedy , LC Kong , et al. (2013) Dietary intervention impact on gut microbial gene richness. Nature 500, 585–588.
6 FH Karlsson , F Fak , I Nookaew , et al. (2012) Symptomatic atherosclerosis is associated with an altered gut metagenome. Nat Commun 3, 1245.
7 FH Karlsson , V Tremaroli , I Nookaew , et al. (2013) Gut metagenome in European women with normal, impaired and diabetic glucose control. Nature 498, 99–103.
8 F Backhed , H Ding , T Wang , et al. (2004) The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 15718–15723.
12 J Vulevic , A Juric , G Tzortzis , et al. (2013) A mixture of trans-galactooligosaccharides reduces markers of metabolic syndrome and modulates the fecal microbiota and immune function of overweight adults. J Nutr 143, 324–331.
13 JI Gordon (2012) Honor thy gut symbionts redux. Science 336, 1251–1253.
15 M Million , M Maraninchi , M Henry , et al. (2012) Obesity-associated gut microbiota is enriched in Lactobacillus reuteri and depleted in Bifidobacterium animalis and Methanobrevibacter smithii. Int J Obes (Lond) 36, 817–825.
17 GR Gibson , KP Scott , RA Rastall , et al. (2010) Dietary prebiotics: current status and new definition. IFIS Funct Foods Bull 7, 1–19.
20 G Thakur , A Mitra , K Pal , et al. (2009) Effect of flaxseed gum on reduction of blood glucose and cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60, 126–136.
22 AM Berggren , IME Björck & MGL Nyman (1993) Short-chain fatty acid content and pH in caecum of rats given various sources of carbohydrates. J Sci Food Agric 63, 397–406.
25 DR Matthews , JP Hosker , AS Rudenski , et al. (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412–419.
26 M Matsuda & RA DeFronzo (1999) Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycemic insulin clamp. Diabetes Care 22, 1462–1470.
29 J Qin , R Li , J Raes , et al. (2010) A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. Nature 464, 59–65.
30 B Amer , C Nebel , HC Bertram , et al. (2013) Novel method for quantification of individual free fatty acids in milk using an in-solution derivatisation approach and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Int Dairy J 32, 199–203.
31 P Louis & HJ Flint (2009) Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine. FEMS Microbiol Lett 294, 1–8.
32 LK Brahe , A Astrup & LH Larsen (2013) Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic diseases? Obes Rev 14, 950–959.
33 L Sun , Z Yu , X Ye , et al. (2010) A marker of endotoxemia is associated with obesity and related metabolic disorders in apparently healthy Chinese. Diabetes Care 33, 1925–1932.
35 S de Kort , D Keszthelyi & AA Masclee (2011) Leaky gut and diabetes mellitus: what is the link? Obes Rev 12, 449–458.
38 PD Cani , AM Neyrinck , F Fava , et al. (2007) Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Diabetologia 50, 2374–2383.
41 M Fazeli , P Hassanzadeh & S Alaei (2011) Cadmium chloride exhibits a profound toxic effect on bacterial microflora of the mice gastrointestinal tract. Hum Exp Toxicol 30, 152–159.
42 J Breton , S Massart , P Vandamme , et al. (2013) Ecotoxicology inside the gut: impact of heavy metals on the mouse microbiome. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 14, 62.
43 Y Liu , Y Li , K Liu , et al. (2014) Exposing to cadmium stress cause profound toxic effect on microbiota of the mice intestinal tract. PLOS ONE 9, e85323.
45 L Aronsson , Y Huang , P Parini , et al. (2010) Decreased fat storage by Lactobacillus paracasei is associated with increased levels of angiopoietin-like 4 protein (ANGPTL4). PLoS One 5, e13087.
47 M Million , E Angelakis , M Paul , et al. (2012) Comparative meta-analysis of the effect of Lactobacillus species on weight gain in humans and animals. Microb Pathog 53, 100–108.
48 ME Sanders & ML Marco (2010) Food formats for effective delivery of probiotics. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 1, 65–85.
49 Å Sullivan , A Palmgren & CE Nord (2001) Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei on intestinal colonisation of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Clostridium difficile in elderly persons. Anaerobe 7, 67–70.