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Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function: a fully controlled dietary intervention study

  • Lieke Gijsbers (a1) (a2), James I. Dower (a1) (a2), Casper G. Schalkwijk (a1) (a3) (a4), Yvo H. A. M. Kusters (a1) (a3) (a4), Stephan J. L. Bakker (a1) (a5), Peter C. H. Hollman (a1) (a2) and Johanna M. Geleijnse (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

High Na and low K intakes have adverse effects on blood pressure, which increases the risk for CVD. The role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in this pathophysiological process is not yet clear. In a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in untreated (pre)hypertensives, we examined the effects of Na and K supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation. During the study period, subjects were provided with a diet that contained 2·4 g/d of Na and 2·3 g/d of K for a 10 460 kJ (2500 kcal) intake. After 1-week run-in, subjects received capsules with supplemental Na (3·0 g/d), supplemental K (2·8 g/d) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. After each intervention, circulating biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation were measured. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and skin microvascular vasomotion were assessed in sub-groups of twenty-two to twenty-four subjects. Of thirty-seven randomised subjects, thirty-six completed the study. Following Na supplementation, serum endothelin-1 was increased by 0·24 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·45), but no change was seen in other endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers. FMD and microvascular vasomotion were unaffected by Na supplementation. K supplementation reduced IL-8 levels by 0·28 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·53), without affecting other circulating biomarkers. FMD was 1·16 % (95 % CI 0·37, 1·96) higher after K supplementation than after placebo. Microvascular vasomotion was unaffected. In conclusion, a 4-week increase in Na intake increased endothelin-1, but had no effect on other endothelial or inflammatory markers. Increased K intake had a beneficial effect on FMD and possibly IL-8, without affecting other circulating endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers.

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Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: L. Gijsbers, fax +31 317 483342, email lieke.gijsbers@wur.nl

References

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Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function: a fully controlled dietary intervention study

  • Lieke Gijsbers (a1) (a2), James I. Dower (a1) (a2), Casper G. Schalkwijk (a1) (a3) (a4), Yvo H. A. M. Kusters (a1) (a3) (a4), Stephan J. L. Bakker (a1) (a5), Peter C. H. Hollman (a1) (a2) and Johanna M. Geleijnse (a1) (a2)...

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