Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Relationships between dietary macronutrients and adult neurogenesis in the regulation of energy metabolism

  • Marianne A. Yon (a1), Suzanna L. Mauger (a2) and Lucy C. Pickavance (a1)

Of the environmental factors which have an impact on body weight, nutrients are most influential. Within normal limits, hypothalamic and related neuronal populations correct perturbations in energy metabolism, to return the body to its nutritional set-point, either through direct response to nutrients or indirectly via peripheral appetite signals. Excessive intake of certain macronutrients, such as simple carbohydrates and SFA, can lead to obesity and attendant metabolic dysfunction, also reflected in alterations in structural plasticity, and, intriguingly, neurogenesis, in some of these brain regions. Neurogenesis, previously thought to occur only in the embryo, is now known to take place in the adult brain, dependent on numerous stimulating and inhibiting factors, including dietary components. Because of classic associations between neurogenesis and the hippocampus, in learning and cognition, this brain region has also been the focus of attention in the study of links between diet and neurogenesis. Recently, however, a more complete picture of this relationship has been building: not only has the hypothalamus been shown to satisfy the criteria for a neurogenic niche, but appetite-related mediators, including circulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, pro-inflammatory cytokines and the endocannabinoid intracellular messengers, are also being examined for their potential role in mediating neurogenic responses to macronutrients. The present review draws together these observations and investigates whether PUFA may exert their attenuating effects on body weight through the stimulation of adult neurogenesis. Exploration of the effects of nutraceuticals on neurogenic brain regions may encourage the development of new rational therapies in the fight against obesity.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Relationships between dietary macronutrients and adult neurogenesis in the regulation of energy metabolism
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Relationships between dietary macronutrients and adult neurogenesis in the regulation of energy metabolism
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Relationships between dietary macronutrients and adult neurogenesis in the regulation of energy metabolism
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr L. C. Pickavance, fax +44 151 706 4080, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1 MBarton (2012) Childhood obesity: a life-long health risk. Acta Pharmacol Sin 33, 189193.

2 DHBessesen (2011) Regulation of body weight: what is the regulated parameter? Physiol Behav 104, 599607.

3 SEKanoski & TLDavidson (2011) Western diet consumption and cognitive impairment: links to hippocampal dysfunction and obesity. Physiol Behav 103, 5968.

4AG Dulloo , J Jacquet , G Solinas , et al. (2010) Body composition phenotypes in pathways to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes 34, 417.

5A Fernández-Quintela , I Churruca & MP Portillo (2007) The role of dietary fat in adipose tissue metabolism. Public Health Nutr 10, 11261131.

6KL Stanhope (2012) Role of fructose-containing sugars in the epidemics of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Annu Rev Med 63, 329343.

8 OKaidar-Person , GBar-Sela & BPerson (2011) The two major epidemics of the twenty-first century: obesity and cancer. Obes Surg 21, 17921797.

9BE Levin , L Kang , NM Sanders , et al. (2006) Role of neuronal glucosensing in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Diabetes 55, 122130.

10S Migrenne , C Le Foll , BE Levin , et al. (2010) Brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance. Diabetes Metab 37, 8388.

11HC Chen , JD Roth , BE Schroeder , et al. (2008) Role of islet-, gut-, and adipocyte-derived hormones in the central control of food intake and body weight: implications for an integrated neurohormonal approach to obesity pharmacotherapy. Curr Diabetes Rev 4, 7991.

12KC Berridge , C-Y Ho , JM Richard , et al. (2010) The tempted brain eats: pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders. Brain Res 1350, 4364.

13D Pella , K Otsuka & RB Singh (2011) Metabolic syndrome: a disease of the brain. Open Nutraceut J 4, 107118.

14P Södersten , C Bergh , M Zandian , et al. (2011) Obesity and the brain. Med Hypotheses 77, 371373.

16 SGBouret (2010) Role of early hormonal and nutritional experiences in shaping feeding behavior and hypothalamic development. J Nutr 140, 653657.

17 TLHorvath , BSarman , CGarcía-Cáceres , et al. (2010) Synaptic input organization of the melanocortin system predicts diet-induced hypothalamic reactive gliosis and obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, 1487514880.

18DR LaBelle , JM Cox , AA Dunn-Meynell , et al. (2009) Genetic and dietary effects on dendrites in the rat hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Physiol Behav 98, 511516.

19 YRavussin , RGutman , SDiano , et al. (2011) Effects of chronic weight perturbation on energy homeostasis and brain structure in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 300, 13521362.

20 HWang , LHStorlien & X-FHuang (1999) Influence of dietary fats on c-fos-like immunoreactivity in mouse hypothalamus. Brain Res 843, 184192.

21G-Q Chang , V Gaysinskaya , O Karatayev , et al. (2008) Maternal high-fat diet and fetal programming: increased proliferation of hypothalamic peptide-producing neurons that increase risk for overeating and obesity. J Neurosci 28, 1210712119.

22 MVKokoeva , HYin & JSFlier (2005) Neurogenesis in the hypothalamus of adult mice: potential role in energy balance. Science 310, 679683.

23 DALee , JLBedont , TPak , et al. (2012) Tanycytes of the hypothalamic median eminence form a diet-responsive neurogenic niche. Nat Neurosci 15, 700702.

24J Li , Y Tang & D Cai (2012) IKKβ/NF-κB disrupts adult hypothalamic neural stem cells to mediate a neurodegenerative mechanism of dietary obesity and pre-diabetes. Nat Cell Biol 14, 9991012.

25 DEGMcNay , NBriançon , MVKokoeva , et al. (2012) Remodeling of the arcuate nucleus energy-balance circuit is inhibited in obese mice. J Clin Invest 122, 142152.

26DT Balu & I Lucki (2009) Adult hippocampal neurogenesis: regulation, functional implications, and contribution to disease pathology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33, 232252.

27PS Eriksson , E Perfilieva , T Bjork-Eriksson , et al. (1998) Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Nat Med 4, 13131317.

28L Bonfanti & P Peretto (2011) Adult neurogenesis in mammals – a theme with many variations. Eur J Neurosci 34, 930950.

29 PJClark , RAKohman , DSMiller , et al. (2011) Genetic influences on exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis across 12 divergent mouse strains. Genes Brain Behav 10, 345353.

30R Kageyama , I Imayoshi & M Sakamoto (2012) The role of neurogenesis in olfaction-dependent behaviors. Behav Brain Res 227, 459463.

31 GLMing & HSong (2011) Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain: significant answers and significant questions. Neuron 70, 687702.

32 JSimpson & JPKelly (2011) The impact of environmental enrichment in laboratory rats – behavioural and neurochemical aspects. Behav Brain Res 222, 246264.

33MP Mattson , W Duan & Z Guo (2003) Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms. J Neurochem 84, 417431.

34HR Park & J Lee (2011) Neurogenic contributions made by dietary regulation to hippocampal neurogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1229, 2328.

35D Stangl & S Thuret (2009) Impact of diet on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Genes Nutr 4, 271282.

36TL Davidson , SE Kanoski , LA Schier , et al. (2007) A potential role for the hippocampus in energy intake and body weight regulation. Curr Opin Pharmacol 7, 613616.

37 MMigaud , MBatailler , SSegura , et al. (2010) Emerging new sites for adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain: a comparative study between the hypothalamus and the classical neurogenic zones. Eur J Neurosci 32, 20422052.

38TF Yuan & O Arias-Carrión (2011) Adult neurogenesis in the hypothalamus: evidence, functions and implications. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 10, 433439.

39Y Xu , N Tamamaki , T Noda , et al. (2005) Neurogenesis in the ependymal layer of the adult rat 3rd ventricle. Exp Neurol 192, 251264.

40MV Kokoeva , H Yin & JS Flier (2007) Evidence for constitutive neural cell proliferation in the adult murine hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol 505, 209220.

41 EAMarkakis , TDPalmer , LRandolph-Moore , et al. (2004) Novel neuronal phenotypes from neural progenitor cells. J Neurosci 24, 28862897.

42AA Pierce & AW Xu (2010) De novo neurogenesis in adult hypothalamus as a compensatory mechanism to regulate energy balance. J Neurosci 30, 723730.

43VA Rafalski & A Brunet (2011) Energy metabolism in adult neural stem cell fate. Prog Neurobiol 93, 182203.

44 DEBarnes & KYaffe (2011) The projected effect of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer's disease prevalence. Lancet Neurol 10, 819828.

45AJ Bruce-Keller , JN Keller & CD Morrison (2009) Obesity and vulnerability of the CNS. Biochim Biophys Acta 1792, 395400.

46 AAFarooqui , TFarooqui , FPanza , et al. (2012) Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for neurological disorders. Cell Mol Life Sci 69, 741762.

47FS Luppino , LM De Wit , PF Bouvy , et al. (2010) Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67, 220229.

50 RMUranga , AJBruce-Keller , CDMorrison , et al. (2010) Intersection between metabolic dysfunction, high fat diet consumption, and brain aging. J Neurochem 114, 344361.

51 MJKretsch , MWGreen , AKHFong , et al. (1997) Cognitive effects of a long-term weight reducing diet. Int J Obes 21, 1421.

52 MSiervo , RArnold , JCKWells , et al. (2011) Intentional weight loss in overweight and obese individuals and cognitive function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 12, 968983.

53S Vaynman & F Gomez-Pinilla (2006) Revenge of the “sit”: how lifestyle impacts neuronal and cognitive health through molecular systems that interface energy metabolism with neuronal plasticity. J Neurosci Res 84, 699715.

54 Ovon Bohlen Und Halbach (2007) Immunohistological markers for staging neurogenesis in adult hippocampus. Cell Tissue Res 329, 409420.

55VS Malik & FB Hu (2012) Sweeteners and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: the role of sugar-sweetened beverages. Curr Diab Rep 12, 195203.

56K Purcell , P Sumithran , C Haywood , et al. (2012) Nutrients that kill: is fructose guilty of causing the obesity epidemic? CAB Rev 7, ID 002.

57JL Sievenpiper , RJ de Souza , A Mirrahimi , et al. (2012) Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 156, 291304.

58EE Ventura , JN Davis & MI Goran (2011) Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content. Obesity 19, 868874.

59ME Bocarsly , ES Powell , NM Avena , et al. (2010) High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 97, 101106.

60 ASheludiakova , KRooney & RABoakes (2012) Metabolic and behavioural effects of sucrose and fructose/glucose drinks in the rat. Eur J Nutr 51, 110.

61 Kvan der Borght , RKöhnke , NGöransson , et al. (2011) Reduced neurogenesis in the rat hippocampus following high fructose consumption. Regul Pept 167, 2630.

62WA Banks (2008) The blood–brain barrier as a cause of obesity. Curr Pharm Des 14, 16061614.

63 JCGarza , MGuo , WZhang , et al. (2008) Leptin increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro . J Biol Chem 283, 1823818247.

65M Moon , S Kim , L Hwang , et al. (2009) Ghrelin regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice. Endocr J 56, 525531.

66W Zhang , TR Lin , Y Hu , et al. (2004) Ghrelin stimulates neurogenesis in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. J Physiol 559, 729737.

67W Zhang , Y Hu , TR Lin , et al. (2005) Stimulation of neurogenesis in rat nucleus of the solitary tract by ghrelin. Peptides 26, 22802288.

68J Guo , C Yu , H Li , et al. (2010) Impaired neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in streptozotocin-induced and spontaneous diabetic mice. Neurosci Res 68, 329336.

69 BTLang , YYan , RJDempsey , et al. (2009) Impaired neurogenesis in adult type-2 diabetic rats. Brain Res 1258, 2533.

70AM Stranahan , TV Arumugam , RG Cutler , et al. (2008) Diabetes impairs hippocampal function through glucocorticoid-mediated effects on new and mature neurons. Nat Neurosci 11, 309317.

71J Cordeira & M Rios (2011) Weighing in the role of BDNF in the central control of eating behavior. Mol Neurobiol 44, 441448.

72EE Noble , CJ Billington , CM Kotz , et al. (2011) The lighter side of BDNF. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 300, 10531069.

73 HRosas-Vargas , JDMartínez-Ezquerro & TBienvenu (2011) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, food intake regulation, and obesity. Arch Med Res 42, 482494.

74N Zeeni , C Chaumontet , E Moyse , et al. (2009) A positive change in energy balance modulates TrkB expression in the hypothalamus and nodose ganglia of rats. Brain Res 1289, 4955.

75V Funari , J Crandall & D Tolan (2007) Fructose metabolism in the cerebellum. Cerebellum 6, 130140.

78 BSMuhlhausler & ZYOng (2011) The fetal origins of obesity: early origins of altered food intake. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 11, 189197.

79 SSen , AHCarpenter , JHochstadt , et al. (2012) Nutrition, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy: a review of experimental evidence for long-term effects on the risk of obesity in offspring. Physiol Behav 107, 138145.

80Y Tozuka , E Wada & K Wada (2009) Diet-induced obesity in female mice leads to peroxidized lipid accumulations and impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis during the early life of their offspring. FASEB J 23, 19201934.

81Y Tozuka , M Kumon , E Wada , et al. (2010) Maternal obesity impairs hippocampal BDNF production and spatial learning performance in young mouse offspring. Neurochem Int 57, 235247.

82A Lindqvist , P Mohapel , B Bouter , et al. (2006) High-fat diet impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats. Eur J Neurol 13, 13851388.

83JP Thaler , CX Yi , EA Schur , et al. (2012) Obesity is associated with hypothalamic injury in rodents and humans. J Clin Invest 122, 153162.

85 IKHwang , IYKim , DWKim , et al. (2008) Strain-specific differences in cell proliferation and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice fed a high fat diet. Brain Res 1241, 16.

87SA Schreyer , DL Wilson & RC Leboeuf (1998) C57BL/6 mice fed high fat diets as models for diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 136, 1724.

88 DYYoo , WKim , KYYoo , et al. (2012) Effects of pyridoxine on a high-fat diet-induced reduction of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation depend on cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein in the mouse dentate gyrus. J Neurosci Res 90, 16151625.

90HR Park , M Park , J Choi , et al. (2010) A high-fat diet impairs neurogenesis: involvement of lipid peroxidation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Neurosci Lett 482, 235239.

91S Mansouri , H Ortsäter , O Pintor Gallego , et al. (2012) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide counteracts the impaired adult neural stem cell viability induced by palmitate. J Neurosci Res 90, 759768.

92C Boitard , N Etchamendy , J Sauvant , et al. (2012) Juvenile, but not adult exposure to high-fat diet impairs relational memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. Hippocampus 22, 20952100.

93 PRivera , YRomero-Zerbo , FJPavón , et al. (2011) Obesity-dependent cannabinoid modulation of proliferation in adult neurogenic regions. Eur J Neurosci 33, 15771586.

94TF Gamage & AH Lichtman (2012) The endocannabinoid system: role in energy regulation. Pediatr Blood Cancer 58, 144148.

96 IGalve-Roperh , TAguado , JPalazuelos , et al. (2007) The endocannabinoid system and neurogenesis in health and disease. Neuroscientist 13, 109114.

97K Jin , L Xie , SH Kim , et al. (2004) Defective adult neurogenesis in CB1 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice. Mol Pharmacol 66, 204208.

98 MJOudin , CHobbs & PDoherty (2011) DAGL-dependent endocannabinoid signalling: roles in axonal pathfinding, synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis. Eur J Neurosci 34, 16341646.

99 DRueda , BNavarro , AMartinez-Serrano , et al. (2002) The endocannabinoid anandamide inhibits neuronal progenitor cell differentiation through attenuation of the Rap1/B-Raf/ERK pathway. J Biol Chem 277, 4664546650.

100PW Siri-Tarino , Q Sun , FB Hu , et al. (2010) Saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: modulation by replacement nutrients. Curr Atheroscler Rep 12, 384390.

101 MKivipelto & ASolomon (2006) Cholesterol as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease – epidemiological evidence. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 114, 5057.

102 LERojo , JAFernández , AAMaccioni , et al. (2008) Neuroinflammation: implications for the pathogenesis and molecular diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Arch Med Res 39, 116.

103AM Stranahan , RG Cutler , C Button , et al. (2011) Diet-induced elevations in serum cholesterol are associated with alterations in hippocampal lipid metabolism and increased oxidative stress. J Neurochem 118, 611615.

104IY Kim , IK Hwang , JW Choi , et al. (2009) Effects of high cholesterol diet on newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice. J Vet Med Sci 71, 753758.

105TD Perera , D Lu , L Thirumangalakudi , et al. (2011) Correlations between hippocampal neurogenesis and metabolic indices in adult nonhuman primates. Neural Plast 2011, 16.

106D Cota & G Marsicano (2011) New fat and new neurons: endocannabinoids control neurogenesis in obesity (commentary on Rivera et al.). Eur J Neurosci 33, 15751576.

108ML Monje , H Toda & TD Palmer (2003) Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Science 302, 17601765.

109JD Buckley & PRC Howe (2010) Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be beneficial for reducing obesity – a review. Nutrients 2, 12121230.

110DE Cintra , ER Ropelle , JC Moraes , et al. (2012) Unsaturated fatty acids revert diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation in obesity. PLoS One 7, 30571.

111F Gomez-Pinilla & AG Gomez (2011) The influence of dietary factors in central nervous system plasticity and injury recovery. PM R 3, 111116.

112H Poudyal , SK Panchal , V Diwan , et al. (2011) Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome: effects and emerging mechanisms of action. Prog Lipid Res 50, 372387.

113HM Su (2010) Mechanisms of n-3 fatty acid-mediated development and maintenance of learning memory performance. J Nutr Biochem 21, 364373.

114A Bordoni , M Di Nunzio , F Danesi , et al. (2006) Polyunsaturated fatty acids: from diet to binding to PPARs and other nuclear receptors. Genes Nutr 1, 95106.

115SC Dyall , GJ Michael & AT Michael-Titus (2010) Omega-3 fatty acids reverse age-related decreases in nuclear receptors and increase neurogenesis in old rats. J Neurosci Res 88, 20912102.

116P Flachs , M Rossmeisl , M Bryhn , et al. (2009) Cellular and molecular effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on adipose tissue biology and metabolism. Clin Sci 116, 116.

117 UNDas (2008) Is metabolic syndrome X a disorder of the brain? Curr Nutr Food Sci 4, 73108.

118 NGolub , DGeba , SAMousa , et al. (2011) Greasing the wheels of managing overweight and obesity with omega-3 fatty acids. Med Hypotheses 77, 11141120.

120 SCDyall (2011) The role of omega-3 fatty acids in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides 18, 242245.

122 VBalanzá-Martínez , GRFries , GDColpo , et al. (2011) Therapeutic use of omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder. Expert Rev Neurother 11, 10291047.

123VR Venna , D Deplanque , C Allet , et al. (2009) PUFA induce antidepressant-like effects in parallel to structural and molecular changes in the hippocampus. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34, 199211.

125A Wu , Z Ying & F Gomez-Pinilla (2004) Dietary omega-3 fatty acids normalize BDNF levels, reduce oxidative damage, and counteract learning disability after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma 21, 14571467.

127Y Matsuoka (2011) Clearance of fear memory from the hippocampus through neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids: a novel preventive strategy for posttraumatic stress disorder? Biopsychosoc Med 5, 18.

128BS Beltz , MF Tlusty , JL Benton , et al. (2007) Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis. Neurosci Lett 415, 154158.

129 GKHZupanc (2009) Towards brain repair: insights from teleost fish. Semin Cell Dev Biol 20, 683690.

130AP Simopoulos (2011) Evolutionary aspects of diet: the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and the brain. Mol Neurobiol 44, 203215.

131T Matsudaira (2007) Attention deficit disorders – drugs or nutrition? Nutr Health 19, 5760.

133 FCalon , GPLim , FYang , et al. (2004) Docosahexaenoic acid protects from dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Neuron 43, 633645.

134 RCrupi , MCambiaghi , RDeckelbaum , et al. (2012) n-3 Fatty acids prevent impairment of neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in B-cell activating factor (BAFF) transgenic mice. Prev Med 54, 103108.

136 LFernández-Fernández , GComes , IBolea , et al. (2012) LMN diet, rich in polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, improves mouse cognitive decline associated with aging and Alzheimer's disease. Behav Brain Res 228, 261271.

137MBCV Goncalves , M Agudo , S Connor , et al. (2009) Sequential RARbeta and alpha signalling in vivo can induce adult forebrain neural progenitor cells to differentiate into neurons through Shh and FGF signalling pathways. Dev Biol 326, 305313.

138H Katsuki , E Kurimoto , S Takemori , et al. (2009) Retinoic acid receptor stimulation protects midbrain dopaminergic neurons from inflammatory degeneration via BDNF-mediated signaling. J Neurochem 110, 707718.

139E Kawakita , M Hashimoto & O Shido (2006) Docosahexaenoic acid promotes neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Neuroscience 139, 991997.

140M Katakura , M Hashimoto , HM Shahdat , et al. (2009) Docosahexaenoic acid promotes neuronal differentiation by regulating basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and cell cycle in neural stem cells. Neuroscience 160, 651660.

141AM De Urquiza , S Liu , M Sjoberg , et al. (2000) Docosahexaenoic acid, a ligand for the retinoid X receptor in mouse brain. Science 290, 21402144.

142F Calderon & HY Kim (2007) Role of RXR in neurite outgrowth induced by docosahexaenoic acid. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 77, 227232.

143A Cimini & MP Cerù (2008) Emerging roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the regulation of neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation. Stem Cell Rev 4, 293303.

144 DYOh & WSLagakos (2011) The role of G-protein-coupled receptors in mediating the effect of fatty acids on inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14, 322327.

145 STalukdar , JMOlefsky & OOsborn (2011) Targeting GPR120 and other fatty acid-sensing GPCRs ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammatory diseases. Trends Pharmacol Sci 32, 543550.

146NB Boneva & T Yamashima (2012) New insights into “GPR40–CREB interaction in adult neurogenesis” specific for primates. Hippocampus 22, 896905.

147 DMa , LLu , NBBoneva , et al. (2008) Expression of free fatty acid receptor GPR40 in the neurogenic niche of adult monkey hippocampus. Hippocampus 18, 326333.

148 DMa , MZhang , CPLarsen , et al. (2010) DHA promotes the neuronal differentiation of rat neural stem cells transfected with GPR40 gene. Brain Res 1330, 18.

149T Yamashima (2008) A putative link of PUFA, GPR40 and adult-born hippocampal neurons for memory. Prog Neurobiol 84, 105115.

150F Gomez-Pinilla (2011) Collaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancement. Nutr Health 20, 165170.

151M Cifuentes , M Pérez-Martín , JM Grondona , et al. (2011) A comparative analysis of intraperitoneal versus intracerebroventricular administration of bromodeoxyuridine for the study of cell proliferation in the adult rat brain. J Neurosci Methods 201, 307314.

152 PTaupin (2007) BrdU immunohistochemistry for studying adult neurogenesis: paradigms, pitfalls, limitations, and validation. Brain Res Rev 53, 198214.

153 AHamilton , SPatterson , DPorter , et al. (2011) Novel GLP-1 mimetics developed to treat type 2 diabetes promote progenitor cell proliferation in the brain. J Neurosci Res 89, 481489.

154 AHarkavyi & PSWhitton (2010) Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor stimulation as a means of neuroprotection. Br J Pharmacol 159, 495501.

155 CLee , K-YYoo , PRyu , et al. (2011) Decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor immunoreactivity in the dentate granule cell layer from adult in the gerbil hippocampus. Cell Mol Neurobiol 31, 345350.

156P Luciani , C Deledda , S Benvenuti , et al. (2010) Differentiating effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 in a human neuronal cell model. Cell Mol Life Sci 67, 37113723.

157E Mossello , E Ballini , M Boncinelli , et al. (2011) Glucagon-like peptide-1, diabetes, and cognitive decline: possible pathophysiological links and therapeutic opportunities. Exp Diabetes Res 2011, ID 281674.

158C Hischer (2012) Potential role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in neuroprotection. CNS Drugs 26, 871882.

159CT De Souza , EP Araujo , S Bordin , et al. (2005) Consumption of a fat-rich diet activates a proinflammatory response and induces insulin resistance in the hypothalamus. Endocrinology 146, 41924199.

160S Fernández-Veledo , I Nieto-Vazquez , R Vila-Bedmar , et al. (2009) Molecular mechanisms involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance: therapeutical approach. Arch Physiol Biochem 115, 227239.

161 PJPistell , CDMorrison , SGupta , et al. (2010) Cognitive impairment following high fat diet consumption is associated with brain inflammation. J Neuroimmunol 219, 2532.

162C Stryjecki & DM Mutch (2011) Fatty acid–gene interactions, adipokines and obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 285297.

164 PBRosenberg (2005) Clinical aspects of inflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Int Rev Psychiatry 17, 503514.

165PA Carpentier & TD Palmer (2009) Immune influence on adult neural stem cell regulation and function. Neuron 64, 7992.

166 GCShearer , OVSavinova & WSHarris (2012) Fish oil – how does it reduce plasma triglycerides? Biochim Biophys Acta 1821, 843851.

167 YTKuo , PWSo , JRParkinson , et al. (2010) The combined effects on neuronal activation and blood–brain barrier permeability of time and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice, as measured in vivo using MEMRI. Neuroimage 50, 13841391.

168N Sinn & PRC Howe (2008) Mental health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids may be mediated by improvements in cerebral vascular function. Biosci Hypotheses 1, 103108.

169E London & TW Castonguay (2010) High fructose diets increase 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in liver and visceral adipose in rats within 24-h exposure. Obesity 19, 925932.

170 MMaccarrone , SRossi , MBari , et al. (2008) Anandamide inhibits metabolism and physiological actions of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the striatum. Nat Neurosci 11, 152159.

171J Kim , Y Li & BA Watkins (2011) Endocannabinoid signaling and energy metabolism: a target for dietary intervention. Nutrition 27, 624632.

172 JCMoraes , ACoope , JMorari , et al. (2009) High-fat diet induces apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons. PLoS One 4, ID 5045.

173S Diano , F Naftolin , F Goglia , et al. (1998) Monosynaptic pathway between the arcuate nucleus expressing glial type II iodothyronine 5′-deiodinase mRNA and the median eminence-projective TRH cells of the rat paraventricular nucleus. J Neuroendocrinol 10, 731742.

174N Blondeau , C Nguemeni , DN Debruyne , et al. (2009) Subchronic alpha-linolenic acid treatment enhances brain plasticity and exerts an antidepressant effect: a versatile potential therapy for stroke. Neuropsychopharmacol 34, 25482559.

175 OLindvall , RABarker , OBrüstle , et al. (2012) Clinical translation of stem cells in neurodegenerative disorders. Cell Stem Cell 10, 151155.

177S Rössner , M Hammarstrand , E Hemmingsson , et al. (2008) Long-term weight loss and weight-loss maintenance strategies. Obes Rev 9, 624630.

178MM Kaczmarczyk , MJ Miller & GG Freund (2012) The health benefits of dietary fiber: beyond the usual suspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and color cancer. Metabolism 61, 10581066.

179 APan & FBHu (2011) Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: differences between liquid and solid food. Curr Opin Clin Nutr and Metab Care 14, 385390.

180JM Chell & AH Brand (2010) Nutrition-responsive glia control exit of neural stem cells from quiescence. Cell 143, 11611173.

181R Sousa-Nunes , LL Yee & AP Gould (2011) Fat cells reactivate quiescent neuroblasts via TOR and glial insulin relays in drosophila. Nature 471, 508512.

182AM Stranahan , D Khalil & E Gould (2006) Social isolation delays the positive effects of running on adult neurogenesis. Nat Neurosci 9, 526533.

183 JSSnyder , JSChoe , MAClifford , et al. (2009) Adult-born hippocampal neurons are more numerous, faster maturing, and more involved in behavior in rats than in mice. J Neurosci 29, 1448414495.

184 ANMadsen , GHansen , SJPaulsen , et al. (2010) Long-term characterization of the diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rat model: a polygenetic rat model mimicking the human obesity syndrome. J Endocrinol 206, 287296.

185TL Davidson , A Monnot , AU Neal , et al. (2012) The effects of a high-energy diet on hippocampal-dependent discrimination performance and blood–brain barrier integrity differ for diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rats. Physiol Behav 107, 2633.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *