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The cardiovascular risk reduction benefits of a low-carbohydrate diet outweigh the potential increase in LDL-cholesterol

  • Thomas R. Wood (a1), Robert Hansen (a2), Axel F. Sigurðsson (a3) and Guðmundur F. Jóhannsson (a4)
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email t.r.wood@medisin.uio.no
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2. CE Naude , A Schoonees , M Senekal , et al. (2014) Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 9, e100652.

3. J Sackner-Bernstein , D Kanter & S Kaul (2015) Dietary intervention for overweight and obese adults: comparison of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets. A meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 10, e0139817.

4. DK Tobias , M Chen , JE Manson , et al. (2015) Effect of low-fat diet interventions versus other diet interventions on long-term weight change in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 3, 968979.

5. RD Feinman , WK Pogozelski , A Astrup , et al. (2015) Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base. Nutrition 31, 113.

6. KK Berneis & RM Krauss (2002) Metabolic origins and clinical significance of LDL heterogeneity. J Lipid Res 43, 13631379.

9. R McPherson (2013) Remnant cholesterol: ‘non-(HDL-C+LDL-C)’ as a coronary artery disease risk factor. J Am Coll Cardiol 61, 437439.

13. HN Ginsberg , YL Zhang & A Hernandez-Ono (2006) Metabolic syndrome: focus on dyslipidemia. Obesity (Silver Spring) 14, Suppl. 1, 41s49s.

14. A Accurso , RK Bernstein , A Dahlqvist , et al. (2008) Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutr Metab (Lond) 5, 9.

15. M Fukuchi , J Watanabe , K Kumagai , et al. (2002) Normal and oxidized low density lipoproteins accumulate deep in physiologically thickened intima of human coronary arteries. Lab Invest 82, 14371447.

17. P Holvoet , A Mertens , P Verhamme , et al. (2001) Circulating oxidized LDL is a useful marker for identifying patients with coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21, 844848.

18. H Soran & PN Durrington (2011) Susceptibility of LDL and its subfractions to glycation. Curr Opin Lipidol 22, 254261.

19. A Chait , RL Brazg , DL Tribble , et al. (1993) Susceptibility of small, dense, low-density lipoproteins to oxidative modification in subjects with the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, pattern B. Am J Med 94, 350356.

21. FK Welty (2013) How do elevated triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol affect inflammation and atherothrombosis? Curr Cardiol Rep 15, 400.

22. P Holvoet , SB Kritchevsky , RP Tracy , et al. (2004) The metabolic syndrome, circulating oxidized LDL, and risk of myocardial infarction in well-functioning elderly people in the health, aging, and body composition cohort. Diabetes 53, 10681073.

23. J Salazar , LC Olivar , E Ramos , et al. (2015) Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein: an innovative target for proteomics and lipidomics. Cholesterol 2015, 296417.

24. CE Forsythe , SD Phinney , ML Fernandez , et al. (2008) Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation. Lipids 43, 6577.

26. DM Diamond & U Ravnskov (2015) How statistical deception created the appearance that statins are safe and effective in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 8, 201210.

28. JK Liao & U Laufs (2005) Pleiotropic effects of statins. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 45, 89118.

31. Anonymous (1982) Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Risk factor changes and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group. JAMA 248, 14651477.

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British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
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