This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
3MC Chapuy , ME Arlot , F Duboeuf , (1992) Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in elderly women. N Engl J Med 327, 1637–1642.
4WS Chee , AR Suriah , SP Chan , (2003) The effect of milk supplementation on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Chinese women in Malaysia. Osteoporos Int 14, 828–834.
5B Dawson-Hughes , SS Harris , EA Krall , (1997) Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337, 670–676.
6K Engelke , W Kemmler , D Lauber , (2006) Exercise maintains bone density at spine and hip EFOPS: a 3-year longitudinal study in early postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 17, 133–142.
7ML Frost , GM Blake & I Fogelman (2001) Changes in QUS and BMD measurements with antiresorptive therapy: a two-year longitudinal study. Calcif Tissue Int 69, 138–146.
8D Hunter , P Major , N Arden , (2000) A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on preventing postmenopausal bone loss and modifying bone metabolism using identical twin pairs. J Bone Miner Res 15, 2276–2283.
9MA Krieg , AF Jacquet , M Bremgartner , (1999) Effect of supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium on quantitative ultrasound of bone in elderly institutionalized women: a longitudinal study. Osteoporos Int 9, 483–488.
10EM Lau , H Lynn , YH Chan , (2002) Milk supplementation prevents bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women over 3 years. Bone 31, 536–540.
11C Meier , HW Woitge , K Witte , (2004) Supplementation with oral vitamin D3 and calcium during winter prevents seasonal bone loss: a randomized controlled open-label prospective trial. J Bone Miner Res 19, 1221–1230.
12S Palacios , C Castelo-Branco , I Cifuentes , (2005) Changes in bone turnover markers after calcium-enriched milk supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, prospective clinical trial. Menopause 12, 63–68.
13R Prince , A Devine , I Dick , (1995) The effects of calcium supplementation (milk powder or tablets) and exercise on bone density in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 10, 1068–1075.
14BL Riggs , WM O'Fallon , J Muhs , (1998) Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on serum parathyroid hormone level, bone turnover, and bone loss in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 13, 168–174.
15D Storm , R Eslin , ES Porter , (1998) Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83, 3817–3825.
16L Rosenthall , J Caminis & A Tenehouse (1999) Calcaneal ultrasonometry: response to treatment in comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry measurements of the lumbar spine and femur. Calcif Tissue Int 64, 200–204.
17IR Reid , RW Ames , MC Evans , (1995) Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Med 98, 331–335.
18RP Heaney , DA McCarron , B Dawson-Hughes , (1999) Dietary changes favorably affect bone remodeling in older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 1228–1233.
20CC Gluer (1999) Monitoring skeletal changes by radiological techniques. J Bone Miner Res 14, 1952–1962.
21Anonymous (1994) NIH Consensus conference. Optimal calcium intake. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Optimal Calcium Intake. JAMA 272, 1942–1948.
22L Mosekilde (2005) Vitamin D and the elderly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 62, 265–281.
24PB Rapuri , HK Kinyamu , JC Gallagher , (2002) Seasonal changes in calciotropic hormones, bone markers, and bone mineral density in elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 2024–2032.
25GD Miller , JK Jarvis & LD McBean (2001) The importance of meeting calcium needs with foods. J Am Coll Nutr 20, 168S–185S.
26SJ Whiting & MS Calvo (2005) Dietary recommendations to meet both endocrine and autocrine needs of vitamin D. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 97, 7–12.
28G Isaia , R Giorgino , GB Rini , (2003) Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in elderly women in Italy: clinical consequences and risk factors. Osteoporos Int 14, 577–582.
29MH Gannage-Yared , R Chemali , N Yaacoub , (2000) Hypovitaminosis D in a sunny country: relation to lifestyle and bone markers. J Bone Miner Res 15, 1856–1862.
30RP van der Wielen , MR Lowik , H van den Berg , (1995) Serum vitamin D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet 346, 207–210.
32NK Janz & MH Becker (1984) The Health Belief Model: a decade later. Health Educ Q 11, 1–47.
33A Bandura , NE Adams & J Beyer (1977) Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change. J Pers Soc Psychol 35, 125–139.
34Y Manios , G Moschonis , I Katsaroli , (2007) Changes in diet quality score, macro- and micronutrients intake following a nutrition education intervention in postmenopausal women. J Hum Nutr Diet 20, 126–131.
37J Groothausen , H Siemer , HCG Kemper , (1997) Influence of peak strain on lumbar bone mineral density: an analysis of 15-year physical activity in young males and females. Pediatr Exerc Sci 9, 159–173.
40R Rizzoli , S Boonen , ML Brandi , (2008) The role of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis. Bone 42, 246–249.
41HA Bischoff-Ferrari , WC Willett , JB Wong , (2005) Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 293, 2257–2264.
42B Kitchin & SL Morgan (2007) Not just calcium and vitamin D: other nutritional considerations in osteoporosis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 9, 85–92.
44C Palacios (2006) The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46, 621–628.
45I Wolff , JJ van Croonenborg , HC Kemper , (1999) The effect of exercise training programs on bone mass: a meta-analysis of published controlled trials in pre- and postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 9, 1–12.
46LM Reiser & EA Schlenk (2009) Clinical use of physical activity measures. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 21, 87–94.