1Khachik, F, Beecher, GR, Goli, M, et al. (1992) Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma. Anal Chem 64, 2111–2122.
2Rao, AV & Rao, LG (2007) Carotenoids and human health. Pharmacol Res 55, 207–216.
3Maiani, G, Caston, MJ, Catasta, G, et al. (2009) Carotenoids: actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res 53, Suppl. 2, S194–S218.
4Bone, RA, Landrum, JT, Friedes, LM, et al. (1997) Distribution of lutein and zeaxanthin stereoisomers in the human retina. Exp Eye Res 64, 211–218.
5Junghans, A, Sies, H & Stahl, W (2001) Macular pigments lutein and zeaxanthin as blue light filters studied in liposomes. Arch Biochem Biophys 391, 160–164.
6Krinsky, NI (2002) Possible biologic mechanisms for a protective role of xanthophylls. J Nutr 132, 540S–542S.
7Snodderly, DM (1995) Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins. Am J Clin Nutr 62, 1448S–1461S.
8Richer, S, Stiles, W, Statkute, L, et al. (2004) Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial). Optometry 75, 216–230.
9Reboul, E, Richelle, M, Perrot, E, et al. (2006) Bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E from their main dietary sources. J Agric Food Chem 54, 8749–8755.
10van Het Hof, KH, West, CE, Weststrate, JA, et al. (2000) Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids. J Nutr 130, 503–506.
11Borel, P (2003) Factors affecting intestinal absorption of highly lipophilic food microconstituents (fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids and phytosterols). Clin Chem Lab Med 41, 979–994.
12Yonekura, L & Nagao, A (2007) Intestinal absorption of dietary carotenoids. Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 107–115.
13Roodenburg, AJ, Leenen, R, van Het Hof, KH, et al. (2000) Amount of fat in the diet affects bioavailability of lutein esters but not of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin E in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1187–1193.
14Unlu, NZ, Bohn, T, Clinton, SK, et al. (2005) Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil. J Nutr 135, 431–436.
15Lakshminarayana, R, Raju, M, Krishnakantha, TP, et al. (2007) Lutein and zeaxanthin in leafy greens and their bioavailability: olive oil influences the absorption of dietary lutein and its accumulation in adult rats. J Agric Food Chem 55, 6395–6400.
16Huo, T, Ferruzzi, MG, Schwartz, SJ, et al. (2007) Impact of fatty acyl composition and quantity of triglycerides on bioaccessibility of dietary carotenoids. J Agric Food Chem 55, 8950–8957.
17Arvisenet, G, Billy, L, Poinot, P, et al. (2008) Effect of apple particle state on the release of volatile compounds in a new artificial mouth device. J Agric Food Chem 56, 3245–3253.
18Chantret, I, Rodolosse, A, Barbat, A, et al. (1994) Differential expression of sucrase-isomaltase in clones isolated from early and late passages of the cell line Caco-2: evidence for glucose-dependent negative regulation. J Cell Sci 107, 213–225.
19Salvini, S, Charbonnier, M, Defoort, C, et al. (2002) Functional characterization of three clones of the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line for dietary lipid processing. Br J Nutr 87, 211–217.
20Reboul, E, Abou, L, Mikail, C, et al. (2005) Lutein transport by Caco-2 TC-7 cells occurs partly by a facilitated process involving the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Biochem J 387, 455–461.
21Hercberg, S, Galan, P, Preziosi, P, et al. (2004) The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 164, 2335–2342.
22Borel, P, de Edelenyi, FS, Vincent-Baudry, S, et al. (2010) Genetic variants in BCMO1 and CD36 are associated with plasma lutein concentrations and macular pigment optical density in humans. Ann Med 43, 47–59.
23Kesse-Guyot, E, Castetbon, K, Touvier, M, et al. (2010) Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire designed for French adults. Ann Nutr Metab 57, 153–162.
24Hercberg, S (2005) Tables de composition des aliments SU.VI.MAX (Tables of Food Composition SU.VI.MAX) (in French). Paris: Economica.
25Gleize, B, Steib, M, André, M, et al. (2012) Simple and fast HPLC method for simultaneous determination of retinol, tocopherols, coenzyme Q10 and carotenoids in complex samples. Food Chem 134, 2560–2564.
26Willet, W(1998) Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed. New York:Oxford University Press.
27Ito, Y, Sasaki, R, Suzuki, S, et al. (1991) Relationship between serum xanthophyll levels and the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol or foods in healthy inhabitants of Japan. Int J Epidemiol 20, 615–620.
28Rock, CL, Thornquist, MD, Neuhouser, ML, et al. (2002) Diet and lifestyle correlates of lutein in the blood and diet. J Nutr 132, 525S–530S.
29Gruber, M, Chappell, R, Millen, A, et al. (2004) Correlates of serum lutein+zeaxanthin: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Nutr 134, 2387–2394.
30O'Connell, O, Ryan, L, O'Sullivan, L, et al. (2008) Carotenoid micellarization varies greatly between individual and mixed vegetables with or without the addition of fat and fiber. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 78, 238–246.
31Tyssandier, V, Cardinault, N, Caris-Veyrat, C, et al. (2002) Vegetable-borne lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene compete for incorporation into chylomicrons, with no adverse effect on the medium-term (3-wk) plasma status of carotenoids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 526–534.
32Reboul, E, Thap, S, Perrot, E, et al. (2007) Effect of the main dietary antioxidants (carotenoids, gamma-tocopherol, polyphenols, and vitamin C) on alpha-tocopherol absorption. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 1167–1173.
33Carey, MC & Small, DM (1970) The characteristics of mixed micellar solutions with particular reference to bile. Am J Med 49, 590–608.
34Borel, P, Armand, M, Ythier, P, et al. (1994) Hydrolysis of emulsions with different triglycerides and droplet sizes by gastric lipase in vitro – effect on pancreatic lipase activity. J Nutr Biochem 5, 124–133.
35Reboul, E, Thap, S, Tourniaire, F, et al. (2007) Differential effect of dietary antioxidant classes (carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E) on lutein absorption. Br J Nutr 97, 440–446.
36Kanner, J & Lapidot, T (2001) The stomach as a bioreactor: dietary lipid peroxidation in the gastric fluid and the effects of plant-derived antioxidants. Free Radic Biol Med 31, 1388–1395.
37Lorrain, B, Dangles, O, Genot, C, et al. (2010) Chemical modeling of heme-induced lipid oxidation in gastric conditions and inhibition by dietary polyphenols. J Agric Food Chem 58, 676–683.
38Harris, WS & Muzio, F (1993) Fish oil reduces postprandial triglyceride concentrations without accelerating lipid-emulsion removal rates. Am J Clin Nutr 58, 68–74.
39van Greevenbroek, MM, van Meer, G, Erkelens, DW, et al. (1996) Effects of saturated, mono-, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the secretion of apo B containing lipoproteins by Caco-2 cells. Atherosclerosis 121, 139–150.
40Sauvant, P, Mekki, N, Charbonnier, M, et al. (2003) Amounts and types of fatty acids in meals affect the pattern of retinoids secreted in human chylomicrons after a high-dose preformed vitamin A intake. Metabolism 52, 514–519.
41Gleize, B, Payet, M, Esmail, MH, et al. (2004) Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched egg phospholipids supplementation induces accretion of arachidonic acid in rat blood lipids. Cell Mol Biol 50, 861–867.