Skip to main content

Effects of dietary live yeast supplementation on growth performance, diarrhoea severity, intestinal permeability and immunological parameters of weaned piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88

  • Lianqiang Che (a1), Qin Xu (a1), Cheng Wu (a1), Yuheng Luo (a1), Xiaobo Huang (a2), Bo Zhang (a3), Eric Auclair (a3), Tadele Kiros (a3), Zhengfeng Fang (a1), Yan Lin (a1), Shengyu Xu (a1), Bin Feng (a1), Jian Li (a1) and De Wu (a1)...

This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary live yeast (LY) supplementation on growth, intestinal permeability and immunological parameters of piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC). Piglets weaned at 21 d were allocated into three treatments with six pens and six piglets per pen, receiving the control diet (CON), diets supplemented with antibiotics plus zinc oxide (ANT–ZnO) and LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-4407), respectively, for a period of 2 weeks. On day 8, thirty-six piglets were selected as control without ETEC (CON), CON–ETEC, ANT–ZnO–ETEC and LY–ETEC groups challenged with ETEC until day 10 for sample collections. Piglets fed ANT–ZnO diet had the highest average daily gain and average daily feed intake (P<0·05) during the 1st week, but ADG of piglets fed the ANT–ZnO diet was similar as piglets fed LY diet during the second week. Piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC had markedly lower diarrhoea score (P<0·05) than piglets with CON–ETEC during the 24 h after ETEC challenge. Relative to piglets with CON, the counts of E. coli, urinary ratio of lactulose to mannitol, plasma IL-6 concentration, mRNA abundances of innate immunity-related genes in ileum and mesenteric lymph node tissues were increased (P<0·05), whereas the villous height of jejunum and relative protein expression of ileum claudin-1 were decreased (P<0·05) in piglets with CON–ETEC; however, these parameters did not markedly change in piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC. In summary, dietary LY supplementation could alleviate the severity of diarrhoea in piglets with ETEC, which may be associated with the improved permeability, innate immunity and bacterial profile.

Corresponding author
* Corresponding authors: L. Che, fax +86 28 86291256, email; Y. Luo, email
Hide All

Lianqiang Che and Qin Xu contributed equally to this article.

Hide All
1. Pluske, JR, Pethick, DW, Hopwood, DE, et al. (2002) Nutritional influences on some major enteric bacterial diseases of pig. Nutr Res Rev 15, 333371.
2. Lange, CFMD, Pluske, J, Gong, J, et al. (2010) Strategic use of feed ingredients and feed additives to stimulate gut health and development in young pigs. Livest Sci 134, 124134.
3. Poulsen, HD (1989) Zinc Oxide for Pigs During Weaning, Meddelelse no. 746. Foulum, Denmark: Statens Husdyrbrugsforsoeg.
4. Heo, JM, Kim, JC, Hansen, CF, et al. (2010) Effects of dietary protein level and zinc oxide supplementation on the incidence of post-weaning diarrhoea in weaner pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli . Livest Sci 133, 210213.
5. McCully, G A HGM & Link, J E (1995) Evaluation of zinc sources for the newly weaned pig. J Anim Sci 73, Suppl. 1, 72.
6. Han, YK & Thacker, PA (2009) Performance, nutrient digestibility and nutrient balance in weaned pigs fed diets supplemented with antibiotics or zinc oxide. J Anim Vet Adv 8, 868875.
7. Walk, CL, Wilcock, P & Magowan, E (2015) Evaluation of the effects of pharmacological zinc oxide and phosphorus source on weaned piglet growth performance, plasma minerals and mineral digestibility. Animal 9, 11451152.
8. Sales, J (2013) Effects of pharmacological concentrations of dietary zinc oxide on growth of post-weaning pigs: a meta-analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res 152, 343.
9. Looft, T, Johnson, TA, Allen, HK, et al. (2012) In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 16911696.
10. Zanello, G, Meurens, F, Berri, M, et al. (2009) Saccharomyces boulardii effects on gastrointestinal diseases. Curr Issues Mol Biol 11, 47.
11. Zanello, G, Berri, M, Dupont, J, et al. (2011) Saccharomyces cerevisiae modulates immune gene expressions and inhibits ETEC-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. PLoS ONE 6, e18573.
12. Zanello, G, Meurens, F, Berri, M, et al. (2011) Saccharomyces cerevisiae decreases inflammatory responses induced by F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. Vet Immunol Immunop 141, 133138.
13. Badia, R, Lizardo, R, Martinez, P, et al. (2012) The influence of dietary locust bean gum and live yeast on some digestive immunological parameters of piglets experimentally challenged with. J Anim Sci 90, 260262.
14. Jurgens, MH, Rikabi, RA & Zimmerman, DR (1997) The effect of dietary active dry yeast supplement on performance of sows during gestation-lactation and their pigs. J Anim Sci 75, 593597.
15. Trckova, M, Faldyna, M, Alexa, P, et al. (2014) The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on postweaning diarrhea, immune response, and growth performance in weaned piglets. J Anim Sci 92, 767.
16. Trevisi, P, Colombo, M, Priori, D, et al. (2015) Comparison of three patterns of feed supplementation with live yeast on postweaning diarrhea, health status, and blood metabolic profile of susceptible weaning pigs orally challenged with F4ac. J Anim Sci 93, 22252233.
17. Hou, Y, Wang, L, Ding, B, et al. (2010) Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation ameliorates intestinal injury in lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets. Amino Acids 39, 555564.
18. Hu, L, Liu, Y, Yan, C, et al. (2015) Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction. Br J Nutr 114, 5362.
19. Shen, X, Yi, D, Ni, X, et al. (2014) Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on production performance, immune characteristics, antioxidant status, and intestinal microflora of bursin-immunized broilers. Can J Microbiol 60, 193203.
20. Behrens, RH, Docherty, H, Elia, M, et al. (1984) A simple enzymatic method for the assay of urinary lactulose. Clin Chim Acta 137, 361367.
21. Blood, J, Ingle, AR, Allison, N, et al. (1991) Rapid enzymatic method for the measurement of mannitol in urine. Ann Clin Biochem 28, 401.
22. Zhang, BK & Guo, YM (2009) Supplemental zinc reduced intestinal permeability by enhancing occludin and zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) expression in weaning piglets. Br J Nutr 102, 687.
23. Livak, KJ & Schmittgen, TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods 25, 402408.
24. Guo, Y (2009) Supplemental zinc reduced intestinal permeability by enhancing occludin and zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) expression in weaning piglets. Br J Nutr 102, 687.
25. Giannenas, I, Papadopoulos, E, Tsalie, E, et al. (2012) Assessment of dietary supplementation with probiotics on performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens infected with Eimeria tenella . Vet Parasitol 188, 3140.
26. Bosi, P, Merialdi, G, Scandurra, S, et al. (2011) Feed supplemented with 3 different antibiotics improved food intake and decreased the activation of the humoral immune response in healthy weaned pigs but had differing effects on intestinal microbiota. J Anim Sci 89, 40434053.
27. Yin, JD, Li, XL, Li, D, et al. (2009) Dietary supplementation with zinc oxide stimulates ghrelin secretion from the stomach of young pigs. J Nutr Biochem 20, 783790.
28. Duan, D, Zhang, S, Li, X, et al. (2014) Activation of the TLR/MyD88/NF-κB signal pathway contributes to changes in IL-4 and IL-12 production in piglet lymphocytes infected with porcine circovirus type 2 in vitro . PLOS ONE 9, e97653.
29. Kawai, T & Akira, S (2009) The roles of TLRs, RLRs and NLRs in pathogen recognition. Int Immunol 21, 317.
30. Uematsu, S & Akira, S (2006) The role of Toll-like receptors in immune disorders. Expert Opin on Biol Ther 6, 203214.
31. Li, H, Zhang, L, Chen, L, et al. (2016) Lactobacillus acidophilusalleviates the inflammatory response to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 via inhibition of the NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in piglets. BMC Microbiol 16, 273.
32. Trevisi, P, Casini, L, Coloretti, F, et al. (2011) Dietary addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG impairs the health of Escherichia coli F4-challenged piglets. Animal 5, 13541360.
33. Jensen, ML, Thymann, T, Cilieborg, MS, et al. (2014) Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 306, 5971.
34. Hu, CH, Song, ZH, Xiao, K, et al. (2014) Zinc oxide influences intestinal integrity, the expressions of genes associated with inflammation and TLR4-myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathways in weanling pigs. Innate Immun 20, 478486.
35. Roselli, M, Finamore, A, Garaguso, I, et al. (2003) Zinc oxide protects cultured enterocytes from the damage induced by Escherichia coli . J Nutr 133, 40774082.
36. Zapater, P, González-Navajas, JM, Such, J, et al. (2015) Immunomodulating effects of antibiotics used in the prophylaxis of bacterial infections in advanced cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol 21, 1149311501.
37. Broadway, PR, Carroll, JA & Sanchez, NCB (2015) Live yeast and yeast cell wall supplements enhance immune function and performance in food-producing livestock: a review[J]. Microorganisms 3, 417427.
38. Ansanay, V, Dequin, S, Camarasa, C, et al. (1996) Malolactic fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae as compared with engineered Schizosaccharomyces pombe . Yeast 12, 215225.
39. Ulluwishewa, D, Anderson, RC, Mcnabb, WC, et al. (2011) Regulation of tight junction permeability by intestinal bacteria and dietary components. J Nutr 141, 769.
40. Bischoff, SC, Barbara, G, Buurman, W, et al. (2014) Intestinal permeability – a new target for disease prevention and therapy. BMC Gastroenterol 14, 189.
41. Michielan, A & D’Incà, R (2015) Intestinal permeability in inflammatory bowel disease: pathogenesis, clinical evaluation, and therapy of leaky gut. Mediators Inflamm 2015, 628157.
42. Bontempo, V, Giancamillo, AD, Savoini, G, et al. (2006) Live yeast dietary supplementation acts upon intestinal morpho-functional aspects and growth in weanling piglets. Anim Feed Sci Tech 129, 224236.
43. Sivignon, A, De, VA, Barnich, N, et al. (2015) Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 prevents colitis induced by AIEC bacteria in the transgenic mouse model mimicking Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 21, 276.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed