Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effects of soya isoflavones and exercise on body composition and clinical risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in overweight postmenopausal women: a 6-month double-blind controlled trial

  • Stéphane Choquette (a1) (a2), Éléonor Riesco (a1) (a2), Éric Cormier (a1), Tommy Dion (a1), Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre (a1) (a3) and Isabelle J. Dionne (a1) (a2)...
Abstract

Results from a pilot project indicate that isoflavones and exercise could have an additive effect on body composition and clinical risk factors of CVD in postmenopausal women. The objective of the present study was to assess the combined effect of exercise and isoflavones in overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women. In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, 100 overweight-to-obese (BMI 29·9 (sd 3·2) kg/m2) postmenopausal women were assigned to four groups: (1) placebo (PLA); (2) isoflavones (ISO); (3) exercise and placebo (Ex+PLA); (4) exercise and isoflavones (Ex+ISO). The supplementation contained 70 mg/d of isoflavones. Exercise consisted of three weekly sessions of resistance training and aerobics. Outcome measures included fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density, lipid profile, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance (homeostasis assessment model). The main effects of exercise were observed for total FM (P = 0·02), FM% (P < 0·01), trunk FM% (P = 0·05), arm FM% (P < 0·01), leg FM% (P = 0·02), arm LBM (P < 0·01), leg LBM (P = 0·02) and C-reactive protein (P < 0·01). A main effect was detected for isoflavones in improving leg FM% (P = 0·05). No interactions were observed between isoflavones and exercise. In conclusion, it was observed that 6 months of exercise brought favourable changes in total FM, FM% and LBM in overweight postmenopausal women. No synergistic effects were observed between exercise and isoflavones. However, isoflavones could have a beneficial effect on leg FM%.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of soya isoflavones and exercise on body composition and clinical risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in overweight postmenopausal women: a 6-month double-blind controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of soya isoflavones and exercise on body composition and clinical risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in overweight postmenopausal women: a 6-month double-blind controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of soya isoflavones and exercise on body composition and clinical risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in overweight postmenopausal women: a 6-month double-blind controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: I. J. Dionne, fax +1 819 829 7141, email isabelle.dionne@usherbrooke.ca
References
Hide All
1LaRosa JC (2002) Outcomes of lipid-lowering treatment in postmenopausal women. Drugs Aging 19, 595604.
2Ijuin H, Douchi T, Oki T, et al. (1999) The contribution of menopause to changes in body-fat distribution. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 25, 367372.
3Kanis JA (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: synopsis of a WHO report. WHO Study Group. Osteoporos Int 4, 368381.
4Barrett-Connor E (1993) Epidemiology and the menopause: a global overview. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud 38, Suppl. 1, 614.
5Ren J & Kelley RO (2009) Cardiac health in women with metabolic syndrome: clinical aspects and pathophysiology. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17, 11141123.
6Rosano GM, Vitale C, Silvestri A, et al. (2004) The metabolic syndrome in women: implications for therapy. Int J Clin Pract Suppl 139, 2025.
7Mosca L, Linfante AH, Benjamin EJ, et al. (2005) National study of physician awareness and adherence to cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines. Circulation 111, 499510.
8Alexander J & Clearfield M (2006) Cardiovascular disease after menopause: a growing epidemic. Minerva Ginecol 58, 3540.
9Cummings SR, Black DM & Rubin SM (1989) Lifetime risks of hip, Colles’, or vertebral fracture and coronary heart disease among white postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 149, 24452448.
10Villareal DT, Binder EF, Yarasheski KE, et al. (2003) Effects of exercise training added to ongoing hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in frail elderly women. J Am Geriatr Soc 51, 985990.
11Evans EM, Van Pelt RE, Binder EF, et al. (2001) Effects of HRT and exercise training on insulin action, glucose tolerance, and body composition in older women. J Appl Physiol 90, 20332040.
12Sipilä S, Taaffe DR, Cheng S, et al. (2001) Effects of hormone replacement therapy and high-impact physical exercise on skeletal muscle in post-menopausal women: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Clin Sci (Lond) 101, 147157.
13Huss JM, Torra IP, Staels B, et al. (2004) Estrogen-related receptor alpha directs peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha signaling in the transcriptional control of energy metabolism in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Mol Cell Biol 24, 90799091.
14Hackney AC, Muoio D & Meyer WR (2000) The effect of sex steroid hormones on substrate oxidation during prolonged submaximal exercise in women. Jpn J Physiol 50, 489494.
15Phillips SK, Rook KM, Siddle NC, et al. (1993) Muscle weakness in women occurs at an earlier age than in men, but strength is preserved by hormone replacement therapy. Clin Sci (Lond) 84, 9598.
16Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. (2002) Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288, 321333.
17Cassidy A, Bingham S & Setchell KD (1994) Biological effects of a diet of soy protein rich in isoflavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 333340.
18Shutt DA & Cox RI (1972) Steroid and phyto-oestrogen binding to sheep uterine receptors in vitro. J Endocrinol 52, 299310.
19Anderson JW, Johnstone BM & Cook-Newell ME (1995) Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N Engl J Med 333, 276282.
20Zhan S & Ho SC (2005) Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on the lipid profile. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 397408.
21Taku K, Umegaki K, Ishimi Y, et al. (2008) Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ther Clin Risk Manag 4, 10971103.
22Ho SC, Chen YM, Ho SS, et al. (2007) Soy isoflavone supplementation and fasting serum glucose and lipid profile among postmenopausal Chinese women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause 14, 905912.
23Yamori Y, Moriguchi EH, Teramoto T, et al. (2002) Soybean isoflavones reduce postmenopausal bone resorption in female Japanese immigrants in Brazil: a ten-week study. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 560563.
24Uesugi T, Toda T, Okuhira T, et al. (2003) Evidence of estrogenic effect by the three-month-intervention of isoflavone on vaginal maturation and bone metabolism in early postmenopausal women. Endocr J 50, 613619.
25Uesugi S, Watanabe S, Ishiwata N, et al. (2004) Effects of isoflavone supplements on bone metabolic markers and climacteric symptoms in Japanese women. Biofactors 22, 221228.
26Aubertin-Leheudre M, Lord C, Khalil A, et al. (2007) Six months of isoflavone supplement increases fat-free mass in obese-sarcopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 14431444.
27Wu J, Wang X, Chiba H, et al. (2004) Combined intervention of soy isoflavone and moderate exercise prevents body fat elevation and bone loss in ovariectomized mice. Metabolism 53, 942948.
28Aubertin-Leheudre M, Lord C, Khalil A, et al. (2007) Effect of 6 months of exercise and isoflavone supplementation on clinical cardiovascular risk factors in obese postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind study. Menopause 14, 624629.
29Orsatti FL, Nahas EA, Nahas-Neto J, et al. (2010) Effects of resistance training and soy isoflavone on body composition in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol Int 2010, 156037.
30Wu J, Oka J, Higuchi M, et al. (2006) Cooperative effects of isoflavones and exercise on bone and lipid metabolism in postmenopausal Japanese women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Metabolism 55, 423433.
31Wu J, Oka J, Tabata I, et al. (2006) Effects of isoflavone and exercise on BMD and fat mass in postmenopausal Japanese women: a 1-year randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 21, 780789.
32Evans EM, Racette SB, Van Pelt RE, et al. (2007) Effects of soy protein isolate and moderate exercise on bone turnover and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Menopause 14, 3 Pt 1, 481488.
33Maesta N, Nahas EA, Nahas-Neto J, et al. (2007) Effects of soy protein and resistance exercise on body composition and blood lipids in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 56, 350358.
34American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand (ACSM) (1998) The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30, 975991.
35Karvonen MJ, Kentala E & Mustala O (1957) The effects of training on heart rate; a longitudinal study. Ann Med Exp Biol Fenn 35, 307315.
36Wisløff U, Støylen A, Loennechen JP, et al. (2007) Superior cardiovascular effect of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in heart failure patients: a randomized study. Circulation 115, 30863094.
37Balke B & Ware RW (1959) An experimental study of physical fitness of Air Force personnel. U S Armed Forces Med J 10, 675688.
38Daley A, MacArthur C, Mutrie N, et al. (2007) Exercise for vasomotor menopausal symptoms. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 4, CD006108.
39Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, et al. (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412419.
40Teixeira PJ, Going SB, Houtkooper LB, et al. (2003) Resistance training in postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35, 555562.
41Figueroa A, Going SB, Milliken LA, et al. (2003) Effects of exercise training and hormone replacement therapy on lean and fat mass in postmenopausal women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58, 266270.
42Marini H, Minutoli L, Polito F, et al. (2007) Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on bone metabolism in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 146, 839847.
43Harkness LS, Fiedler K, Sehgal AR, et al. (2004) Decreased bone resorption with soy isoflavone supplementation in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 13, 10001007.
44Lydeking-Olsen E, Beck-Jensen JE, Setchell KD, et al. (2004) Soymilk or progesterone for prevention of bone loss – a 2 year randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 43, 246257.
45Xu H, Wu Y & Yan Y (1998) Preliminary study on bone loss rate in early and late stages of post-menopausal women. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 33, 542545.
46St-Onge MP & Gallagher D (2010) Body composition changes with aging: the cause or the result of alterations in metabolic rate and macronutrient oxidation? Nutrition 26, 152155.
47DiPietro L, Dziura J, Yeckel CW, et al. (2006) Exercise and improved insulin sensitivity in older women: evidence of the enduring benefits of higher intensity training. J Appl Physiol 100, 142149.
48Goulet ED, Mélançon MO, Aubertin-Leheudre M, et al. (2005) Aerobic training improves insulin sensitivity 72–120 h after the last exercise session in younger but not in older women. Eur J Appl Physiol 95, 146152.
49Villa P, Costantini B, Suriano R, et al. (2009) The differential effect of the phytoestrogen genistein on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: relationship with the metabolic status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 552558.
50Crisafulli A, Altavilla D, Marini H, et al. (2005) Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. Menopause 12, 186192.
51NCEP-AT III (2001) Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285, 24862497.
52Park YW, Zhu S, Palaniappan L, et al. (2003) The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Intern Med 163, 427436.
53Collins P, Rosano G, Casey C, et al. (2007) Management of cardiovascular risk in the perimenopausal women: a consensus statement of European cardiologists and gynecologists. Climacteric 10, 508526.
54Tchernof A, Poehlman ET & Despres JP (2000) Body fat distribution, the menopause transition, and hormone replacement therapy. Diabetes Metab 26, 1220.
55Pi-Sunyer X, Blackburn G, Brancati FL, et al. (2007) Reduction in weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: one-year results of the look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care 30, 13741383.
56Villareal DT, Miller BV, Banks M, et al. (2006) Effect of lifestyle intervention on metabolic coronary heart disease risk factors in obese older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 13171323.
57Lalonde L, Gray-Donald K, Lowensteyn I, et al. (2002) Comparing the benefits of diet and exercise in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Prev Med 35, 1624.
58Fernandez ML, Metghalchi S, Vega-López S, et al. (2004) Beneficial effects of weight loss on plasma apolipoproteins in postmenopausal women. J Nutr Biochem 15, 717721.
59Flechtner-Mors M, Ditschuneit HH, Johnson TD, et al. (2000) Metabolic and weight loss effects of long-term dietary intervention in obese patients: four-year results. Obes Res 8, 399402.
60Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, et al. (2005) Direct comparison of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods with a statin in hypercholesterolemic participants. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 380387.
61Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Faulkner D, et al. (2002) A dietary portfolio approach to cholesterol reduction: combined effects of plant sterols, vegetable proteins, and viscous fibers in hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism 51, 15961604.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 16
Total number of PDF views: 135 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 221 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.