The present study reviews the possible role of Se status during pregnancy regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes, with emphasis on those related to diminished antioxidant activity and increased oxidative stress. Studies have reported that Se could play an important role in adverse outcomes such as miscarriages, neural tube defects, diaphragmatic hernia, premature birth, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia, glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes. Also, low Se status has been associated with adverse outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant women and their offspring. Nevertheless, the function of Se in the aetiology of pregnancy complications is yet to be elucidated. Available evidence presents the following limitations: most study designs do not allow conclusions about causal relationships; study populations, selection of subjects, research setting, procedures for defining sample size and analytical methods are often poorly described; many studies fail to adjust for important confounding variables. In addition, population studies assessing the relationship between Se intake during pregnancy and health outcomes are scarce. Further research is still needed to clarify the role of Se status in adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially those related to augmented oxidative stress.