Skip to main content
×
Home

A fraction derived from brewer's yeast inhibits cholesterol synthesis by rat liver preparations in vitro

  • E. S. Holdsworth (a1), D. V. Kaufman (a1) and E. Neville (a1)
Abstract

Brewer's yeast was grown on a defined medium containing tracer 51Cr with or without added chromium. The two batches of yeast contained 10 μg/g (high-Cr) or 80 ng/g (low-Cr). Extracts were prepared and fractionated. A third batch of yeast (third batch) was grown with added Cr, and fractionated. Rats were reared on either rat cubes (normal diet) or on a low-Cr diet (low-Cr), or on rat cubes with added cholestyramine (cholestyramine diet). Preparations of rat liver, both cell-free and intact hepatocytes, incorporated acetate-carbon into fatty acids and cholesterol. These processes were inhibited by a yeast fraction containing small, neutral, water-soluble compounds. The degree of inhibition was the same whether the liver came from normal rats or rats fed on the low-Cr diet. Similarly the inhibitory effect was found with identical amounts of extracts from low- or high-Cr yeasts. Therefore, Cr compounds do not appear to account for the inhibitory effects of brewer's yeast. Use of other substrates indicated that the site of inhibition of sterol synthesis was apparently between acetyl-CoA and mevalonate. One inhibitory substance was isolated from yeast and was found to be nicotinamide riboside. This may have been produced from NAD(P) during the preparation of yeast extracts, and it may be produced from dietary yeast supplements during digestion in vivo. Nicotinamide riboside may be partly responsible for the reported effects of yeast supplements on plasma lipids in humans.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A fraction derived from brewer's yeast inhibits cholesterol synthesis by rat liver preparations in vitro
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A fraction derived from brewer's yeast inhibits cholesterol synthesis by rat liver preparations in vitro
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A fraction derived from brewer's yeast inhibits cholesterol synthesis by rat liver preparations in vitro
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Abraham A. S., Sonnenblick M. & Eini M. (1982). The effect of chromium on cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 41, 371379.
Allen J. K., Hensley W. J., Nicholls A. V. & Whitfield J. B. (1979). An enzymic and centrifugal method for estimating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Clinical Chemistry 25, 325327.
Bernofsky C. & Gallacher W. J. (1975). Lipid chromatography of pyridine nucleotides and associated compounds and isolation of several analogues of NADP. Analytical Biochemistry 67, 611624.
Bourn D. M., Gibson R. S., Martinez O. B. & MacDonald A. C. (1986). The effect of chromium supplementation on serum lipid levels in a selected sample of Canadian post-menopausal women. Biological Trace Element Research 9, 197205.
Brown M. S. & Goldstein J. L. (1986). A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis. Science 232, 3447.
Chang T. Y., Schiavoni E. S. & McCrae K. R. (1979). Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in chinese hamster ovary by 4,4,10-trimethyl-trans-decal-3-ol. Journal of Biological Chemistry 254, 1125811263.
Cighetti G., Del Puppo M., Paroni R., Galli G. & Galli Kienle M. (1986). Effects of pantethine on cholesterol synthesis from mevalonate in isolated rat hepatocytes. Atherosclerosis 60, 6777.
Conri C. I., Simonoff M., Besse P., Llabador Y., Fleury B. & Simonoff G. N. (1986). Baise du chrome plasmatique au tours des coronaropathies. La Presse Médicale 15, 1931.
Davies D., Holdsworth E. S. & Sherriff J. L. (1985). The isolation of glucose tolerance factors from brewer's yeast and their relationship to chromium. Biochemical Medicine 33, 297311.
Donaldson D. L., Lee D. M., Smith C. C. & Rennert O. M. (1985). Glucose tolerance and plasma lipid distributions in rats fed a high-sucrose, high-cholesterol, low-chromium diet. Metabolism 34, 10861093.
Elwood J. C., Nash D. T. & Streeton D. H. P. (1982). Effect of high-chromium brewer's yeast on human serum lipids. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1, 263274.
Goodwin C. D. & Margolis S. (1978). Cyclic AMP-sensitive activation of hepatic sterol synthesis and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Journal of Lipid Research 19, 747756.
Grant A. P. & McMullen J. K. (1982). The effect of brewer's yeast containing glucose tolerance factor on the response to treatment in type 2 diabetics. A short controlled study. Ulster Medical Journal 51, 110114.
Holdsworth E. S. & Neville E. (1988). Extracts of brewer's yeast contain GABA which enhances activation of glycogen synthetase by insulin in isolated rat hepatocytes. Biochemistry International 17, 11071116.
Holdsworth E. S. & Neville E. (1990). Effects of extracts of high- and low-chromium brewer's yeast on metabolism of glucose by hepatocytes from rats fed on high- or low-chromium diet. British Journal of Nutrition 63, 623630.
Holland R., Witters L. A. & Hardie G. (1984). Glucagon inhibits fatty acid synthesis in isolated hepatocytes via phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. European Journal of Biochemistry 140, 325333.
Hunt A. E., Alan K. G. D. & Smith B. A. (1985). Effect of chromium supplementation on hair chromium concentration and diabetic status. Nutrition Research 5, 131140.
Ingebritson T. S. & Gibson D. M. (1981). Assay of enzymes that modulate S-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase by reversible phosphorylation. Methods in Enzymology 71, 486497.
Kuroda M. & Endo A. (1977). Inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis by fatty acids. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 486, 7081.
Lakshman M. R. & Veech R. L. (1977). Measurement of rate of rat liver sterol synthesis in vivo using tritiated water. Journal of Biological Chemistry 252, 46674673.
Layne E. (1957). Spectrophotometric and turbidimetric methods for measuring proteins. Methods in Enzymology 3, 447454.
Li Y.-C. & Stoecker B. J. (1986). Chromium and yoghurt effects on hepatic lipid and plasma glucose and insulin of obese mice. Biological Trace Element Research 9, 233242.
Loesche W., Wenz I., Till U., Petermann H. & Horn A. (1980). Purification of commercial NADH. Methods in Enzymology 66, 1122.
Lohr G. H. & Waller H. D. (1974). Methods for determination of enzymic activity: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, vol. 2, pp. 636643. [Bergmeyer H. U., editor]. New York: Academic Press.
Miller N. E., Forde O. H., Thelle D. S. & Mjos O. D. (1977). The Tromso heart study. High density lipoprotein and coronary heart disease: a prospective case-control study. Lancet i, 965968.
Ness G. C., Sample C. E., Smith M., Pendleton L. C. & Eicher D. C. (1986). Characteristics of rat liver microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Biochemical Journal 233, 167172.
Newman H. A. I., Leighton R. F., Lanese R. R. & Freedland N. A. (1978). Serum chromium and angiographically determined coronary artery disease. Clinical Chemistry 24, 541544.
Offenbacher E. G. & Pi-Sunyer F. X. (1980). Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 29, 919925.
Offenbacher E. G., Rinko C. J. & Pi-Sunyer F. X. (1985). The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids and plasma chromium in elderly subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 454461.
Potter J. F., Levin P., Anderson R. A., Freiberg J. M., Andres R. & Elahi D. (1985). Glucose metabolism in glucose intolerant older people during chromium supplementation. Metabolism 34, 199204.
Preston A. M., Dowdy R. P., Preston M. A. & Freeman J. N. (1976). Effect of dietary chromium on glucose tolerance and serum cholesterol in guinea pigs. Journal of Nutrition 106, 13911397.
Rabinowitz M. B., Gonick H. C., Levin S. R. & Davidson M. B. (1983). Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 6, 319327.
Ranganathan S., Jackson R. L. & Harmony J. A. K. (1982). Effect of pantethine on the biosynthesis of cholesterol in human skin fibroblasts. Atherosclerosis 44, 261273.
Riales R. & Albrink M. J. (1981). Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 26702678.
Roitelman J. & Schecter I. (1984). Regulation of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 259, 870877.
Roitelman J. & Schecter I. (1986). Altered kinetic properties of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase following dietary manipulations. Journal of Biological Chemistry 261, 50615066.
Schroeder H. A. (1969). Serum cholesterol and glucose levels in rats fed refined and less refined sugars and chromium. Journal of Nutrition 97, 237242.
Schwarz K. (1951). Production of dietary necrotic liver degeneration using American Torula yeast. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 77, 818823.
Schwarz K. & Mertz W. (1959). Chromium III and the glucose tolerance factor. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 85, 292295.
Simonoff M., Llabador Y., Hamon C., Peers A. M. & Simonoff G. N. (1984). Low plasma chromium in patients with coronary artery and heart disease. Biological Trace Element Research 6, 431439.
Smith I. (1969). Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Techniques. vol. 1, 3rd ed., p. 104. Bath: Pitman.
Stoecker B. J. & Oladut W. K. (1985). Effects of chromium and ascorbate deficiencies on glucose tolerance and serum cholesterol of guinea pigs. Nutrition Reports International 32, 399405.
Uusitupa M. I. J., Kumpulainen J. T., Voutilainen E., Hersio K., Sarlund H., Pyorala K. P., Kiovistoinen P. E. & Lehto J. T. (1983). Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 38, 404410.
Vinson J. A. & Bose P. (1984). The effect of a high-chromium yeast on the blood glucose control and blood lipids of normal and diabetic human subjects. Nutrition Reports International 30, 911918.
Wallach S. (1985). Clinical and biochemical aspects of chromium deficiency. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 4, 107120.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 56 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 345 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.