1Featherstone JDB (1999) Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 27, 31–40.
2McDonagh SM, Whiting PF, Wilson PM, et al. (2000) Systematic review of water fluoridation. BMJ 321, 855–859.
3Szpunar S & Burt B (1990) Fluoride exposure in Michigan schoolchildren. J Public Health Dent 50, 18–23.
4Pendrys DG & Stamm JW (1990) Relationship of total fluoride intake to beneficial effects and enamel fluorosis. J Dent Res 69, 529–538.
5Pitts NB, Boyles J, Nugent ZJ, et al. (2007) The dental caries experience of 5-year-old children in Great Britain (2005/6). Surveys co-ordinated by the British Association for the study of community dentistry. Community Dent Health 24, 59–63.
6Pitts NB, Boyles J, Nugent ZJ, et al. (2006) The dental caries experience of 11-year-old children in Great Britain. Surveys co-ordinated by the British Association for the study of community dentistry. Community Dent Health 23, 44–57.
7Pitts NB, Boyles J, Nugent ZJ, et al. (2004) The dental caries experience of 14-year-old children in England and Wales. Surveys co-ordinated by the British Association for the study of community dentistry. Community Dent Health 21, 45–57.
8Heilman JR, Kiritsy MC, Levy SM, et al. (1999) Assessing fluoride levels of carbonated soft drinks. J Am Dent Assoc 130, 1593–1599.
9Buzalaf MAR & Whitford GM (2011) Fluoride metabolism. In Fluoride and the Oral Environment: Monographs in Oral Science. Basel: Karger.
10World Health Organisation (1994) Fluoride and Oral Health. WHO Expert Committee on Oral Health Status and Fluoride Use Report Series no. 846. Geneva: WHO.
11Marthaler TM (1999) Monitoring of Renal Fluoride Excretion in Community Preventive Programmes on Oral Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.
12Marthaler TM, Steiner M, Menghini G, et al. (1995) Urinary fluoride excretion in children with low fluoride intake or consuming fluoridated salt. Caries Res 29, 26–34.
13Brunetti A & Newbrun E (1983) Fluoride balance of children 3 and 4 years old. Caries Res 17, 171.
14Zohouri FV & Rugg-Gunn AJ (2000) Total fluoride intake and urinary excretion in 4-year-old Iranian children residing in low-fluoride areas. Br J Nutr 83, 15–25.
15Villa A, Anabalon M & Cabezas L (2000) The fractional urinary fluoride excretion in young children under stable fluoride intake conditions. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 28, 344–355.
16Haftenberger M, Viergutz G, Neumeister V, et al. (2001) Total fluoride intake and urinary excretion in German children aged 3–6 years. Caries Res 35, 451–457.
17Franco AM, Saldarriaga A, Martignon S, et al. (2005) Fluoride intake and fractional urinary fluoride excretion of Colombian preschool children. Community Dent Health 22, 272–278.
18Maguire A, Zohouri FV, Hindmarch PN, et al. (2007) Fluoride intake and urinary excretion in 6- to 7-year-old children living in optimally, sub-optimally and non-fluoridated areas. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 35, 479–488.
19Zohouri FV, Swinbank CM, Maguire A, et al. (2006) Is the fluoride/creatinine ratio of a spot urine sample indicative of 24-h urinary fluoride? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 34, 130–138.
20Ekstrand J, Hardell LI & Spak CJ (1984) Fluoride balance studies on infants in a 1-ppm-water-fluoride area. Caries Res. 18, 87–92.
21Ekstrand J, Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, et al. (1994) Absorption and retention of dietary and supplemental fluoride by infants. Adv Dent Res 8, 175–180.
22Guha-Chowdhury N, Drummond BK & Smillie AC (1996) Total fluoride intake in children aged 3 to 4 years: a longitudinal study. J Dent Res 75, 1451–1457.
23Martínez-Mier EA, Cury JA, Heilman JR, et al. (2011) Development of gold standard ion-selective electrode-based methods for fluoride analysis. Caries Res 45, 3–12.
24Taves D (1968) Separation of fluoride by rapid diffusion using hexamethyldisiloxane. Talanata 15, 969–974.
25Bonsnes R & Taussky H (1945) The colorimetric determination of creatinine by the Jaffe reaction. J Biol Chem 158, 581–591.
26Remer T, Neubert A & Maser-Gluth C (2002) Anthropometry-based reference values for 24-h urinary creatinine excretion during growth and their use in endocrine and nutritional research. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 561–569.
27Levy SM, Warren JJ, Davis CS, et al. (2001) Patterns of fluoride intake from birth to 36 months. J Public Health Dent 61, 70–77.
28Maternal and Child Health Bureau (2007) Topical Fluoride Recommendations for High-risk Children Development of Decision Support Matrix. Washington, DC: MCBH.
29Robinson C, Connell S, Kirkham J, et al. (2004) The effect of fluoride on the developing tooth. Caries Res 38, 268–276.
30Levy SM, Warren JJ & Broffitt B (2003) Patterns of fluoride intake from 36 to 72 months of age. J Public Health Dent 63, 211–220.
31Rojas-Sanchez F, Kelly SA, Drake KM, et al. (1999) Fluoride intake from foods, beverages and dentifrice by young children in communities with negligibly and optimally fluoridated water: a pilot study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 27, 288–297.
32Villa A, Anabalon M, Zohouri V, et al. (2010) Relationships between fluoride intake, urinary fluoride excretion and fluoride retention in children and adults: an analysis of available data. Caries Res 44, 60–68.
33Ekstrand J & Ehrnebo M (1979) Influence of milk products on fluoride bioavailability in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 16, 211–215.