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Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in femur and vertebra tissues of the hypovitaminosis D kyphotic pig model

  • Laura A. Amundson (a1), Laura L. Hernandez (a2) and Thomas D. Crenshaw (a1)

The hypovitaminosis D kyphotic pig provides a reliable model to study the initiation of bone lesions caused by maternal vitamin D (D) deficiencies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP; specifically, MMP9 and MMP13) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are important in endochondral ossification and are potentially regulated by D. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is interrelated with D homoeostasis and bone mineralisation. Relative mRNA expression of MMP9, MMP13, VEGF and FGF23 was measured in pig femur and vertebra. Sows (n 37) were fed diets with 0 (−D), 8·125 (+D) or 43·750 (++D) µg D3/kg throughout gestation and lactation. At weaning (3 weeks), pigs were fed diets with 0 (−D) or 7·0 (+D) µg D3/kg, each with 75 and 95 % (LCaP) or 150 and 120 % (HCaP) of the Ca and P requirements. Pigs at birth (n 27), 3 weeks (n 27) and after the nursery period (7 weeks; n 72) were euthanised for analysis. At 3 weeks, femur MMP9 expression of pigs produced by +D or ++D sows was reduced (P<0·05) to 0·5-fold and VEGF expression to 0·4-fold compared with pigs from –D sows. At 7 weeks, MMP9 expression was reduced (P<0·05) to 0·45-fold in femur and 0·58-fold in vertebra from pigs produced by +D or ++D sows compared with pigs from −D sows. Pig femur VEGF expression was reduced to 0·75-fold in pigs produced by ++D sows. MMP9 and VEGF mRNA expression offer potential markers for the initiation of bone lesions in the hypovitaminosis D kyphotic pig model.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: L. A. Amundson, fax +1 608 262 5157, email
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British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
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