1. Rortvedt, LA & Crenshaw, TD (2012) Expression of kyphosis in young pigs is induced by a reduction of supplemental vitamin D in maternal diets and vitamin D, Ca, and P concentrations in nursery diets. J Anim Sci 90, 4905–4915.
2. Amundson, LA, Hernandez, LH & Crenshaw, TD (2017) Serum and tissue 25-OH-D3 concentrations do not predict bone abnormalities and molecular markers of vitamin D metabolism in the hypovitaminosis D kyphotic pig model. Br J Nutr 118, 30–40.
3. Amundson, LA, Hernandez, LL, Laporta, J, et al. (2016) Maternal dietary vitamin D carryover alters offspring growth, skeletal mineralization, and tissue mRNA expression of genes related to vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis in swine. Br J Nutr 116, 771–787.
4. Ortega, N, Behonick, DJ & Werb, Z (2004) Matrix remodeling during endochonral ossification. Trends Cell Biol 14, 86–93.
5. Stickens, D, Behonick, DJ, Ortega, N, et al. (2004) Altered endochondral bone development in matrix metalloproteinase 13-deficient mice. Development 131, 5883–5895.
6. Sternlicht, MD & Werb, Z (2001) How matrix metalloproteinases regulate cell behavior. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17, 463–516.
7. Nagase, H, Visse, R & Murphy, G (2006) Structure and function of matrix metalloproteinases and TIMPs. Cardiovasc Res 69, 562–573.
8. Blavier, L & Delaisse, JM (1995) Matrix metalloproteinases are obligatory for the migration of preostoclasts to the developing marrow cavity of primitive long bones. J Cell Sci 108, 3649–3659.
9. Malemud, CJ (2006) Matrix metalloproteinases: role in skeletal development and growth plate disorders. Front Biosci 11, 1702–1715.
10. Hasky-Negev, M, Simsa, S, Tong, A, et al. (2008) Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during vascularization and ossification of normal and impaired avian growth plate. J Anim Sci 86, 1306–1315.
11. Krane, SM & Inada, M (2008) Matrix metalloproteinases and bone. Bone 43, 7–18.
12. Vu, TH, Shipley, JM, Bergers, G, et al. (1998) MMP-9/Gelatinase B is a key regulator of growth plate angiogenesis and apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cell 93, 411–422.
13. Inada, M, Wang, Y, Byrne, MH, et al. (2004) Critical roles for collagenase-3 (Mmp13) in development of growth plate cartilage and in endochondral ossification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 17192–17197.
14. Engsig, MT, Chen, QJ, Vu, TH, et al. (2000) Matrix metalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor are essential for osteoclast recruitment into developing long bones. J Cell Biol 151, 879–889.
15. Johansson, N, Saarialho-Kere, U, Airola, K, et al. (1997) Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes, periosteal cells, and osteoblasts during human fetal bone development. Dev Dyn 208, 387–397.
16. Carlevaro, MF, Cermelli, S, Cancedda, R, et al. (2000) Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cartilage neovascularization and chondrocyte differentiation: auto-paracrine role during endochondral bone formation. J Cell Sci 113, 56–69.
17. Murata, M, Yudoh, K & Masuko, K (2008) The potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cartilage - How the angiogenic factor could be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis? Osteoarthr Cartil 16, 279–286.
18. Ferrara, N, Gerber, HP & LeCouter, J (2003) The biology of VEGF and its receptors. Nat Med 9, 669–676.
19. Lin, R, Amizuka, N, Sasaki, T, et al. (2002) 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 promotes vascularization of the chondro-osseous junction by stimulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9. J Bone Min Res 17, 1604–1612.
20. Uchida, M, Shima, M, Chikazu, D, et al. (2001) Transcriptional induction of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (Collagenase-3) by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. J Bone Min Res 16, 221–230.
21. Sitara, D, Razzaque, MS, St-Arnaud, R, et al. (2006) Genetic ablation of vitamin D activation pathway reverses biochemical and skeletal anomalies in Fgf-23-null animals. Am J Pathol 169, 2161–2170.
22. Lanske, B, Densmore, MJ & Erben, RG (2014) Vitamin D endocrine system and osteocytes. BoneKey Rep 3.
23. Rodriguez-Ortiz, ME, Lopen, I, Munoz-Castaneda, JR, et al. (2012) Calcium deficiency reduced circulating levels of FGF23. J Am Soc Nephrol 23, 1190–1197.
24. David, V, Dai, B, Martin, A, et al. (2013) Calcium regulates FGF-23 expression in bone. Endocrinol 154, 4469–4482.
25. Halanski, MA, Hildahl, B, Amundson, LA, et al. (2018) Maternal diets deficient in vitamin D increase the risk of kyphosis in offspring. J Bone Joint Surg 100, 406–415.
26. National Research Council (2012) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 11th ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
27. Schmittgen, TD & Livak, KJ (2008) Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative CT method. Nat Protoc 3, 1101–1108.
28. Hittmeier, LJ, Grapes, L, Lensing, RL, et al. (2006) Genetic background influences metabolic response to dietary phosphorus restriction. J Nutr Biochem 17, 385–395.
29. Hoenig, JM & Heisey, DM (2001) The abuse of power: The pervasive fallacy of power calculations for data analysis. Am Stat 55, 19–24.
30. Straw, BR & May, G (2009) Anatomical abnormalities in a group of finishing pigs: prevalence and pig performance. J Swine Heath Prod 17, 28–31.
31. Brama, PAJ, TeKoppele, JM, Beekman, B, et al. (1998) Matrix metalloproteinase activity in equine synovial fluid: influence of age, osteoarthritis, and osteochondrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 57, 697–699.
32. Stahle-Backdahl, M, Sandstedt, B, Bruce, K, et al. (1997) Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is expressed during human fetal ossification and re-expressed in postnatal bone remodeling and in rheumatoid arthritis. Lab Invest 76, 717–728.
33. Freemont, AJ, Hampson, V, Tilman, R, et al. (1997) Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 3, and 9 by chondrocytes in osteoarthritic human knee articular cartilage is zone and grade specific. Ann Rheum Dis 56, 542–549.
34. Kumta, SM, Huang, L, Cheng, YY, et al. (2003) Expression of VEGF and MMP-9 in giant cell tumor of bone and other osteolytic lesions. Life Sci 73, 1427–1436.
35. Clegg, PD, Coughlan, AR, Riggs, CM, et al. (1997) Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in equine synovial fluids. Equine Vet J 29, 343–348.
36. Mirams, M, Tatarczuch, L, Ahmed, YA, et al. (2009) Altered gene expression in early osteochondrosis lesions. J Orthop Res 27, 452–457.
37. Ubaidus, S, Li, M, Sultana, S, et al. (2009) FGF23 is mainly synthesized by osteocytes in the regularly distributed osteocytic lacunar canalicular system established after physiological bone remodeling. J Electron Microsc 58, 381–392.
38. Sitara, D, Kim, S, Razzaque, MS, et al. (2008) Genetic evidence of serum phosphate-independent functions of FGF-23 on bone. PLoS Genet 4, e1000154.
39. Wang, H, Yoshiko, Y, Yamamoto, R, et al. (2008) Overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 23 suppresses osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in vitro
. J Bone Min Res 23, 939–948.