1Cohen-Lahav M, Douvdevani A, Chaimovitz C, et al. (2007) The anti-inflammatory activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in macrophages. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103, 558–562.
2Boucher BJ (2011) Vitamin D insufficiency and diabetes risks. Curr Drug Targets 12, 61–87.
3World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2008) Vitamin D and Cancer. Working Group Report 5. Lyon: WHO.
4Baeke F, Takiishi T, Korf H, et al. (2010) Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system. Curr Opin Pharmacol 10, 482–496.
5Reddy Vanga S, Good M, Howard PA, et al. (2010) Role of vitamin D in cardiovascular health. Am J Cardiol 106, 798–805.
6Institute of Medicine (2011) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium [Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL and Del Valle HB, editors]. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.
7Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ, et al. (2007) The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 649–650.
8Heaney RP & Holick MF (2011) Why the IOM recommendations for vitamin D are deficient. J Bone Miner Res 26, 455–457.
9Norman AW (2011) Vitamin D nutrition is at a crossroads. Public Health Nutr 14, 744–745.
10Schwalfenberg GK & Whiting SJ (2011) A Canadian response to the 2010 Institute of Medicine vitamin D and calcium guidelines. Public Health Nutr 14, 746–748.
11Holick MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357, 266–281.
12Speeckaert M, Huang G, Delanghe JR, et al. (2006) Biological and clinical aspects of the vitamin D binding protein (Gc-globulin) and its polymorphism. Clin Chim Acta 372, 33–42.
13Ma J, Stampfer MJ, Gann PH, et al. (1998) Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, circulating vitamin D metabolites, and risk of prostate cancer in United States physicians. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 385–390.
14Ogunkolade BW, Boucher BJ, Prahl JM, et al. (2002) Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and VDR protein levels in relation to vitamin D status, insulin secretory capacity, and VDR genotype in Bangladeshi Asians. Diabetes 51, 2294–2300.
15d'Alesio A, Garabedian M, Sabatier JP, et al. (2005) Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human vitamin D receptor promoter change protein–DNA complex formation and are associated with height and vitamin D status in adolescent girls. Hum Mol Genet 14, 3539–3548.
16Zajickova K, Hill M, Vankova M, et al. (2006) Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in relation to vitamin D levels in menopause. Clin Chem Lab Med 44, 1066–1069.
17Vupputuri MR, Goswami R, Gupta N, et al. (2006) Prevalence and functional significance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in Asian Indians. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 1411–1419.
18Baroncelli GI, Bereket A, El Kholy M, et al. (2008) Rickets in the Middle East: role of environment and genetic predisposition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, 1743–1750.
19Engelman CD, Fingerlin TE, Langefeld CD, et al. (2008) Genetic and environmental determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in Hispanic and African Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, 3381–3388.
20Smolders J, Damoiseaux J, Menheere P, et al. (2009) Fok-I vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism (rs10735810) and vitamin D metabolism in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 207, 117–121.
21Ramos-Lopez E, Bruck P, Jansen T, et al. (2007) CYP2R1 (vitamin D 25-hydroxylase) gene is associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and vitamin D levels in Germans. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 23, 631–636.
22Orton SM, Morris AP, Herrera BM, et al. (2008) Evidence for genetic regulation of vitamin D status in twins with multiple sclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 441–447.
23Ramos-Lopez E, Kahles H, Weber S, et al. (2008) Gestational diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency: genetic contribution of CYP27B1 and CYP2R1 polymorphisms. Diabetes Obes Metab 10, 683–685.
24Wang TJ, Zhang F, Richards JB, et al. (2010) Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study. Lancet 376, 180–188.
25Ahn J, Yu K, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al. (2010) Genome-wide association study of circulating vitamin D levels. Hum Mol Genet 19, 2739–2745.
26Bu FX, Armas L, Lappe J, et al. (2010) Comprehensive association analysis of nine candidate genes with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels among healthy Caucasian subjects. Hum Genet 128, 549–556.
27Hypponen E, Berry DJ, Wjst M, et al. (2009) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and IgE – a significant but nonlinear relationship. Allergy 64, 613–620.
28Kurylowicz A, Ramos-Lopez E, Bednarczuk T, et al. (2006) Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene polymorphism is associated with Graves’ disease and the vitamin D status in a Polish population study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 114, 329–335.
29Lauridsen AL, Vestergaard P, Hermann AP, et al. (2005) Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D are related to the phenotype of Gc (vitamin D-binding protein): a cross-sectional study on 595 early postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 77, 15–22.
30Abbas S, Linseisen J, Slanger T, et al. (2008) The Gc2 allele of the vitamin D binding protein is associated with a decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, independent of the vitamin D status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 1339–1343.
31Sinotte M, Diorio C, Berube S, et al. (2009) Genetic polymorphisms of the vitamin D binding protein and plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 634–640.
32Fu L, Yun F, Oczak M, et al. (2009) Common genetic variants of the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) predict differences in response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] to vitamin D supplementation. Clin Biochem 42, 1174–1177.
33Ahn J, Albanes D, Berndt SI, et al. (2009) Vitamin D-related genes, serum vitamin D concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 30, 769–776.
34Fang Y, van Meurs JB, Arp P, et al. (2009) Vitamin D binding protein genotype and osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 85, 85–93.
35Janssens W, Bouillon R, Claes B, et al. (2010) Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in COPD and correlates with variants in the vitamin D-binding gene. Thorax 65, 215–220.
36Hankin JH, Stram DO, Arakawa K, et al. (2001) Singapore Chinese Health Study: development, validation, and calibration of the quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 39, 187–195.
37Byrdwell WC, Devries J, Exler J, et al. (2008) Analyzing vitamin D in foods and supplements: methodologic challenges. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 554S–557S.
38Holden JM, Lemar LE & Exler J (2008) Vitamin D in foods: development of the US Department of Agriculture database. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1092S–1096S.
39Koh WP, Yuan JM, Sun CL, et al. (2003) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk among Chinese women in Singapore. Cancer Res 63, 573–578.
40Ersfeld DL, Rao DS, Body JJ, et al. (2004) Analytical and clinical validation of the 25 OH vitamin D assay for the LIAISON automated analyzer. Clin Biochem 37, 867–874.
41Carter GD, Carter CR, Gunter E, et al. (2004) Measurement of Vitamin D metabolites: an international perspective on methodology and clinical interpretation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90, 467–471.
42Tai SS, Bedner M & Phinney KW (2010) Development of a candidate reference measurement procedure for the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 in human serum using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 82, 1942–1948.
43Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Rimm EB, et al. (2006) Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 451–459.
44Bertone-Johnson ER, Chen WY, Holick MF, et al. (2005) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 1991–1997.
45Freedman DM, Chang SC, Falk RT, et al. (2008) Serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and breast cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 889–894.
46Abbas S, Linseisen J, Slanger T, et al. (2008) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of post-menopausal breast cancer-results of a large case–control study. Carcinogenesis 29, 93–99.
47Cauley JA, Lacroix AZ, Wu L, et al. (2008) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and risk for hip fractures. Ann Intern Med 149, 242–250.
48Gallicchio L, Helzlsouer KJ, Chow WH, et al. (2010) Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of rarer cancers: design and methods of the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am J Epidemiol 172, 10–20.
49Zerwekh JE (2004) The measurement of vitamin D: analytical aspects. Ann Clin Biochem 41, 272–281.
50Hollis BW (2008) Measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a clinical environment: challenges and needs. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 507S–510S.
51Antoniucci DM, Black DM & Sellmeyer DE (2005) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is unaffected by multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Clin Chem 51, 258–261.
52Bodnar LM, Catov JM, Wisner KL, et al. (2009) Racial and seasonal differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D detected in maternal sera frozen for over 40 years. Br J Nutr 101, 278–284.
53Looker AC, Johnson CL, Lacher DA, et al. (2011) Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001–2006. NCHS Data Brief, No. 59. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
54Choo V (2002) WHO reassesses appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations. Lancet 360, 235.
55Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Goldman JA, et al. (2010) Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr 140, 817–822.
56Bates B, Lennox A & Swan G (editors) (2010) National Diet Nutrition Survey (2008/2009). London: Food Standards Agency, Department of Health.
60Rahman SA, Chee WS, Yassin Z, et al. (2004) Vitamin D status among postmenopausal Malaysian women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 13, 255–260.
61Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Rockell JE, et al. (2008) Vitamin D status and its association with parathyroid hormone concentrations in women of child-bearing age living in Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 373–378.
62Moy FM & Bulgiba A (2011) High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with obesity and metabolic syndrome among Malay adults in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. BMC Public Health 11, 735.
63Schuster I (2011) Cytochromes P450 are essential players in the vitamin D signaling system. Biochim Biophys Acta 1814, 186–199.
64Zhang W, Chang YZ, Kan QC, et al. (2010) CYP3A4*1G genetic polymorphism influences CYP3A activity and response to fentanyl in Chinese gynecologic patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 66, 61–66.
65Daiger SP, Miller M & Chakraborty R (1984) Heritability of quantitative variation at the group-specific component (Gc) locus. Am J Hum Genet 36, 663–676.
66Lauridsen AL, Vestergaard P & Nexo E (2001) Mean serum concentration of vitamin D-binding protein (Gc globulin) is related to the Gc phenotype in women. Clin Chem 47, 753–756.
67Brown IR, Carter ND & Sood A (1979) Vitamin D binding globulin phenotypes in liver disease. Clin Chim Acta 95, 75–82.
68Constans J, Arlet P, Viau M, et al. (1983) Unusual sialilation of the serum DBP associated with the Gc 1 allele in alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. Clin Chim Acta 130, 219–230.