1Koopman R & van Loon LJ (2009) Aging, exercise, and muscle protein metabolism. J Appl Physiol 106, 2040–2048.
2Cuthbertson D, Smith K, Babraj J, et al. (2005) Anabolic signaling deficits underlie amino acid resistance of wasting, aging muscle. FASEB J 19, 422–424.
3Katsanos CS, Kobayashi H, Sheffield-Moore M, et al. (2006) A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E381–E387.
4Kumar V, Selby A, Rankin D, et al. (2008) Age-related differences in dose response of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old men. J Physiol 587, Pt 1, 211–217.
5Pennings B, Koopman R, Beelen M, et al. (2011) Exercising before protein intake allows for greater use of dietary protein-derived amino acids for de novo muscle protein synthesis in both young and elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 322–331.
6Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, et al. (2009) Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol 107, 987–992.
7Pennings B, Boirie Y, Senden JM, et al. (2011) Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 997–1005.
8Katsanos CS, Chinkes DL, Paddon-Jones D, et al. (2008) Whey protein ingestion in elderly persons results in greater muscle protein accrual than ingestion of its constituent essential amino acid content. Nutr Res 28, 651–658.
9Moore DR, Tang JE, Burd NA, et al. (2009) Differential stimulation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis with protein ingestion at rest and after resistance exercise. J Physiol 587, 897–904.
10Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada & Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (2010) .
11Roza AM & Shizgal HM (1984) The Harris Benedict equation reevaluated: resting energy requirements and the body cell mass. Am J Clin Nutr 40, 168–182.
12Wilkinson SB, Tarnopolsky MA, Macdonald MJ, et al. (2007) Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1031–1040.
13Burd NA, West DW, Rerecich T, et al. (2011) Validation of a single biopsy approach and bolus protein feeding to determine myofibrillar protein synthesis in stable isotope tracer studies in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond) 8, 15.
14Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, et al. (2009) Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 161–168.
15Glover EI, Phillips SM, Oates BR, et al. (2008) Immobilization induces anabolic resistance in human myofibrillar protein synthesis with low and high dose amino acid infusion. J Physiol 586, 6049–6061.
16Moore DR, Phillips SM, Babraj JA, et al. (2005) Myofibrillar and collagen protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle in young men after maximal shortening and lengthening contractions. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288, E1153–E1159.
17Burd NA, West DW, Staples AW, et al. (2010) Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men. PLoS One 5, e12033.
18Burd NA, Holwerda AM, Selby KC, et al. (2010) Resistance exercise volume affects myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation in young men. J Physiol 588, 3119–3130.
19Reitelseder S, Agergaard J, Doessing S, et al. (2011) Whey and casein labeled with l-[1-13C]leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300, E231–E242.
20Dideriksen KJ, Reitelseder S, Petersen SG, et al. (2011) Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals. Scand J Med Sci Sport (.
21West DW, Burd NA, Coffey VG, et al. (2011) Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signaling responses after resistance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 795–803.
22Wilkes EA, Selby AL, Atherton PJ, et al. (2009) Blunting of insulin inhibition of proteolysis in legs of older subjects may contribute to age-related sarcopenia. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1343–1350.
23Rasmussen BB, Fujita S, Wolfe RR, et al. (2006) Insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism in aging. FASEB J 20, 768–769.
24Fujita S, Glynn EL, Timmerman KL, et al. (2009) Supraphysiological hyperinsulinaemia is necessary to stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults: evidence of a true age-related insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism. Diabetologia 52, 1889–1898.
25Staples AW, Burd NA, West DW, et al. (2011) Carbohydrate does not augment exercise-induced protein accretion versus protein alone. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43, 1154–1161.