Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

High latitude and marine diet: vitamin D status in elderly Faroese

  • Christine Dalgård (a1), Maria Skaalum Petersen (a2), Anne V. Schmedes (a3), Ivan Brandslund (a3), Pal Weihe (a1) (a2) and Philippe Grandjean (a1) (a4)...

Abstract

Human subjects obtain their vitamin D from the diet, especially from marine food, and from endogenous synthesis following cutaneous sun exposure. The risk of an insufficient vitamin D synthesis is increased in northern populations, but it may be counteracted by a high intake of marine food in fishing populations, e.g. at the Faroe Islands. We examined the vitamin D status and its statistical determinants in a cross-sectional study of 713 elderly Faroese aged 70–74 years, about two-thirds of all the eligible residents in this age group. Clinical examination included measurement of body weight and height, and marine food intake was estimated using a questionnaire. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) by LC-MS/MS in 669 of the 713 subjects in whom sufficient serum was available. Of the population, 19 % had S-25(OH)D3 concentrations < 25 nmol/l, and only 10·3 % of the population had S-25(OH)D3 concentrations >80 nmol/l. In a logistic regression analysis, BMI < 30 kg/m2, blood sampling in summer season, eating pilot whale blubber more than once per month and female sex were positively associated with vitamin D levels >80 nmol/l. The high prevalence of low vitamin D levels among the elderly Faroese population reflects the low skin synthesis during most months of the year, which is caused by the limited sun exposure and insufficient benefits from marine diet. Thus, even in a population with a high intake of marine food, the northern latitude causes a low vitamin D status. Efforts to improve vitamin D status in this population are warranted.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      High latitude and marine diet: vitamin D status in elderly Faroese
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      High latitude and marine diet: vitamin D status in elderly Faroese
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      High latitude and marine diet: vitamin D status in elderly Faroese
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Christine Dalgård, fax +45 6591 1458, email cdalgaard@health.sdu.dk

References

Hide All
1 Holick, MF (1996) Vitamin D and bone health. J Nutr 126, 1159S1164S.
2 Chiu, KC, Chu, A, Go, VL, et al. (2004) Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 820825.
3 Ford, ES, Ajani, UA, McGuire, LC, et al. (2005) Concentrations of serum vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 28, 12281230.
4 Wortsman, J, Matsuoka, LY, Chen, TC, et al. (2000) Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 690693.
5 MacLean, HJ & Freedman, MS (2009) Multiple sclerosis: following clues from cause to cure. Lancet Neurol 8, 68.
6 Wallis, DE, Penckofer, S & Sizemore, GW (2008) The “sunshine deficit” and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 118, 14761485.
7 Holick, MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357, 266281.
8 MacLaughlin, J & Holick, MF (1985) Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. J Clin Invest 76, 15361538.
9 Holick, MF (2003) Vitamin D: a millenium perspective. J Cell Biochem 88, 296307.
10 Sayre, RM & Dowdy, JC (2007) Darkness at noon: sunscreens and vitamin D3. Photochem Photobiol 83, 459463.
11 Vieth, R (1999) Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 842856.
12 Pearce, SH & Cheetham, TD (2010) Diagnosis and management of vitamin D deficiency. BMJ 340, 142147.
13 Vieth, R, Bischoff-Ferrari, H, Boucher, BJ, et al. (2007) The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 649650.
14 Dawson-Hughes, B, Heaney, RP, Holick, MF, et al. (2005) Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporos Int 16, 713716.
15 Hollis, BW (2005) Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin D. J Nutr 135, 317322.
16 Brock, KE, Graubard, BI, Fraser, DR, et al. (2010) Predictors of vitamin D biochemical status in a large sample of middle-aged male smokers in Finland. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 280288.
17 Choi, AL, Weihe, P, Budtz-Jorgensen, E, et al. (2009) Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whaling men. Environ Health Perspect 117, 367372.
18 Orton, SM, Morris, AP, Herrera, BM, et al. (2008) Evidence for genetic regulation of vitamin D status in twins with multiple sclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 441447.
19 Uitterlinden, AG, Fang, Y, van Meurs, JBJ, et al. (2004) Genetics and biology of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Gene 338, 143156.
20 Ahn, J, Albanes, D, Berndt, SI, et al. (2009) Vitamin D-related genes, serum vitamin D concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 30, 769776.
21 Shea, MK, Benjamin, EJ, Dupuis, J, et al. (2009) Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 458464.
22 Webb, AR, Pilbeam, C, Hanafin, N, et al. (1990) An evaluation of the relative contributions of exposure to sunlight and of diet to the circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in an elderly nursing home population in Boston. Am J Clin Nutr 51, 10751081.
23 Pekkarinen, T, Turpeinen, U, Hamalainen, E, et al. (2010) Serum 25(OH)D3 vitamin status of elderly Finnish women is suboptimal even after summer sunshine but is not associated with bone density or turnover. Eur J Endocrinol 162, 183189.
24 Kilkkinen, A, Knekt, P, Aro, A, et al. (2009) Vitamin D status and the risk of cardiovascular disease death. Am J Epidemiol 170, 10321039.
25 Holvik, K, Meyer, H, Sogaard, A, et al. (2007) Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study. BMC Endocr Disord 7, 9.
26 Andersen, R, Mølgaard, C, Skovgaard, LT, et al. (2005) Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 533541.
27 Burgaz, A, Akesson, A, Michaelsson, K, et al. (2009) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D accumulation during summer in elderly women at latitude 60 degrees N. J Intern Med 266, 476483.
28 Hirani, V, Tull, K, Ali, A, et al. (2010) Urgent action needed to improve vitamin D status among older people in England! Age Ageing 39, 6268.
29 Yetley, EA (2008) Assessing the vitamin D status of the US population. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 558S564S.
30 Konradsen, S, Ag, H, Lindberg, F, et al. (2008) Serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D is inversely associated with body mass index. Eur J Nutr 47, 8791.
31 Lagunova, Z, Porojnicu, AC, Lindberg, F, et al. (2009) The dependency of vitamin D status on body mass index, gender, age and season. Anticancer Res 29, 37133720.
32 Lenders, CM, Feldman, HA, Von Scheven, E, et al. (2009) Relation of body fat indexes to vitamin D status and deficiency among obese adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 459467.
33 Snijder, MB, van Dam, RM, Visser, M, et al. (2005) Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in older men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 41194123.
34 Holick, MF & Chen, TC (2008) Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1080S1086S.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed