Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 90
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Agha-Jaffar, Rochan Oliver, Nick Johnston, Desmond and Robinson, Stephen 2016. Gestational diabetes mellitus: does an effective prevention strategy exist?. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, Vol. 12, Issue. 9, p. 533.

    Barthow, Christine Wickens, Kristin Stanley, Thorsten Mitchell, Edwin A. Maude, Robyn Abels, Peter Purdie, Gordon Murphy, Rinki Stone, Peter Kang, Janice Hood, Fiona Rowden, Judy Barnes, Phillipa Fitzharris, Penny Craig, Jeffrey Slykerman, Rebecca F. and Crane, Julian 2016. The Probiotics in Pregnancy Study (PiP Study): rationale and design of a double-blind randomised controlled trial to improve maternal health during pregnancy and prevent infant eczema and allergy. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, Vol. 16, Issue. 1,

    Blandino, G. Inturri, R. Lazzara, F. Di Rosa, M. and Malaguarnera, L. 2016. Impact of gut microbiota on diabetes mellitus. Diabetes & Metabolism,

    Cabrera-Rubio, R. Mira-Pascual, L. Mira, A. and Collado, M. C. 2016. Impact of mode of delivery on the milk microbiota composition of healthy women. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, Vol. 7, Issue. 01, p. 54.

    Dawson, S.L. Dash, S.R. and Jacka, F.N. 2016.

    Garcia-Mantrana, Izaskun and Collado, Maria Carmen 2016. Obesity and overweight: Impact on maternal and milk microbiome and their role for infant health and nutrition. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 60, Issue. 8, p. 1865.

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun Bertua, Bibiana Martínez-Costa, Cecilia and Collado, Maria Carmen 2016. Perinatal nutrition: How to take care of the gut microbiota?. Clinical Nutrition Experimental, Vol. 6, p. 3.

    Gille, Christian Böer, Bettina Marschal, Matthias Urschitz, Michael S. Heinecke, Volker Hund, Verena Speidel, Sarah Tarnow, Inge Mylonas, Ioannis Franz, Axel Engel, Corinna and Poets, Christian F. 2016. Effect of probiotics on vaginal health in pregnancy. EFFPRO, a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology,

    Gomez-Arango, Luisa F. Barrett, Helen L. McIntyre, H. David Callaway, Leonie K. Morrison, Mark and Dekker Nitert, Marloes 2016. Connections Between the Gut Microbiome and Metabolic Hormones in Early Pregnancy in Overweight and Obese Women. Diabetes, Vol. 65, Issue. 8, p. 2214.

    Gresham, Ellie Bisquera, Alessandra Byles, Julie E. and Hure, Alexis J. 2016. Effects of dietary interventions on pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Maternal & Child Nutrition, Vol. 12, Issue. 1, p. 5.

    Karamali, M. Dadkhah, F. Sadrkhanlou, M. Jamilian, M. Ahmadi, S. Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, M. Jafari, P. and Asemi, Z. 2016. Effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes & Metabolism, Vol. 42, Issue. 4, p. 234.

    Nikniaz, Leila Mahdavi, Reza Nikniaz, Zeinab and Nikniaz, Hossein 2016. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics.

    Razmpoosh, Elham Javadi, Maryam Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat and Mirmiran, Parvin 2016. Probiotics as beneficial agents in the management of diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 143.

    Rutten, Nicole Van der Gugten, Anne Uiterwaal, Cuno Vlieger, Arine Rijkers, Ger and Van der Ent, Kors 2016. Maternal use of probiotics during pregnancy and effects on their offspring’s health in an unselected population. European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 175, Issue. 2, p. 229.

    Soderborg, Taylor K. Borengasser, Sarah J. Barbour, Linda A. and Friedman, Jacob E. 2016. Microbial transmission from mothers with obesity or diabetes to infants: an innovative opportunity to interrupt a vicious cycle. Diabetologia, Vol. 59, Issue. 5, p. 895.

    Song, C. Li, J. Leng, J. Ma, R. C. and Yang, X. 2016. Lifestyle intervention can reduce the risk of gestational diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, Vol. 17, Issue. 10, p. 960.

    Stupin, Jens H. 2016. Darm-Mikrobiom enthält Marker für den Stoffwechsel in der Frühschwangerschaft. Info Diabetologie, Vol. 10, Issue. 4, p. 19.

    Bordalo Tonucci, Livia Dos Santos, Karina Olbrich Ferreira, Celia Lucia De Luces Fortes Ribeiro, Sonia Machado Rocha De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi and Martino, Hercia Stampini Duarte 2015. Clinical Application of Probiotics in Diabetes Mellitus: Therapeutics and New Perspectives. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, p. 00.

    Collado, Maria Carmen Rautava, Samuli Isolauri, Erika and Salminen, Seppo 2015. Gut microbiota: a source of novel tools to reduce the risk of human disease?. Pediatric Research, Vol. 77, Issue. 1-2, p. 182.

    Davidson, Patricia and Davidson, Dwight 2015. Integrative Nutrition Therapy.


Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  • Raakel Luoto (a1) (a2), Kirsi Laitinen (a3) (a4), Merja Nermes (a1) and Erika Isolauri (a1) (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 04 February 2010

The perinatal nutritional environment impacts upon the health and well-being of mother and child also in the long term. The aim of the present study was to determine the safety and efficacy of perinatal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling by evaluating pregnancy outcome and fetal and infant growth during the 24 months' follow-up. Altogether, 256 women were randomised at their first trimester of pregnancy into a control and a dietary intervention group. The intervention group received intensive dietary counselling provided by a nutritionist and were further randomised, double-blind to receive probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12; diet/probiotics) or placebo (diet/placebo). Firstly, probiotic intervention reduced the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); 13 % (diet/probiotics) v. 36 % (diet/placebo) and 34 % (control); P = 0·003. Secondly, the safety of this approach was attested by normal duration of pregnancies with no adverse events in mothers or children. No significant differences in prenatal or postnatal growth rates among the study groups were detected. Thirdly, distinctive effects of the two interventions were detected; probiotic intervention reduced the risk of GDM and dietary intervention diminished the risk of larger birth size in affected cases; P = 0·035 for birth weight and P = 0·028 for birth length. The results of the present study show that probiotic-supplemented perinatal dietary counselling could be a safe and cost-effective tool in addressing the metabolic epidemic. In view of the fact that birth size is a risk marker for later obesity, the present results are of significance for public health in demonstrating that this risk is modifiable.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Raakel Luoto, fax +358 2 313 1460, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2HT Sorensen , S Sabroe , KJ Rothman , (1997) Relation between weight and length at birth and body mass index in young adulthood: cohort study. BMJ 315, 1137.

3TJ Parsons , C Power & O Manor (2001) Foetal and early life growth and body mass index from birth to early adulthood in 1958 British cohort: longitudinal study. BMJ 323, 13311335.

4W Palinski , T Yamashita , S Freigang , (2007) Developmental programming: maternal hypercholesterolemia and immunity influence susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Nutr Rev 65, 12 Pt 2, S182S187.

6PW Howie , JS Forsyth , SA Ogston , (1990) Protective effect of breast feeding against infection. BMJ 300, 1116.

7PJ Surkan , CC Hsieh , AL Johansson , (2004) Reasons for increasing trends in large for gestational age births. Obstet Gynecol 104, 720726.

8P Damm (2009) Future risk of diabetes in mother and child after gestational diabetes mellitus. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 104, Suppl. 1, 525526.

9F Bäckhed , H Ding , T Wang , (2004) The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 1571815723.

10PD Cani & NM Delzenne (2007) Gut microflora as a target for energy and metabolic homeostasis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10, 729734.

11RE Ley , PJ Turnbaugh , S Klein , (2006) Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 444, 10221023.

12M Kalliomäki , MC Collado , S Salminen , (2008) Early differences in fecal microbiota composition in children predict overweight. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 534538.

13M Kalliomäki , P Kirjavainen , E Eerola , (2001) Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants in whom atopy was and was not developing. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107, 129134.

16J Aaltonen , T Ojala , K Laitinen , (2008) Evidence of infant blood pressure programming by maternal nutrition during pregnancy: a prospective randomized controlled intervention study. J Pediatr 152, 7984.

17W Becker , N Lyhne , AN Pedersen , (2004) Nordic nutrition recommendations 2004 – integrating nutrition and physical activity. Scand J Nutr 48, 178187.

18Nordic Working Group on Diet and Nutrition (1996) Nordic nutrition recommendations. Scand J Nutr 40, 161165.

19BE Metzger & DR Coustan (1998) Summary and recommendations of the fourth international workshop-conference on diabetes mellitus. The organizing committee. Diabetes Care 21, Suppl. 2, B161B167.

20J Schwager , MH Mohajeri , A Fowler , (2008) Challenges in discovering bioactives for the food industry. Curr Opin Biotechnol 19, 6672.

21LC Douglas & ME Sanders (2008) Probiotics and prebiotics in dietetics practice. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 510521.

22F He , H Morita , AC Ouwehand , (2002) Stimulation of the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by Bifidobacterium strains. Microbial Immunol 46, 781785.

23HR Christensen , H Frøkiær & JJ Pestka (2002) Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells. J Immunol 168, 171178.

24MP Piccini , L Beloni , C Livi , (1998) Defective production of both leukemia inhibitory factor and type 2 T-helper cytokines by decidual T cells in unexplained recurrent abortions. Nat Med 4, 10201024.

25SL Prescott , C Macauba , T Smallacombe , (1999) Development of allergen-specific T-cell memory in atopic and normal children. Lancet 353, 196200.

26K Godfrey , S Robinson , DJ Barker , (1996) Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and foetal growth. BMJ 312, 410414.

27DJ Barker (2004) The developmental origins of adult disease. J Am Coll Nutr 23, Suppl. 6, 588S595S.

28P Catalano (2002) The diabetogenic state of maternal metabolism in pregnancy. NeoReviews 3, e165e171.

29J Baird , D Fisher , P Lucas , (2005) Being big or growing fast: systematic review of size and growth in infancy and later obesity. BMJ 331, 929934.

30C Druet & KK Ong (2008) Early childhood predictors of adult body composition. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 22, 489502.

31CM Boney , A Verma , R Tucker , (2005) Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 115, e290e296.

33PJ Turnbaugh , RE Ley , MA Mahovald , (2006) An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 444, 10271031.

34PD Cani , J Amar , MA Iglesias , (2007) Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes 56, 17611772.

35E Isolauri (1999) Probiotics and gut inflammation. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 15, 534537.

36PD Cani , S Possemiers , T Van de Wiele , (2009) Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability. Gut 58, 10911103.

37PC Calder (2006) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 75, 197202.

38H Shi , MV Kokoeva , K Inouye , (2006) TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 116, 30153025.

39Y Yogev , BE Metzger & M Hod (2009) Establishing diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: Impact of the hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcome study. Semin Foetal Neonatal Med 14, 94100.

41ST Weiss (2005) Obesity: insight into the origins of asthma. Nat Immunol 6, 537539.

42SA Shore (2008) Obesity and asthma: possible mechanism. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121, 10871093.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *