This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1 O Johnell (1997) The socioeconomic burden of fractures: today and in the 21st century. Am J Med 103, 20–25S.
2 P Kannus , S Niemi , J Parkkari , M Palvanen , I Vuori & M Järvinen (1999) Hip fractures in Finland between 1970 and 1997 and predictions for the future. Lancet 353, 802–805.
4 M Kärkkäinen & C Lamberg-Allardt (1996) An acute intake of phosphate increases parathyroid hormone secretion and inhibits bone formation in young women. J Bone Miner Res 11, 1905–1912.
5 MS Calvo , R Kumar & H Heath III (1988) Elevated secretion and action of serum parathyroid hormone in young adults consuming high phosphorus, low calcium diets assembled from common foods. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 66, 823–829.
6 MS Calvo , R Kumar & H Heath III (1990) Persistently elevated parathyroid hormone secretion and action in young women after four weeks of ingesting high phosphorus, low calcium diets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70, 1334–1340.
11 E Takeda , K Sakamoto , K Yokota , M Shinohara , Y Taketani , K Morita , H Yamamoto , K Miyamoto & M Shibayama (2002) Phosphorus supply per capita from food in Japan between 1960 and 1995. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 48, 102.
16 J Uribarri & MS Calvo (2003) Hidden sources of phosphorus in the typical American diet: does it matter in nephrology? Semin Dial 16, 186–188.
17 RP Heaney (1993) Nutritional factors in osteoporosis. Ann Rev Nutr 13, 287–316.
19 B Shea , G Wells , A Cranney , N Zytaruk , V Robinson , L Griffith , Z Ortiz , J Peterson , J Adachi , P Tugwell & G Guyatt (2002) Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VII. Meta-analysis of calcium supplementation for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 23, 552–559.
20 SJ Whiting & RJ Wood (1997) Adverse effects of high-calcium diets in humans. Nutr Rev 55, 1–9.
21 RP Heaney , K Rafferty , MS Dowell & J Bierman (2005) Calcium fortification system differ in bioavailability. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 807–809.
22 SH Kim , JH Han , QY Zhu & CL Keen (2003) Use of vitamins, minerals, and other dietary supplements by 17- and 18-year-old students in Korea. J Med Food 6, 27–42 .
23 K Radimer , B Bindewald , J Hughes , B Ervin , C Swanson & MF Picciano (2004) Dietary supplements use by US adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000. Am J Epidemiol 160, 339–349.
24 P Henrix , R Van Cauwenbergh , HJ Robberrecht & HA Deelstra (1995) Measurement of the daily dietary calcium and magnesium intake in Belgium, using duplicate portion sampling. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 201, 213–217 .
25 RJ Bryant , J Cadogan & CM Weaver (1999) The new dietary reference intakes for calcium: implications for osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 18, 406S–412S.
26 L Guéguen & A Pointillart (2000) The bioavailability of dietary calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 119S–136S.
27 G Lombardi-Boccia , A Aguzzi , M Cappelloni , G Di Lullo & M Lucarini (2003) Total-diet study: dietary intakes of macro elements and trace elements in Italy. Br J Nutr 90, 1117–1121.
28 MM Salamoun , AS Kizirian , RI Tannous , MM Nabulsi , MK Choucair , ME Deeb & GA El-Hajj Fuleihan (2005) Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 177–184.
29 M Koshihara , S-I Katsumata , M Uehara & K Suzuki (2005) Effects of dietary phosphorus intake on bone mineralization and calcium absorption in adult female rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69, 1025–1028.
33 K Laitinen , C Lamberg-Allardt , R Tunninen , SL Karonen , R Tähtelä , R Ylikarhi & M Välimäki (1991) Transient hypoparathyroidism during acute alcohol intoxication. N Engl J Med 324, 721–727.
35 CS Tam , JNM Heersche , TM Murray & JA Parson (1982) Parathyroid hormone stimulates the bone apposition rate independently of its resorptive action: differential effects of intermittent and continuous administration. Endocrinology 110, 506–512.
36 PC Schiller , G Dippolito , BA Roos & GA Howard (1999) Anabolic or catabolic responses of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells to parathyroid hormone depend on time and duration of treatment. J Bone Miner Res 14, 1504–1512.
37 K Herfarth , H Schmidt-Gayk , S Graf & A Maier (1992) Circadian rhythm and pulsatily of parathyroid hormone secretion in man. Clin Endocrinol 37, 511–519.
38 E Slatopolsky , J Finch , M Denda , C Ritter , M Zhong , A Dusso , PN MacDonald & AJ Brown (1996) Phosphorus restriction prevents parathyroid gland growth. High phosphorus directly stimulates PTH secretion in vitro. J Clin Invest 97, 2534–2540.
39 K Miyamoto , S Tatsumi , H Segawa , K Morita , T Nii , A Fujioka , M Kitano , Y Inoue & E Takeda (1999) Regulation of PiT-1, a sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter in rat parathyroid glands. Nephrol Dial Transplant 14, Suppl. 1, S73–S75.
41 H Sadideen & R Swaminathan (2004) Effect of acute oral calcium load on serum PTH and bone resorption in young healthy subjects: an overnight study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 1661–1665.
42 J Woo , R Swaminathan , E Lau , D MacDonald , CP Pang & BEC Nordin (1991) Biochemical effects of a single oral dose of calcium on bone metabolism in elderly Chinese women. Calcif Tissue Int 48, 157–160.
43 E Reiss , JM Canterbury , MA Bercovitz & EL Kaplan (1970) The role of phosphate in the secretion of parathyroid hormone in man. J Clin Invest 49, 2146–2149.
44 SJ Silverberg , E Shane , TL Clemens , DW Dempster , GV Segre , R Lindsay & JP Bilezikian (1986) The effects of oral phosphate administration on major incidens of skeletal metabolism in normal subjets. J Bone Miner Res 1, 383–388.
45 K Brixen , HK Nielsen , P Charles & L Mosekilde (1992) Effects of a short course of oral phosphate treatment on serum parathyroid hormone (1–84) and biochemical markers of bone turnover: a dose-response study. Calcif Tissue Int 51, 276–281.
46 J Guillemant , C Accarie , G Peres & S Guillemant (2004) Acute effects of an oral calcium load on markers of bone metabolism during endurance cycling exercise in male athletes. Calcif Tissue Int 74, 407–414.
47 M Grimm , A Muller , G Hein , R Funfstuck & G Jahreis (2001) High phosphorus intake only slightly affects serum minerals, urinary pyrinidium crosslinks and renal function in young women. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 153–161.
48 L Sax (2001) The Institute of Medicine's ‘Dietary reference intake’ for phosphorus: A critical perspective. J Am Coll Nutr 20, 271–278.
50 P Joffe , SD Ladefoged , C Cintin , LT Jensen & L Hyldstrup (1994) Acute effect of oral, intraperitoneal, and intravenous 1α-hydroxycholecalsiferol on markers of bone metabolism. Nephrol Dial Transplant 9, 524–531.
51 AB Hodsman , LJ Fraher , T Ostbye , JD Adachi & BM Steer (1993) An evaluation of several biochemical markers on bone formation and resorption in a protocol utilizing cyclical parathyroid hormone and calcitonin therapy for osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 91, 1138–1148.
52 AA Portale , BP Halloran & RC Morris Jr (1987) Dietary intake of phosphorus modulates the circadian rhythm in serum concentration of phosphorus. J Clin Invest 80, 1147–1154.
53 A Whybro , H Jagger , M Barker & R Eastell (1998) Phosphate supplementation in young men:lack of effect on calcium homeostasis and bone turnover. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 29–33.
58 RP Heaney & BEC Nordin (2002) Calcium effects on phosphorus absorption: Implications for the prevention and co-therapy of osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 239–244.