Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Increasing sodium intake from a previous low or high intake affects water, electrolyte and acid–base balance differently

  • Martina Heer (a1), Petra Frings-Meuthen (a1), Jens Titze (a2), Michael Boschmann (a3), Sabine Frisch (a1), Natalie Baecker (a1) and Luis Beck (a1)...

Abstract

Contrasting data are published on the effects of high salt intake (between 300 and 660 mmol/d) on Na balance and fluid retention. In some studies high levels of NaCl intake (400, 440, 550 and 660 mmol/d) led to positive Na balances without fluid retention. To test the relevance of different baseline NaCl intake levels on changes in metabolic water, Na, K, chloride and acid–base balance, a 28 d clinical trial (‘Salty Life 6’) was carried out in a metabolic ward. Nine healthy male volunteers (aged 25·7 (sd 3·1) years; body mass (BM) 71·4 (sd 4·0) kg) participated in the present study. Four consecutive levels of NaCl intake: low (6 d, 0·7 mmol NaCl/kg BM per d), average normal (6 d, 2·8 mmol NaCl/kg BM per d), high (10 d, 7·7 mmol NaCl/kg BM per d), and low again (6 d, 0·7 mmol NaCl/kg BM per d) were tested. Urine osmolality, extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV), cumulative metabolic Na, K, chloride and fluid balances, mRNA expression of two glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polymerisation genes, capillary blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess were measured. During average normal NaCl intake, 193 (sem 19) mmol Na were retained and ECV (+2·02 (sem 0·31) litres; P < 0·001) and PV (+0·57 (sem 0·13) litres; P < 0·001) increased. During high NaCl intake, 244 (sem 77) mmol Na were retained but ECV did not increase (ECV − 0·54 (sem 0·30) litres, P = 0·089; PV +0·27 (sem 0·25) litres, P = 0·283). mRNA expression of GAG polymerisation genes increased with rise in NaCl intake, while pH (P < 0·01) and bicarbonate (P < 0·001) levels decreased. We conclude that a high NaCl intake may increase GAG synthesis; this might play a role in osmotically inactive Na retention in humans.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Increasing sodium intake from a previous low or high intake affects water, electrolyte and acid–base balance differently
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Increasing sodium intake from a previous low or high intake affects water, electrolyte and acid–base balance differently
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Increasing sodium intake from a previous low or high intake affects water, electrolyte and acid–base balance differently
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr Martina Heer, fax +49 2203 61159, email drmheer@aol.com

References

Hide All
1 Sagnella, GA, Markandu, ND, Buckley, MG, et al. (1989) Hormonal responses to gradual changes in dietary sodium intake in humans. Am J Physiol 256, R1171R1175.
2 Singer, DR, Markandu, ND, Buckley, MG, et al. (1994) Blood pressure and endocrine responses to changes in dietary sodium intake in cardiac transplant recipients. Implications for the control of sodium balance. Circulation 89, 11531159.
3 Heer, M, Baisch, F, Kropp, J, et al. (2000) High dietary sodium chloride consumption may not induce body fluid retention in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 278, F585F595.
4 Drummer, C, Hesse, C, Baisch, F, et al. (2000) Water and sodium balances and their relation to body mass changes in microgravity. Eur J Clin Invest 30, 10661075.
5 Palacios, C, Wigertz, K, Martin, BR, et al. (2004) Sodium retention in black and white female adolescents in response to salt intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 18581863.
6 Titze, J, Krause, H, Hecht, H, et al. (2002) Reduced osmotically inactive Na storage capacity and hypertension in the Dahl model. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 283, F134F141.
7 Titze, J, Maillet, A, Lang, R, et al. (2002) Long-term sodium balance in humans in a terrestrial space station simulation study. Am J Kidney Dis 40, 508516.
8 Titze, J, Shakibaei, M, Schafflhuber, M, et al. (2004) Glycosaminoglycan polymerization may enable osmotically inactive Na+ storage in the skin. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 287, H203H208.
9 Sharma, AM, Cetto, C, Schorr, U, et al. (1993) Renal acid–base excretion in normotensive salt-sensitive humans. Hypertension 22, 884890.
10 Sharma, AM & Distler, A (1994) Acid–base abnormalities in hypertension. Am J Med Sci 307, Suppl. 1, S112S115.
11 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernaehrung e.V. (1996) Ernaehrungsbericht 1996 (Nutrition Report 1996). Frankfurt am Main: Druckerei Henrich.
12 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernaehrung e.V. (2000) Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr (Reference Values for Nutrient Intake). Frankfurt am Main: Umschau Braus GmbH.
13 Drummer, C, Gerzer, R, Heer, M, et al. (1992) Effects of an acute saline infusion on fluid and electrolyte metabolism in humans. Am J Physiol 262, F744F754.
14 Johansen, LB, Foldager, N, Stadeager, C, et al. (1992) Plasma volume, fluid shifts, and renal responses in humans during 12 h of head-out water immersion. J Appl Physiol 73, 539544.
15 Groth, L (1996) Cutaneous microdialysis. Methodology and validation. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh) 197, 161.
16 Boschmann, M, Murphy, FP & Krueger, JG (2001) Microdialysis can detect age-related differences in glucose distribution within the dermis and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Dermatology 202, 207210.
17 Lonnroth, P (1997) Microdialysis in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Horm Metab Res 29, 344346.
18 Stahle, L, Segersvard, S & Ungerstedt, U (1991) A comparison between three methods for estimation of extracellular concentrations of exogenous and endogenous compounds by microdialysis. J Pharmacol Methods 25, 4152.
19 Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes, Water and Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2004) Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
20 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e.V. (2004) Ernaehrungsbericht 2004 (Nutrition Report 2004). Frankfurt am Main: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e.V.
21 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e.V. (1992) Ernaehrungsbericht 1992 (Nutrition Report 1992). Frankfurt am Main: Druckerei Henrich.
22 Titze, J, Lang, R, Ilies, C, et al. (2003) Osmotically inactive skin Na+ storage in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 285, F1108F1117.
23 Kessler, R, Leibhammer, S, Laue, O, et al. (1997) Acute saline infusion induces extracellular acidification and activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger in man. Eur J Clin Invest 27, 558565.
24 Siffert, W & Dusing, R (1995) Sodium–proton exchange and primary hypertension. An update. Hypertension 26, 649655.
25 Seeliger, E, Ladwig, M & Reinhardt, HW (2006) Are large amounts of sodium stored in an osmotically inactive form during sodium retention? Balance studies in freely moving dogs. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290, R1429R1435.
26 Nguyen, MK & Kurtz, I (2007) Is the osmotically inactive sodium storage pool fixed or variable? J Appl Physiol 102, 445447.
27 Schafflhuber, M, Volpi, N, Dahlmann, A, et al. (2007) The mobilization of osmotically inactive Na+ by growth and by dietary salt restriction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 292, F1490F1500.
28 Farber, SJ, Schubert, M & Schuster, N (1957) The binding of cations by chondroitin sulfate. J Clin Invest 36, 17151722.
29 Heer, MP, Frings, P, Baecker, N, et al. (2005) Increasing salt intake leads first to osmotic active and then to osmotic inactive sodium retention. FASEB J 19, A92.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed