Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Inulin-type fructans and reduction in colon cancer risk: review of experimental and human data

  • Beatrice L. Pool-Zobel (a1)
Abstract

Inulin-type fructans (β(2,1)fructans) extracted from chicory roots (Cichorium intybus) are prebiotic food ingredients, which in the gut lumen are fermented to lactic acid and SCFA. Research in experimental animal models revealed that inulin-type fructans have anticarcinogenic properties. A number of studies report the effects of inulin-type fructans on chemically induced pre-neoplastic lesions (ACF) or tumours in the colon of rats and mice. In twelve studies, there were twenty-nine individual treatment groups of which twenty-four measured aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and five measured tumours. There was a significant reduction of ACF in twenty-one of the twenty-four treatment groups and of tumour incidence in five of the five treatment groups. Higher beneficial effects were achieved by synbiotics (mixtures of probiotics and prebiotics), long-chain inulin-type fructans compared to short-chain derivatives, and feeding high-fat Western style diets. Inulin-type fructans reduced tumour incidence in APCMin mice in two of four studies and reduced growth and metastasising properties of implanted tumour cells in mice (four studies). The effects have been reported to be associated with gut flora-mediated fermentation and production of butyrate. In human cells, inulin-derived fermentation products inhibited cell growth, modulated differentiation and reduced metastasis activities. In conclusion, evidence has been accumulated that shows that inulin-type fructans and corresponding fermentation products reduced the risks for colon cancer. The involved mechanisms included the reduction of exposure to risk factors and suppression of tumour cell survival. Thus, this specific type of dietary fibre exerted both blocking agent and suppressing agent types of chemopreventive activities.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Inulin-type fructans and reduction in colon cancer risk: review of experimental and human data
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Inulin-type fructans and reduction in colon cancer risk: review of experimental and human data
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Inulin-type fructans and reduction in colon cancer risk: review of experimental and human data
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor Beatrice L. Pool-Zobel, fax +49 3641 949672, email, b8pobe@uni-jena.de
References
Hide All
Alberts, DS, Martinez, ME & Roe, DJ (2000) The Phoenix Colon Cancer Prevention Physicians' Network. Lack of effect of a high-fiber cereal supplement on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. N Engl J Med 342, 11561162.
Ames, BN & Gold, LS (1990) Too many rodent carcinogens: mitogenesis increases mutagenesis. Science 249, 970971.
Augeron, C & Laboisse, CL (1984) Emergence of permanently differentiated cell clones in a human colonic cancer cell line in culture after treatment with sodium butyrate. Cancer Res 44, 39613969.
Bartram, HP, Scheppach, W, Schmid, H, Hofmann, A, Dusel, G, Richter, F, Richter, A & Kasper, H (1993) Proliferation of human colonic mucosa as an intermediate biomarker of carcinogenesis: effects of butyrate, desoxycholate, calcium, ammonia, and pH. Cancer Res 53, 32833288.
Beyer-Sehlmeyer, G, Glei, M, Hartmann, F, Hughes, R, Persin, C, Böhm, V, Rowland, IR, Schubert, R, Jahreis, G, Pool-Zobel, BL (2003) Butyrate is only one of several growth inhibitors produced during gut flora-mediated fermentation of dietary fibre sources. Br J Nutr 90, 10571070.
Bingham, SA, Day, NE & Luen, R (2003) Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study. Lancet 361, 14961501.
Bird, RP (1987) Observation and quantification of aberrant crypts in the murine colon treated with a colon carcinogen: preliminary findings. Cancer Lett 37, 147151.
Bolognani, F, Rumney, CJ, Coutts, JT, Pool-Zobel, BL & Rowland, IR (2001) Effect of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and inulin on the formation of aberrant crypt foci in rats. Eur J Nutr 40, 293300.
Bonithon-Kopp, C, Kronborg, O & Giacosa, A (2000) Calcium and fibre supplementation in prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial. Lancet 356, 13001306.
Bouhnik, Y, Vahedi, K, Achour, L, Attar, A, Salfati, J, Pochart, P, Marteau, P, Flourie, B, Bornet, F & Rambaud, JC (1999) Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide administration dose-dependently increases fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans. J Nutr 129, 113116.
Caderni, G, Luceri, C, DeFilippo, C, Salvadori, M, Giannini, A, Tessitore, L & Dolara, P (2001) Slow-release pellets of sodium butyrate do not modify azoxymethane (AOM)-induced intestinal carcinogenesis in F344 rats. Carcinogenesis 22, 525527.
Campbell, JM, Fahey, GC, Jr, Wolf BW (1997) Selected indigestible oligosaccharides affect large bowel mass, cecal and fecal short-chain fatty acids, pH and microflora in rats. J Nutr 127, 130136.
Compher, CW, Frankel, WL, Tazelaar, J, Lawson, JA, McKinney, S, Segall, S, Kinosian, BP, Williams, NN & Rombeau, JL (1999) Wheat bran decreases aberrant crypt foci, preserves normal proliferation, and increases intraluminal butyrate levels in experimental colon cancer. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 23, 269277.
Corpet, DE & Pierre, F (2003) Point: from animal models to prevention of colon cancer. Systematic review of chemoprevention in Min mice and choice of the model system. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12, 391400.
DeFilippo, C, Caderni, G, Bazzicalupo, M, Briani, C, Giannini, A, Fazi, M & Dolara, P (1998) Mutations of the Apc gene in experimental colorectal carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane in F344 rats. Br J Cancer 77, 21482151 Abstr.
Ebert, MN, Beyer-Sehlmeyer, G, Liegibel, UM, Kautenburger, T, Becker, TW, Pool-Zobel, BL (2001) Butyrate-induces glutathione S-transferase in human colon cells and protects from genetic damage by 4-hydroxynonenal. Nutr Cancer 41, 156164.
Ebert, MN, Klinder, A, Schäferhenrich, A, Peters, WHM, Sendt, W, Scheele, J, Pool-Zobel, BL (2003) Expression of glutathione S-transferases (GST) in human colon cells and inducibility of GSTM2 by butyrate. Carcinogenesis 24, 16371644.
Fazeli, A, Steen, RG, Dickinson, SL, Bautista, D, Dietrich, WF, Bronson, RT, Bresalier, RS, Sander, ES, Costa, J & Weinberg, RA (1997) Effects of p53 mutations on apoptosis in mouse intestinal and human colonic adenomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 1019910204.
Fearon, ER & Vogelstein, B (1990) A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis. Cell 61, 759767.
Femia, AP, Luceri, C, Dolara, P, Giannini, A, Biggeri, A, Salvadori, M, Clune, Y, Collins, KJ, Paglierani, M & Caderni, G (2002) Antitumourigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 23, 19531960.
Ferguson, LR (1999) Natural and man-made mutagens and carcinogens in the diet. Introduction to special issue of mutation research. Mutat Res 443, 110.
Ferguson, LR & Harris, PJ (2003) The dietary fibre debate: more food for thought – commentary. Lancet 361, 14871488.
Ferguson, LR, Chavan, RR & Harris, PJ (2001) Changing concepts of dietary fiber: implications for carcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 39, 155169.
Fodde, R, Smits, R & Clevers, H (2001) APC signal transduction and genetic instability in colorectal cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 1, 5567.
Fuchs, CS, Giovannucci, E, Colditz, GA, Hunter, DJ, Stampfer, MJ, Rosner, B, Speizer, FE & Willett, WC (1999) Dietary fiber and the risk of colo-rectal cancer and adenoma in women. N Engl J Med 340, 169176.
Gallaher, DD & Khil, J (1999) The effect of synbiotics on colon carcinogenesis in rats. J Nutr 129, 1483S1487S.
Gallaher, DD, Stallings, WH, Blessing, LL, Busta, FF & Brady, LJ (1996) Probiotics, cecal microflora, and aberrant crypts in the rat colon. J Nutr 126, 13621371.
Gibson, GR & Roberfroid, MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125, 14011412.
Gibson, PR, Rosella, O, Wilson, AJ, Mariadason, JM, Rickard, K, Byron, K & Barkla, DH (1999) Colonic epithelial cell activation and the paradoxical effects of butyrate. Carcinogenesis 20, 539544.
Hague, A, Manning, AM, Hanlon, KA, Huschtscha, LI, Hart, D & Paraskeva, C (1993) Sodium butyrate induces apoptosis in human colonic tumour cell lines in a p53-independent pathway: implications for the possible role of dietary fibre in the prevention of large-bowel cancer. Int J Cancer 55, 498505.
Hague, A, Singh, B & Paraskeva, C (1997) Butyrate acts as a survival factor for colonic epithelial cells: further fuel for the in vivo versus in vitro debate. Gastroenterology 112, 10361040.
Harris, PJ & Ferguson, LR (1993) Dietary fibre: its composition and role in protection against colorectal cancer. Mutat Res 290, 97110.
Hidaka, H, Eida, T, Takizawa, T, Tokunaga, T & Tashiro, Y (1986) Effects of fructooligosaccharides on intestinal flora and human health. Bifidobacteria Microflora 5, 3750.
Hughes, R & Rowland, IR (2001) Stimulation of apoptosis by two prebiotic chicory fructans in the rat colon. Carcinogenesis 22, 4347.
Jacoby, RF, Cole, CE, Lubet, RA & You, M (2001) Effect of the non-specific Cox1/2 inhibitor piroxicam and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor difluoromethylornitine (DFMO) on development of intestinal tumours in mice bearing germline alteration the Msh2 or APC genes. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 42 263 Abstr., 1422.
Johnson, IT (1995) Butyrate and markers of neoplastic change in the colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 4, 365371.
Johnson, IT, Williamson, G & Musk, SRR (1994) Anticarcinogenic factors in plant foods: a new class of nutrients?. Nutr Res Rev 7, 175204.
Klinder, A, Förster, A, Caderni, G, Femia, AP, Pool-Zobel, BL ((2004a)) Fecal water genotoxicity is predictive of tumor-preventive activities by inulin-like oligofructoses, probiotics ( Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis ) and their synbiotic combination. Nutr Cancer 49, 144155.
Klinder, A, Gietl, E, Hughes, R ((2004b)) Gut fermentation products of inulin-derived prebiotics inhibit markers of tumour progression in human conon tumour cells. Int J Cancer Prev 1, 1932.
Kobayashi, H, Tan, ME & Fleming, SE (2003) Sodium butyrate inhibits cell growth and stimulates p21 wap/CIPI protein in human colonic adenocarcinoma cells independently of p53 status. Nutr Cancer 46, 202211.
Kok, TMCM, van Maanen, JMS (2000) Evaluation of fecal mutagenicity and colorectal cancer risk. Mutat Res 463, 53101.
Koo, M & Rao, AV (1991) Long-term effect of bifidobacteria and Neosugar on precursor lesions of colonic cancer in CF1 mice. Nutr Cancer 16, 249257.
Kruh, J (1982) Effects of sodium butyrate, a new pharmacological agent on cells in culture. Mol Cell Biochem 42, 6582.
Levin, B (2003) Potential pitfalls in the use of surrogate endpoints in colorectal adenoma chemoprevention. JNCI Cancer Spectr 95, 697.
Lipkin, M (in preparation). Effects of Raftilose on tumor occurrence in APC MIN mice. Report, Orafti, Tienen, Belgium.
Lupton, JR (1995) Butyrate and colonic cytokinetics: differences between in vitro and in vivo studies. Eur J Cancer Prev 4, 373378.
Lupton, JR (2004) Microbial degradation products influence colon cancer risk, the butyrate controversy. J Nutr 134, 479482.
McIntosh, GH, Royle, PJ & Pointing, G (2001) Wheat aleurone flour increases cecal β-glucuronidase activity and butyrate concentration and reduce colon adenoma burden in azoxymethane treated rats. J Nutr 131, 127131.
McIntyre, A, Gibson, PR & Young, GP (1993) Butyrate production from dietary fibre and protection against large bowel cancer in a rat model. Gut 34, 386391.
McLellan, EA & Bird, RP (1988) Aberrant crypts: potential preneoplastic lesions in the murine colon. Cancer Res 48, 61876192.
Magnuson, B, Carr, I & Bird, RP (1993) Ability of aberrant crypt foci characteristics to predict colonic tumour incidence in rats fed cholic acid. Cancer Res 53, 44994504.
Mariadason, JM, Corner, GA & Augenlicht, LH (2000) Genetic reprogramming in pathways of colonic cell maturation induced by shortchain fatty acids; comparison with trichostatin A, sulindac and curcumin, and implications for chemoprevention of colon cancer. Cancer Res 60, 45614572.
Mariadason, JM, Velchich, A, Wilson, AJ, Augenlicht, LH & Gibson, PR (2001) Resistance to butyrate-induced cell differentiation and apoptosis during spontaneous Caco-2 cell differentiation. Gastroenterology 120, 889899.
Mutanen, M, Pajari, AM & Oikarinen, SI (2000) Beef induces and rye bran prevents the formation of intestinal polyps in Apc Min mice: relation to β-catenin and PKC isozymes. Carcinogenesis 21, 11671173.
Oberreuther-Moschner, D, Jahreis, G, Rechkemmer, G, Pool-Zobel, BL (2004) Dietary intervention with the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum 913 modulates the potential of human faecal water to induce damage in HT29clone19A cells. Br J Nutr 91, 925932.
Osswald, K, Becker, TW, Grimm, M, Jahreis, G, Pool-Zobel, BL (2000) Inter- and intra-individual variation of faecal water – genotoxicity in human colon cells. Mutat Res 472, 5970.
Pajari, AM, Rajakangas, J, Päivärinta, E, Kosma, VM, Rafter, J & Mutanen, M (2003) Promotion of intestinal tumour formation by inulin is associated with an accumulation of β-catenin in MIN mice. Int J Cancer 106, 653660.
Pereira, MA, Barnes, LH, Rassman, VL, Kelloff, GV & Steele, VE (1994) Use of azoxymethane-induced foci of aberrant crypts in rat colon to identify potential cancer chemopreventive agents. Carcinogenesis 15, 10491054.
Perrin, P, Pierre, F, Patry, Y, Champ, M, Berreur, M, Pradal, G, Bornet, P, Meflah, K & Menenteau, J (2001) Only fibres promoting a stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem decrease the rate of aberrant crypt foci in rats. Gut 48, 5361.
Peters, U, Sinha, R & Chaterjee, N (2003) Dietary fibre and colorectal adenoma in a colorectal cancer early detection programme. Lancet 361, 14011405.
Pierre, F, Perrin, P, Champ, M, Bornet, F, Meflah, K & Menanteau, J (1997) Short chain fructo-oligosaccharides reduce the occurrence of colon tumours and develop gut associated lymphoid tissue in Min mice. Cancer Res 57, 225228.
Pietinen, P, Malila, N, Virtanen, M, Hartman, TJ, Tangrea, JA, Albanes, D & Virtamo, J (1999) Diet and risk of colorectal cancer in a cohort of Finnish men. Cancer Causes Control 10, 387396.
Pool-Zobel, BL & Cherbut, C (2003) Discussion forum on ‘diets enriched with cereal brans or inulin modulate protein kinase C activity and isozyme expression in rat colonic mucosa’ – Comments by Pool-Zobel Cherbut. Br J Nutr 89, 283284.
Pool-Zobel, BL, Neudecker, C, Domizlaff, I, Ji, S, Schillinger, U, Rumney, CJ, Moretti, M, Villarini, M, Scassellati-Sforzolini, G & Rowland, IR (1996) Lactobacillus - and Bifidobacterium -mediated antigenotoxicity in colon cells of rats: prevention of carcinogen-induced damage in vivo and elucidation of involved mechanisms. Nutr Cancer 26, 365380.
Pool-Zobel, BL, Van Loo, J, Rowland, IR & Roberfroid, MB (2002) Experimental evidences on the potential of prebiotic fructans to reduce the risk of colon cancer. Br J Nutr 87, S273S281.
Potter, JD (1999) Colorectal cancer: molecules and populations. J Natl Cancer Inst 91, 916932.
Poulson, M, Mølck, AM & Jacobsen, BL (2002) Different effects of short- and long-chained fructans on large intestinal physiology and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Nutr Cancer 42, 194205.
Rafter, J, Chin, SM, Andersson, AM, Alder, R, Eng, W & Bruce, R (1987) Cellular toxicity of faecal water depends on diet. Am J Clin Nutr 45, 559563.
Rao, CV, Chou, D, Simi, B, Ku, H & Reddy, BS (1998) Prevention of colonic aberrant crypt foci and modulation of large bowel microbial activity by dietary coffee fiber, inulin and pectin. Carcinogenesis 19, 18151819.
Reddy, BS, Hamid, R & Rao, CV (1997) Effect of dietary oligofructose and inulin on colonic preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci inhibition. Carcinogenesis 18, 13711374.
Roberfroid, MB (1998) Prebiotics and synbiotics: concepts and nutritional properties. Br J Nutr 80, S197S202.
Roberfroid, MB, Van Loo, J & Gibson, GR (1998) The bifidogenic nature of chicory inulin and its hydrolysis products. J Nutr 128, 1119.
Rowland, IR (1991) Nutrition and gut flora metabolism Nutrition, Toxicity and Cancer, 113136 [Rowland, IR, editors]. Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, Boston, London: CRC Press.
Rowland, IR (1993) Diet, gut microflora and carcinogenesis Food, Nutrition and Chemical Toxicity, 337341 [Parke, DVWalker, R, editors]. Great Britain: Smith-Gordon.
Rowland, IR, Bearne, CA, Fischer, R, Pool-Zobel, BL (1996) The effect of lactulose on DNA damage induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in the colon of human-flora-associated rats. Nutr Cancer 26, 3847.
Rowland, IR, Rumney, CJ, Coutts, JT & Lievense, LC (1998) Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 19, 281285.
Schatzkin, A, Lanza, E & Corle, D (2000) The Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group. Lack of effect of a low-fat, high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. N Engl J Med 342, 11491155.
Schiffman, MH (1987) Diet and faecal genotoxicity. Cancer Surv 6, 653672.
Shoemaker, AR, Luongo, C, Moser, AR, Marton, LJ & Dove, WF (1997) Somatic mutational mechanisms involved in intestinal tumour formation in Min mice. Cancer Res 57, 19992006.
Taper, HS & Roberfroid, M (1999) Influence of inulin and oligofructose on breast cancer and tumour growth. J Nutr 129, 1488S1491S.
Taper, HS & Roberfroid, MB (2000) Inhibitory effect of dietary inulin or oligofructose on the development of cancer metastases. Anticancer Res 20, 42914294.
Taper, HS & Roberfroid, MB (2000b) Nontoxic potentiation of cancer chemotherapy by dietary oligofructose or inulin. Nutr Cancer 38, 15.
Taper, HS & Roberfroid, MB (2002) Inulin/oligofructose and anticancer therapy. Br J Nutr 87, S283S286.
Taper, HS, Lemort, C & Roberfroid, MB (1998) Inhibition effect of dietary inulin and oligofructose on the growth of transplantable mouse tumour. Anticancer Res 18, 41234126.
Terpstra, OT, van Blankenstein, M, Dees, J & Eilers, GAM (1987) Abnormal pattern of cell proliferation in the entire colonic mucosa of patients with colon adenoma or cancer. Gastroenterology 92, 704708.
Terry, P, Giovannucci, E, Michels, KB, Bergvist, L, Hansen, H, Holmberb, L & Wolk, A (2001) Fruit, vegetables, dietary fiber, and risk of colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 93, 525533.
Thun, MJ, Henley, SJ & Patrono, C (2002) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as anticancer agents: mechanistic, pharmacologic, and clinical issues. J Natl Cancer Inst 94, 252266.
Van Loo, J (1995) On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the Western diet. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 35, 525552.
Venturi, M, Hambly, RJ, Glinghammer, B, Rafter, JJ & Rowland, IR (1997) Genotoxic activity in human faecal water and the role of bile acids: a study using the alkaline comet assay. Carcinogenesis 18, 23532359.
Verghese, M, Rao, DR, Chawan, CB & Shackelford, L (2002) Dietary inulin suppresses azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci in mature Fisher 344 rats. J Nutr 132, 28042808.
Verghese, M, Rao, DR, Chawan, CB, Williams, LL & Schackelford, LA (2002b) Dietary inulin suppresses azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colon tumours at the promotion stage in young Fisher 344 rats. J Nutr 132, 28092813.
Verghese, M, Walker, LT, Shackelford, L, Chawan, CB, Van Loo, J (2003) Inhibitory effects of non-digestible carbohydrates of different chain lengths on AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci in Fisher 344 rats. In Proceedings of the Second Annual AACR International Conference 'Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research', Phoenix, AZ, 2630 October 2003. Poster B186 Abstr.
Wargovich, MJ, Harris, C, Chen, CD, Palmer, C, Steele, VE & Kelloff, GF (1992) Growth kinetics and chemoprevention of aberrant crypts in the rat colon. J Cell Biochem, Suppl. 15G, 5154.
Wattenberg, LW (1992) Inhibition of carcinogenesis by minor dietary constituents. Cancer Res 52, Suppl., 2085s2091s.
Wollowski, I, Ji, S, Bakalinsky, AT, Neudecker, C, Pool-Zobel, BL (1999) Bacteria used for the production of yogurt inactivate carcinogens and prevent DNA damage in the colon of rats. J Nutr 129, 7782.
World Cancer Research Fund American Institute for Cancer Research (1997) Food, Nutrition and The Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective, Washington DC: American Institute for Cancer Research.
Yang, K, Fan, K, Shinozaki, H, Newmark, H, Edelmann, W, Kucherlapati, R & Lipkin, M (1999) Sulindac increases carcinoma development in the colons of mice with Apc mutations. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 40 523 Abstr. 3488.
Yang, K, Fan, K, Lia, M, Edelmann, W, Augenlicht, LH, Lubet, R, Kopelovich, L, Kucherlapati, R & Lipkin, M (2001) Sulindac increases tumour development in the colon of mice with Mlh1/mutation. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 42 264 Abstr. 1423.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed