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Magnetic resonance imaging of the behaviour of oil-in-water emulsions in the gastric lumen of man

  • Luca Marciani (a1) (a2), Martin S. J. Wickham (a3), Debbie Bush (a4), Richard Faulks (a3), Jeff Wright (a4), Annette J. Fillery-Travis (a3) (a5), Robin C. Spiller (a1) and Penny A. Gowland (a2)...

Abstract

Pre-processed foods often contain a high percentage of lipid, present as emulsions stabilised with various surface-active agents. The acidic gastric environment can affect the behaviour of such emulsions, modifying the lipid spatial distribution and, in turn, the rate of gastric emptying and nutrient delivery to the gut. The aim of the present study was to use echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) to determine the behaviour of model olive oil emulsions during gastric processing. Six healthy male volunteers were intubated nasogastrically on two separate occasions and fed 500ml 15% (w/w) olive oil-in-water, surfactant-stabilised emulsions designed to have identical droplet size distribution and which were either stable or unstable under gastric acid conditions. EPI was used to assess the oil fraction of the intragastric emulsions, gastric emptying and to visualise the spatial distribution of the oil at 10, 30 and 50min postprandially. The in vivo imaging measurements of the oil volume fraction of the emulsions correlated well (r 0·66, acid-stable; r 0·52, acid-unstable) with that assayed in the gastric aspirates. Compared with the acid-stable emulsion, the acid-unstable emulsion in the gastric lumen rapidly separated into lipid-depleted ‘aqueous’ and lipid layers. Phase separation in the acid-unstable meal allowed the oil-depleted component to empty first and more rapidly than the stable emulsion as determined by the gastric emptying curves. These pilot data suggest that gastric processing and emptying of high-fat foods could be manipulated by careful choice of emulsifier.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

*corresponding author: Professor Penny A. Gowland, fax +44 115 951 5166, email Penny.Gowland@nottingham.ac.uk

References

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Charalambous, G & Doxastakis, GFood Emulsifiers: Chemistry, Technology, Functional Properties and Applications. Oxford: Elsevier. 1989
Christian, PE, Moore, JG & Datz, FLComparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver pate as markers for solid-phase gastric-emptying. J Nucl Med 1984 25, 364366.
Collins, PJ, Horowitz, M & Chatterton, BEProximal, distal and total stomach emptying of a digestible solid meal in normal subjects. Br J Radiol 1988 61, 1218.
Cote, F, Pare, P & Friede, JPhysiological effect of cholecystokinin on gastric-emptying of liquid in functional dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol 1995 90, 20062009.
Cunningham, KM, Baker, RJ, Horowitz, M, Maddox, AF, Edelbroek, & Chatterton, BEUse of technetium-99m(V)thiocyanate to measure gastric-emptying of fat. J Nucl Med 1991 32, 878881.
Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (2000) SN 4512 – National Food Survey 2000. http://www.data-archive.ac.uk
Dickinson, EHydrocolloids at interfaces and the influence on the properties of dispersed systems. Food Hydrocolloids 2003 17, 2539.
Drewnowski, AWhy do we like fat?. J Am Diet Assoc Suppl., 1997 97, S58S62.
Edelbroek, M, Horowitz, M, Maddox, A & Bellen, JGastric emptying and intragastric distribution of oil in the presence of a liquid or a solid meal. J Nucl Med 1992 33, 12831290.
Evans, DF, Lamont, G, Stehling, MK, Blamire, AM, Gibbs, P, Coxon, R, Hardcastle, JD & Mansfield, PProlonged monitoring of the pper gastrointestinal tract using echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging. Gut 1993 34, 848852.
Fone, DR, Horowitz, M, Heddle, R, Maddox, AF, Collins, PJ, Read, NW, Dent, JComparative effects of duodenal and ileal intubation on gastric emptying and postprandial antral, pyloric, and duodenal motility. Scand J Gastroenterol 1991 26, 1622.
Fraser, R, Borovicka, J, Schwizer, W, Asal, K, Crelier, G, Boesiger, P,Blum, AL, Gonvers, JJ & Fried, MMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure proximal and distal gastric motility during emptying of a liquid meal. Gastroenterology 1993 104, A509A509.
Freeman, AJ, Gowland, PA & Mansfield, POptimization of the ultrafast Look-Locker echo-planar imaging T1 mapping sequence. Magn Reson Imaging 1998 16, 765772.
Guinard, JX, ZoumasMorse, C, Mori, L, Uatoni, B, Panyam, D & Kilara, ASugar and fat effects on sensory properties of ice cream. J Food Sci 1997 62, 10871094.
Heading, RC, Tothill, P, Laidlow, AJ & Shearman, DJCAn evaluation of 113-In-DTPA chelate in the measurement of gastric emptying by scintiscanning. Gut 1971 12, 611615.
Horowitz, M, Collins, PJ & Shearman, DJCDisorders of gastric emptying in humans and the use of radionuclide techniques. Arch Intern Med 1985 45, 14671472.
Horowitz, M, Jones, K, Edelbroek, MAL, Smout, A & Read, NWThe effect of posture on gastric-emptying and intragastric distribution of oil and aqueous meal components and appetite. Gastroenterology 1993 105, 382390.
Howseman, AM, Stehling, MK, Chapman, B, Coxon, R, Turner, R, Ordidge, RJ, Cawley, MG, Glover, P, Mansfield, P & Coupland, REImprovements in snap-shot nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol 1988 61, 822828.
Hunter, RJZeta Potential in Colloid Science, Principles and Applications. London: Academic Press 1981
Jian, R, Vigneron, N, Najean, Y & Bernier, JJGastric-emptying and intra-gastric distribution of lipids in man: a new scintigraphic method of study. Dig Dis Sci 1982 27, 705711.
Kerlin, P, Byrnes, O & Wong, LRadiolabeled unprocessed bran: validation of a practical labeling technique and evaluation of gastrointestinal transit profiles in health. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1989 4, 119126.
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