1Simopoulos AP (2001) n-3 Fatty acids and human health: defining strategies for public policy. Lipids 36, S83–S89.
2Scislowski V, Bauchart D, Gruffat D, et al. (2005) Effects of dietary n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protected or not against ruminal hydrogenation on plasma lipids and their susceptibility to peroxidation in fattening steers. J Anim Sci 83, 2162–2174.
3Gladine C, Rock E, Morand C, et al. (2007) Bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of plant extracts rich in polyphenols, given as a single acute dose, in sheep made highly susceptible to lipoperoxidation. Br J Nutr 98, 691–701.
4Bernabucci U, Ronchi B, Lacetera N, et al. (2005) Influence of body condition score on relationships between metabolic status and oxidative stress in periparturient dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 88, 2017–2026.
5Gobert M, Martin B, Ferlay A, et al. (2009) Plant polyphenols associated with vitamin E can reduce plasma lipoperoxidation in dairy cows given n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Dairy Sci 92, 6095–6104.
6Mazur W, Fotsis T, Wähälä K, et al. (1996) Isotope dilution gas chromatographic – mass spectrometric method for the determination of isoflavonoids, coumestrol, and lignans in food samples. Anal Biochem 233, 169–180.
7Adlercreutz H & Mazur W (1997) Phyto-oestrogens and Western diseases. Ann Med 29, 95–120.
8Côrtes C, Gagnon N, Benchaar C, et al. (2008) In vitro metabolism of flax lignans by ruminal and faecal microbiota of dairy cows. J Appl Microbiol 105, 1585–1594.
9Saarinen NM, Huovinen R, Wärri A, et al. (2002) Enterolactone inhibits the growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinomas in the rat. Mol Cancer Ther 1, 869–876.
10Gagnon N, Côrtes C, Da Silva D, et al. (2009) Ruminal metabolism of flaxseed Linum usitatissimum lignans to the mammalian lignan enterolactone and its concentration in ruminal fluid, plasma, urine and milk of dairy cows. Br J Nutr 102, 1015–1023.
11Vanharanta M, Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, et al. (1999) Risk of acute coronary events according to serum concentrations of enterolactone: a prospective population-based case–control study. Lancet 354, 2112–2115.
12Prasad K (2000) Antioxidant activity of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside-derived metabolites, secoisolariciresinol, enterodiol, and enterolactone. Int J Angiol 9, 220–225.
13Rajesha J, Murthy KNC, Kumar MK, et al. (2006) Antioxidant potentials of flaxseed by in vivo model. J Agric Food Chem 54, 3794–3799.
14Fernandes G, Rahman MM, Bhattacharya A, et al. (2008) Effect of endogenous n-3 PUFA on inflammation and oxidative stress. FASEB J 22, 1094·1091.
15Côrtes C, Kazama R, da Silva-Kazama DC, et al. (2011) Digestion, milk production and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed flax hulls and infused with flax oil in the abomasum. J Dairy Res 78, 293–300.
16CCAC (Canadian Council on Animal Care) (1993) Guide to Care and Use of Experimental Animals [, editors]. Ottawa, ON: CCAC.
17Gressley TF, Reynal SM, Colmenero JJO, et al. (2006) Development of a tool to insert abomasal infusion lines into dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 89, 3965–3967.
18Côrtes C, da Silva-Kazama DC, Kazama R, et al. (2010) Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil. J Dairy Sci 93, 3146–3157.
19Farr VC, Stelwagen K, Cate LR, et al. (1996) An improved method for the routine biopsy of bovine mammary tissue. J Dairy Sci 79, 543–549.
20Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1990) Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed.Washington, DC: AOAC.
21Labrecque B, Beaudry D, Mayhue M, et al. (2009) Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the porcine paraoxonase 3 (PON3) gene. Gene 443, 110–120.
22Cikos S, Bukovska A & Koppel J (2007) Relative quantification of mRNA: comparison of methods currently used for real-time PCR data analysis. BMC Mol Biol 8, 113.
23Hausner H, Johnsen NF, Hallund J, et al. (2004) A single measurement is inadequate to estimate enterolactone levels in danish postmenopausal women due to large intraindividual variation. J Nutr 134, 1197–1200.
24Nesbitt PD, Lam Y & Thompson LU (1999) Human metabolism of mammalian lignan precursors in raw and processed flaxseed. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 549–555.
25Petit HV & Twagiramungu H (2006) Conception rate and reproductive function of dairy cows fed different fat sources. Theriogenology 66, 1316–1324.
26Ambrose DJ, Kastelic JP, Corbett R, et al. (2006) Lower pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows fed a diet enriched in α-linolenic acid. J Dairy Sci 89, 3066–3074.
27Lessard M, Gagnon N & Petit HV (2003) Immune response of postpartum dairy cows fed flaxseed. J Dairy Sci 86, 2647–2657.
28Sordillo LM, Contreras GA & Aitken SL (2009) Metabolic factors affecting the inflammatory response of periparturient dairy cows. Anim Health Res Rev 10, 53–63.
29Frémont L, Gozzélino MT, Franchi MP, et al. (1998) Dietary flavonoids reduce lipid peroxidation in rats fed polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat diets. J Nutr 128, 1495–1502.
30Choi BR & Palmquist DL (1996) Effects of dietary fat on ruminal propionate and plasma insulin concentrations in lactating cows. J Dairy Sci 79, 169.
31Litherland NB, Thire S, Beaulieu AD, et al. (2005) Dry matter intake is decreased more by abomasal infusion of unsaturated free fatty acids than by unsaturated triglycerides. J Dairy Sci 88, 632–643.
32Alía M, Horcajo C, Bravo L, et al. (2003) Effect of grape antioxidant dietary fiber on the total antioxidant capacity and the activity of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats. Nutr Res 23, 1251–1267.
33Ananthan R, Latha M, Ramkumar KM, et al. (2004) Modulatory effects of Gymnema montanum leaf extract on alloxan-induced oxidative stress in wistar rats. Nutrition 20, 280–285.
34Aoki N, Furukawa S, Sato K, et al. (2010) Supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trehalose results in milk with low lipid peroxide and high antioxidant content. J Dairy Sci 93, 4189–4195.
35Yu BP (1994) Cellular defenses against damage from reactive oxygen species. Physiol Rev 74, 139–162.
36Vázquez-Añón M, Nocek J, Bowman G, et al. (2008) Effects of feeding a dietary antioxidant in diets with oxidized fat on lactation performance and antioxidant status of the cow. J Dairy Sci 91, 3165–3172.
37Kitts DD, Yuan YV, Wijewickreme AN, et al. (1999) Antioxidant activity of the flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside and its mammalian lignan metabolites enterodiol and enterolactone. Mol Cell Biochem 202, 91–100.
38Hu C, Yuan YV & Kitts DD (2007) Antioxidant activities of the flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, its aglycone secoisolariciresinol and the mammalian lignans enterodiol and enterolactone in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol 45, 2219–2227.
39Morton LW, Abu-Amsha Caccetta R, Puddey AB, et al. (2000) Chemistry and biological effects of dietary phenolic compounds: relevance to cardiovascular disease. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 27, 152–159.
40Yeh CT & Yen GC (2006) Induction of hepatic antioxidant enzymes by phenolic acids in rats is accompanied by increased levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 mRNA expression. J Nutr 136, 11–15.
41Kaspar JW, Niture SK & Jaiswal AK (2009) Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) signaling in oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 47, 1304–1309.
42Miao L & St Clair DK (2009) Regulation of superoxide dismutase genes: implications in disease. Free Radic Biol Med 47, 344–356.
43Dreger H, Westphal K, Weller A, et al. (2009) Nrf2-dependent upregulation of antioxidative enzymes: a novel pathway for proteasome inhibitor-mediated cardioprotection. Cardiovasc Res 83, 354–361.
44Soyalan B, Minn J, Schmitz HJ, et al. (2011) Apple juice intervention modulates expression of ARE-dependent genes in rat colon and liver. Eur J Nutr 50, 135–143.
45Reddy Avula CP & Fernandes G (1999) Modulation of antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis in mice by dietary lipids and treadmill exercise. J Clin Immunol 19, 35–44.
46Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Pérez-Espinosa A, Vázquez CM, et al. (1999) Effects of dietary fats (fish, olive and high-oleic-acid sunflower oils) on lipid composition and antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. Br J Nutr 82, 233–241.
47Ramaprasad TR, Baskaran V, Krishnakantha TP, et al. (2005) Modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities, platelet aggregation and serum prostaglandins in rats fed spray-dried milk containing n-3 fatty acid. Mol Cell Biochem 280, 9–16.
48Venkatraman JT, Angkeow P, Satsangi N, et al. (1998) Effects of dietary n-6 and n-3 lipids on antioxidant defense system in livers of exercised rats. J Am Coll Nutr 17, 586–594.
49Schimke I, Haberland A, Wirth M, et al. (1997) Influence of long-term supplementation with α-linolenic acid on myocardial lipid peroxidation and antioxidative capacity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 57, 545–550.
50Ding WQ, Vaught JL, Yamauchi H, et al. (2004) Differential sensitivity of cancer cells to docosahexaenoic acid-induced cytotoxicity: the potential importance of down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression. Mol Cancer Ther 3, 1109–1117.
51Chen L, Lee MJ, Li H, et al. (1997) Absorption, distribution, and elimination of tea polyphenols in rats. Drug Metab Dispos 25, 1045–1050.
52Kim S, Lee MJ, Hong J, et al. (2000) Plasma and tissue levels of tea catechins in rats and mice during chronic consumption of green tea polyphenols. Nutr Cancer 37, 41–48.
53Gladine C, Morand C, Rock E, et al. (2007) The antioxidative effect of plant extracts rich in polyphenols differs between liver and muscle tissues in rats fed n-3 PUFA rich diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 139, 257–272.
54Collins AR (2005) Assays for oxidative stress and antioxidant status: applications to reach into the biological effectiveness of polyphenols. Am J Clin Nutr 81, Suppl. 1, 261S–267S.
55Martin ME, Haourigui M, Pelissero C, et al. (1996) Interactions between phytoestrogens and human sex steroid binding protein. Life Sci 58, 429–436.