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Nutrient adequacy in Spanish children and adolescents

  • Lluís Serra-Majem (a1) (a2), Lourdes Ribas-Barba (a2), Carmen Pérez-Rodrigo (a3) and Javier Aranceta Bartrina (a3)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN20061701
  • Published online: 01 March 2007
Abstract

The nutritional intakes of the Spanish child and adolescent population are presented, as well as the population at risk of inadequate nutrient status. A random sample of 3534 people aged 2–24 years were interviewed between 1998 and 2000. Interviews included two 24 h recalls and a general questionnaire and anthropometric evaluations for the entire sample. After excluding under-reporters (18·7 %), the final sample was 2855 individuals (1348 males and 1507 females). The average intake of energy was 9543 kJ in males and 7804 kJ in females, with important variations seen by age group. Energy intake increased with age in both sexes until 14–17 years, which also applied to almost all of the nutrients studied, with the exception of vitamin C. A decreasing trend in the percentage of energy from carbohydrates was seen in both sexes. At the low socioeconomic level, it was observed that all nutrient intakes were less favourable when compared with higher socioeconomic levels. Nutrients with associated intakes below one-third of the Spanish recommended nutrient intake (RNI) included vitamin D (42 % of the sample) and folate (10 % of females), and the percentages falling below two-thirds of the RNI corresponded to: vitamin D (97 %), vitamin A (60 %), vitamin E (54 %), folate (58 % of females), Fe (23 % of females), vitamin C (8 %), Mg (4·5 %), Ca (5 % of females) and vitamin B6 (5 % of females). Adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years was the group with the highest nutritional risk, especially among girls. Nutritional adequacy in Spanish children was, in general, adequate, although it is necessary to analyse the implications of high inadequate intakes of vitamins D, E and A, which means that the current recommended intakes should be reconsidered. It should be noted that folate levels should be doubled in the near future.

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Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor Lluís Serra-Majem, fax +34 928 453475, email lserra@dcc.ulpgc.es
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J Aranceta , C Pérez Rodrigo , L Ribas , & Ll Serra-Majem (2003) Sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of food patterns in Spanish children and adolescents: the enKid study. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 1, S40S44.

J Aranceta , L Serra-Majem , L Ribas , C Pérez-Rodrigo (2001) Breakfast consumption in Spanish children and young people. Public Health Nutr 4, 14391444.

K Liu , J Stamler , A Dyer , J McKeever & P McKeever (1978) Statistical methods to assess and minimize the role of intraindividual variability in obscuring the relationship between dietary lipids and serum cholesterol. J Chronic Dis 31, 399418.

C Pérez Rodrigo , L Ribas , Ll Serra-Majem , & J Aranceta (2003) Food preferences of Spanish children and young people: the enKid study. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 1. S45S48.

L Serra-Majem , R García-Closas , L Ribas , C Pérez-Rodrigo & J Aranceta (2001) Food patterns of Spanish schoolchildren and adolescent. The enKid study. Public Health Nutr 4, 14331438.

Ll Serra-Majem , L Ribas , A García , C Pérez-Rodrigo & J Aranceta (2003 d) Nutrient adequacy and Mediterranean diet in Spanish schoolchildren and adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 1, S35S39.

LI Serra-Majem , L Ribas , C Pérez-Rodrigo , R García-Closas , L Peña-Quintana & J Aranceta (2002) Determinats of nutrient intake among children and adolescents: results from the enKid study. Ann Nutr Metab 46, Suppl. 1, 3138.

Majem Serra , Ribas Ll , L Barba , Bartrina Aranceta , Pérez J , C Rodrigo , Santana Saavedra , Peña P & L Quintana (2003 b) Obesidad infantil y juvenil en España. Resultados del estudio enKid (1998–2000). Med Clin (Barc) 121, 725732.

Majem Serra , Ribas Ll , L Barba , Rodrigo Pérez , Roman C , B Viñas , J Aranceta Bartrina (2003 c) Hábitos alimentarios y consumo de alimentos en la población infantil y juvenil española (1998–2000): variables socioeconómicas y geográficas. Med Clin (Barc) 121, 126131.

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British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
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