Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia)

  • Bee Koon Poh (a1), Boon Koon Ng (a1), Mohd Din Siti Haslinda (a2), Safii Nik Shanita (a3), Jyh Eiin Wong (a1), Siti Balkis Budin (a4), Abd Talib Ruzita (a1), Lai Oon Ng (a5), Ilse Khouw (a6) and A. Karim Norimah (a1)...

Abstract

The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8 %) and obesity (11·8 %) was higher than that of thinness (5·4 %) and stunting (8·4 %). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6 %), serum ferritin (4·4 %) and vitamin A (4·4 %), but almost half the children (47·5 %) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia)
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia)
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia)
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr B. K. Poh, fax +60 3 2694 7621, email pbkoon@fsk.ukm.my

References

Hide All
1Popkin, BM (2001) Nutrition in transition: the changing global nutrition challenge. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 10, S13S18.
2Popkin, BM (2011) Contemporary nutritional transition: determinants of diet and its impact on body composition. Proc Nutr Soc 70, 8291.
3Popkin, BM, Adair, LS & Ng, SW (2012) Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr Rev 70, 321.
4Caballero, B (2002) Global patterns of child health: the role of nutrition. Ann Nutr Metab 46, Suppl. 1, 37.
5Uauy, R, Kain, J, Mericq, V, et al. (2008) Nutrition, child growth, and chronic disease prevention. Ann Med 40, 1120.
6Khambalia, AZ, Lim, SS, Gill, T, et al. (2012) Prevalence and sociodemographic factors of malnutrition among children in Malaysia. Food Nutr Bull 33, 3142.
7Khor, GL & Zalilah, MS (2003) Dual forms of malnutrition in the same households in Malaysia – a case study among Malay rural households. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12, 427438.
8World Health Organization (2010) World Health Statistics 2010. Geneva: WHO. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/2010/en/index.html.
9World Health Organization (2012) World Health Statistics 2012. Geneva: WHO. http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2012/en/index.html.
10World Health Organization (2009) Global Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Populations at Risk 1995–2005. WHO Global Database on Vitamin A Deficiency. Geneva: WHO.
11World Health Organization (2008) Worldwide Prevalence of Anaemia 1993–2005: WHO Global Database on Anaemia. Geneva: WHO.
12Holick, MF & Chen, TC (2008) Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr 87, Suppl., 1080S1086S.
13Bener, A, Al-Ali, M & Hoffmann, GF (2009) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young children in a highly sunny humid country: a global health problem. Minerva Pediatr 61, 1522.
14Gessner, BD, Plotnik, J & Muth, PT (2003) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels among healthy children in Alaska. J Pediatr 143, 434437.
15Gilbert-Diamond, D, Baylin, A, Mora-Plazas, M, et al. (2010) Vitamin D deficiency and anthropometric indicators of adiposity in school-age children: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 14461451.
16Khor, GL, Chee, WSS, Shariff, ZM, et al. (2011) High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. BMC Public Health 11, 95.
17Khor, GL, Noor Safiza, MN, Jamalludin, AB, et al. (2009) Nutritional status of children below five years in Malaysia: anthropometric analyses from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey III (NHMS, 2006). Mal J Nutr 15, 121136.
18Ismail MN, Ruzita AN, Norimah AK, et al. (2009) Prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity in two cross-sectional studies of Malaysia children, 2002–2008. In MASO 2009 Scientific Conference on Obesity: Obesity and Our Environment, 12–13 August 2009, Kuala Lumpur.
19 UNICEF (2010) Nutrition Country Profile for Malaysia. http://www.childinfo.org/country_profiles.php?input = 90 (accessed May 2012).
20Hasan, I, Zulkifle, M & Ansari, AH (2011) An assessment of nutritional status of the children of government Urdu higher primary schools of Azad Nagar and its surrounding areas of Bangalore. Arch Appl Sci Res 3, 167176.
21Albertson, AM & Tobelmann, RC (1993) Ten-year trend of energy intakes of American children ages 2 ± 10 years. Ann N Y Acad Sci 699, 250252.
22Brady, LM, Lindquist, CH, Herd, SL, et al. (2000) Comparison of children's dietary intake patterns with US dietary guidelines. Br J Nutr 84, 361367.
23World Health Organization (1966) The Assessment of the Nutritional Status of the Community. Monograph Series no. 53. Geneva: WHO.
24Schaafsma A, Deurenberg P, Calame W, et al. (2013) Design of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey: a four country multi-stage cluster design study. Br J Nutr 110, S2–S10.
25World Health Organization (1986) Sample Size Determination: A User's Manual. Geneva: WHO.
26Institute for Public Health (2008) Nutritional Status. Report of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006 (NHMS III). Kuala Lumpur: IPH, Ministry of Health.
27Department of Statistics Malaysia (2010) Population, Household and Living Quarters, Malaysia 2010. Putrajaya: Department of Statistics.
28Ministry of Education Malaysia (2010) Malaysia Educational Statistics 2010. Putrajaya: Ministry of Education.
29Marfell-Jones, M, Olds, T, Stewart, A, et al. (2006) International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment. Potchefstroom: International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK).
30World Health Organization (2006) WHO Child Growth Standards. Geneva: WHO. http://www.who.int/childgrowth (accessed accessed October 2010).
31World Health Organization (2007) Growth Chart for Children 5–19 years. Geneva: WHO. http://www.who.int/growthref/en/ (accessed accessed October 2010).
32World Health Organization (2010) WHO Anthro for Personal Computers Manual: Software for Assessing Growth and Development of the World's Children. Geneva: WHO.
33World Health Organization (2009) WHO AnthroPlus for Personal Computers Manual: Software for Assessing Growth of the World's Children and Adolescents. Geneva: WHO.
34World Health Organization (2001) Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention, and Control. Geneva: WHO.
35World Health Organization (2011) Haemoglobin Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Anaemia and Assessment of Severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. Geneva: WHO. http://www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/haemoglobin.pdf (accessed accessed July 2011).
36World Health Organization (2011) Serum Ferritin Concentrations for the Assessment of Iron Status and Iron Deficiency in Populations. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. Geneva: WHO. http://www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/serum_ferritin.pdf (accessed accessed July 2011).
37Misra, M, Pacaud, D, Petryk, A, et al. (2008) Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics 122, 398417.
38Ooi, SY, Ng, BK, Ong, WW, et al. (2010) Development of food frequency questionnaire among infants in Malaysia. In Abstract and Poster Presented at 25th Scientific Conference of the Nutrition Society of Malaysia, 25–26 March 2010, p. 132. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Nutrition Society of Malaysia.
39Irma HA, Poh BK, Norimah AK (2011) Validation of proxy-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in assessing dietary intake among children aged 6 months to 23 months. In Abstract and Poster Presentation at 26th Scientific Conference of the Nutrition Society of Malaysia, 24–25 March 2011, pp. 98–99. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Nutrition Society of Malaysia.
40Ho, PS, Poh, BK, Norimah, AK, et al. (2011) Validation of proxy-reported food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake among children aged 2 to 6 years old. In Abstract and Poster Presentation at 26th Scientific Conference of the Nutrition Society of Malaysia, 24–25 March 2011, p. 98. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Nutrition Society of Malaysia.
41Fatihah F, Ng BK, Ong WW, et al. (2011) Development of food frequency questionnaire for Malaysian children aged 7–9 years. In Abstract and Poster Presented at 25th Scientific Conference of the Nutrition Society of Malaysia, 25–26 March 2010, p. 117. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Nutrition Society of Malaysia (Won the First Prize in the Poster Competition).
42Hazwanie H, Poh BK, Norimah AK (2011) Validation of food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among children aged 7–12 years old. In Abstract and Poster Presentation at 26th Scientific Conference of the Nutrition Society of Malaysia, 24–25 March 2011, pp. 97–98. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Nutrition Society of Malaysia.
43Tee, ES, Ismail, MN, Nasir, MA, et al. (1997) Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Foods, 4th ed.Kuala Lumpur: Institute for Medical Research.
44Department of Nutrition (2000) The Composition of Foods Commonly Eaten in Singapore 2000. Singapore: Ministry of Health.
45Taki, M, Mizuno, K, Murase, M, et al. (2010) Maturational changes in the feeding behaviour of infants – a comparison between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Acta Paediatr 99, 6167.
46Puwastien P, ASEAN Network of Food Data System (2000) ASEAN Food Composition Tables. Bangkok, Thailand: Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University.
47Chong YM, Poh BK, Ng BK, et al. (2011) Development of Nutrient Calculator for Children's Food Frequency Questionnaire. In Abstract and Poster Presentation at 26th Scientific Conference of the Nutrition Society of Malaysia, 24–25 March 2011, pp. 91–92. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Nutrition Society of Malaysia.
48National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition (2005) Recommended Nutrient Intakes of Malaysia. A Report of the Technical Working Group on Nutritional Guidelines. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health Malaysia.
49Smith, LC, Ruel, MT & Ndiaye, A (2005) Why is child malnutrition lower in urban than in rural areas? Evidence from 36 developing countries. World Dev 33, 12851305.
50Institute for Public Health (2011) Non Communicable Diseases. Report of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 (Volume II). Kuala Lumpur: IPH, Ministry of Health.
51Kuczmarski, RJ, Ogden, CL, Guo, SS, et al. (2000) CDC growth charts for the United States: methods and development. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 11, 1190.
52Mei, Z, Ogden, CL, Flegal, KM, et al. (2008) Comparison of the prevalence of shortness, underweight, and overweight among US children aged 0 to 59 months by using the CDC 2000 and the WHO 2006 growth charts. J Pediatr 153, 622628.
53Ruzita, AT, Nurunnajiha, N, Wong, JE, et al. (2009) Nutritional Status and Dietary Habits of Primary School Children in Peninsular Malaysia: Comparison of the 2001/02 Survey with the 2007/08 Survey. Report for UKM-Nestle Research Project. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
54Khor, GL (2002) Micronutrient deficiency and its alleviation: the case of Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11, S377S381.
55Ngui, R, Lim, YAL, Liam, CK, et al. (2012) Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6, e1550.
56Nor Aini, U, Al-Mekhlafi, HM, Azlin, M, et al. (2007) Serum iron status in Orang Asli children living in endemic areas of soil-transmitted helminths. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16, 724730.
57Al-Mekhlafi, MH, Surin, J, Atiya, AS, et al. (2008) Anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia among aboriginal school children in rural Peninsular Malaysia: an update on a continuing problem. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102, 10461052.
58Thurlow, RA, Winichagoon, P, Green, T, et al. (2005) Only a small proportion of anemia in northeast Thai school children is associated with iron deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 380387.
59Nhien, NV, Khan, NC, Ninh, NX, et al. (2008) Micronutrient deficiencies and anemia among preschool children in rural Vietnam. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17, 4855.
60Rokiah, D (2009) Children nutrition policies and programmes in the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Mal J Nutr 15, S2.
61Khor, GL (2005) Micronutrient status and intervention programs in Malaysia. Food Nutr Bull 26, Suppl. 2, S281S285.
62Ministry of Health (2000) Hemoglobin and Serum Retinol Level Amongst Children Under 5 Years of Age. Report of a MOH-UNICEF Study. Kuala Lumpur: Division of Family Health Development.
63Al-Mekhlafi, HM, Surin, J, Sallam, AA, et al. (2010) Giardiasis and poor vitamin A status among aboriginal school children in rural Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83, 523527.
64World Health Organization (1996) Indicators for Assessing Vitamin A Deficiency and Their Application in Monitoring and Evaluation Intervention Programmes. Geneva: WHO. http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/vitamin_a_deficiency/WHONUT96.10.pdf.
65Mai, TT, Hung, NK, Kawakami, M, et al. (2003) Micronutrient status of primary school girls in rural and urban areas of South Vietnam. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12, 178185.
66Hadi, H, Stoltzfus, RJ, Dibley, MJ, et al. (2000) Vitamin A supplementation selectively improves the linear growth of Indonesian preschool children: results from a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 507513.
67Chailurkit, L, Aekplakorn, W & Ongphiphadhanakul, B (2011) Regional variation and determinants of vitamin D status in sunshine-abundant Thailand. BMC Public Health 11, 853.
68Marwaha, RK, Tandon, N, Reddy, DRHK, et al. (2005) Vitamin D and bone mineral density status of healthy schoolchildren in northern India. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 477482.
69Mansour, MMHK & Alhadidi, KM (2012) Vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 16, 263269.
70Ismail, MN, Norimah, AK, Ruzita, AT, et al. (2003) Nutritional Status and Dietary Habits of Primary School Children in Peninsular Malaysia. Final Report for UKM-Nestle Research Project. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
71Holick, MF (1995) Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 638S645S.
72Hackett, AF, Gibbon, M, Sratton, G, et al. (2002) Dietary intake of 9–10-year-old and 11–12-year-old children in Liverpool. Public Health Nutr 5, 449455.
73Cooke, LJ & Wardle, J (2005) Age and gender differences in children's food preferences. Br J Nutr 93, 741746.
74Kim, SH, Kim, JY & Keen, CL (2005) Comparison of dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of elementary schoolchildren living in remote rural and urban areas in Korea: their potential impact on school performance. Nutr Res 25, 349363.
75Muhammad Faiz, AA & Naleena Devi, M (2012) Nutritional status and eating practices among children aged 4–6 years old in selected urban and rural kindergarten in Selangor, Malaysia. Asian J Clin Nutr 4, 116131.
76Elias, SM, Hashim, Z, Marjan, ZM, et al. (2007) Relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among Malay Primary School Children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Asia Pac J Public Health 19, 2937.
77Du, XQ, Greenfield, H, Fraser, DR, et al. (2002) Milk consumption and bone mineral content in Chinese adolescent girls. Bone 30, 521528.
78Thane, CW, Batesa, CJ & Prentice, A (2002) Menarche and nutritional status in pubescent British girls. Nutr Res 22, 423432.
79Nowak, M (1998) The weight-conscious adolescent: body image, food intake, and weight-related behaviour. J Adolesc Health 23, 389398.
80Reinaerts, E, de Nooijer, J & de Vries, NK (2007) Parental versus child reporting of fruit and vegetable consumption. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 4, 33.
81Klohe, DM, Clarke, KK, George, GC, et al. (2005) Relative validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire for a triethnic population of 1-year-old to 3-year-old children from low income families. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 727734.
82Sherwood, NE (2008) Diet assessment in children and adolescents. In Handbook of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity, pp. 7389 [Jejalian, E and Steele, RG, editors]. Minneapolis: Health Partners Foundation.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed