1Heidemann, C, Schulze, MB, Franco, OH, et al. (2008) Dietary patterns and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in a prospective cohort of women. Circulation 118, 230–237.
2Paradis, AM, Perusse, L & Vohl, MC (2006) Dietary patterns and associated lifestyles in individuals with and without familial history of obesity: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 3, 38.
3Pryer, JA, Cook, A & Shetty, P (2001) Identification of groups who report similar patterns of diet among a representative national sample of British adults aged 65 years of age or more. Public Health Nutr 4, 787–795.
4Rumawas, ME, Meigs, JB, Dwyer, JT, et al. (2009) Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, reduced risk of metabolic syndrome traits, and incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1608–1614.
5Ambrosini, GL, Huang, RC, Mori, TA, et al. (2010) Dietary patterns and markers for the metabolic syndrome in Australian adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20, 274–283.
6McNeill, AM, Rosamond, WD, Girman, CJ, et al. (2005) The metabolic syndrome and 11-year risk of incident cardiovascular disease in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Diabetes Care 28, 385–390.
7Grundy, SM (2006) Metabolic syndrome: connecting and reconciling cardiovascular and diabetes worlds. J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 1093–1100.
8Beltran-Sanchez, H, Harhay, MO, Harhay, MM, et al. (2013) Prevalence and trends of metabolic syndrome in the adult US population, 1999–2010. J Am Coll Cardiol 62, 697–703.
9Misra, A & Khurana, L (2009) The metabolic syndrome in South Asians: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 7, 497–514.
10Boudreau, DM, Malone, DC, Raebel, MA, et al. (2009) Health care utilization and costs by metabolic syndrome risk factors. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 7, 305–314.
11Grundy, SM, Cleeman, JI, Daniels, SR, et al. (2005) Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement: Executive Summary. Crit Pathw Cardiol 4, 198–203.
12Zimmet, P, Magliano, D, Matsuzawa, Y, et al. (2005) The metabolic syndrome: a global public health problem and a new definition. J Atheroscler Thromb 12, 295–300.
13Fraser, GE (1999) Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 532S–538S.
14Key, TJ, Fraser, GE, Thorogood, M, et al. (1999) Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 516S–524S.
15Bamia, C, Trichopoulos, D, Ferrari, P, et al. (2007) Dietary patterns and survival of older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly Study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Public Health Nutr 10, 590–598.
16Fung, TT, van Dam, RM, Hankinson, SE, et al. (2010) Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: two cohort studies. Ann Intern Med 153, 289–298.
17Knoops, KT, Groot de, LC, Fidanza, F, et al. (2006) Comparison of three different dietary scores in relation to 10-year mortality in elderly European subjects: the HALE project. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 746–755.
18Sofi, F, Abbate, R, Gensini, GF, et al. (2010) Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 1189–1196.
19Trichopoulou, A, Bamia, C & Trichopoulos, D (2009) Anatomy of health effects of Mediterranean diet: Greek EPIC prospective cohort study. BMJ 338, b2337.
20Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C, et al. (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. NEJM 348, 2599–2608.
21Bazelmans, C, De Henauw, S, Matthys, C, et al. (2006) Healthy food and nutrient index and all cause mortality. Eur J Epidemiol 21, 145–152.
22Waijers, PM, Ocke, MC, van Rossum, CT, et al. (2006) Dietary patterns and survival in older Dutch women. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 1170–1176.
23Fraser, GE (2003) Diet and the risk of coronary heart disease. In Diet, Life Expectancy, and Chronic Disease, pp. 59–84 [Fraser, GE, editor]. New York: Oxford University Press.
24Tonstad, S, Butler, T, Yan, R, et al. (2009) Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32, 791–796.
25Tonstad, S, Stewart, K, Oda, K, et al. (2013) Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23, 292–299.
26Appleby, PN, Davey, GK & Key, TJ (2002) Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr 5, 645–654.
27Pettersen, BJ, Anousheh, R, Fan, J, et al. (2012) Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutr 15, 1909–1916.
28Tantamango-Bartley, Y, Jaceldo-Siegl, K, Fan, J, et al. (2013) Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22, 286–294.
29Orlich, MJ, Singh, PN, Sabaté, J, et al. (2013) Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA 173, 1230–1238.
30Sabaté, J & Blix, G (2001) Vegetarian diets and obesity prevention. In Vegetarian Nutrition, pp. 91–107 [Sabaté, J, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
31Chiang, JK, Lin, YL, Chen, CL, et al. (2013) Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study. PloS ONE 8, e71799.
32Valachovicová, M, Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M, Blazicek, P, et al. (2006) No evidence of insulin resistance in normal weight vegetarians. A case control study. Eur J Nutr 45, 52–54.
33Weaver, CM (2009) Should dairy be recommended as part of a healthy vegetarian diet? Point. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1634S–1637S.
34Pereira, MA, Jacobs, DR Jr, Van Horn, L, et al. (2002) Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA 287, 2081–2089.
35Rizzo, NS, Sabaté, J, Jaceldo-Siegl, K, et al. (2011) Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: the adventist health study 2. Diabetes Care 34, 1225–1227.
36Yang, SY, Li, XJ, Zhang, W, et al. (2012) Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet exerts favorable effects on metabolic parameters, intima-media thickness, and cardiovascular risks in healthy men. Nutr Clin Pract 27, 392–398.
37Amini, M, Esmaillzadeh, A, Shafaeizadeh, S, et al. (2010) Relationship between major dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Nutrition 26, 986–992.
38Gadgil, MD, Anderson, CA, Kandula, NR, et al. (2013) Dietary patterns in Asian Indians in the United States: an analysis of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis in South Asians living in America Study. J Acad Nutr Diet 114, 238–243.
39Shang, P, Shu, Z, Wang, Y, et al. (2011) Veganism does not reduce the risk of the metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese cohort. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 20, 404–410.
40Ashen, MD & Blumenthal, RS (2005) Clinical practice. Low HDL cholesterol levels. NEJM 353, 1252–1260.
41Meksawan, K, Pendergast, DR, Leddy, JJ, et al. (2004) Effect of low and high fat diets on nutrient intakes and selected cardiovascular risk factors in sedentary men and women. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 131–140.
42Barnard, ND, Cohen, J, Jenkins, DJ, et al. (2006) A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 29, 1777–1783.
43Hung, CJ, Huang, PC, Li, YH, et al. (2006) Taiwanese vegetarians have higher insulin sensitivity than omnivores. Br J Nutr 95, 129–135.
44Jenkins, DJ, Kendall, CW, Marchie, A, et al. (2003) Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 610S–616S.
45Kuo, CS, Lai, NS, Ho, LT, et al. (2004) Insulin sensitivity in Chinese ovo-lactovegetarians compared with omnivores. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 312–316.
46Lovejoy, JC, Windhauser, MM, Rood, JC, et al. (1998) Effect of a controlled high-fat versus low-fat diet on insulin sensitivity and leptin levels in African–American and Caucasian women. Metabolism 47, 1520–1524.
47Baxter, AJ, Coyne, T & McClintock, C (2006) Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome – a review of epidemiologic evidence. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 15, 134–142.
48Williams, DE, Prevost, AT, Whichelow, MJ, et al. (2000) A cross-sectional study of dietary patterns with glucose intolerance and other features of the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr 83, 257–266.
49Wirfalt, E, Hedblad, B, Gullberg, B, et al. (2001) Food patterns and components of the metabolic syndrome in men and women: a cross-sectional study within the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Am J Epidemiol 154, 1150–1159.
50Lutsey, PL, Steffen, LM & Stevens, J (2008) Dietary intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Circulation 117, 754–761.
51Garduno-Diaz, SD & Khokhar, S (2013) South Asian dietary patterns and their association with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. J Hum Nutr Diet 26, 145–155.
52Huang, CJ, Fan, YC, Liu, JF, et al. (2011) Characteristics and nutrient intake of Taiwanese elderly vegetarians: evidence from a national survey. Br J Nutr 106, 451–460.
53Kim, J & Jo, I (2011) Grains, vegetables, and fish dietary pattern is inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in South korean adults. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 1141–1149.
54Jaaskelainen, P, Magnussen, CG, Pahkala, K, et al. (2012) Childhood nutrition in predicting metabolic syndrome in adults: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study. Diabetes Care 35, 1937–1943.
55Matthews, VL, Wien, M & Sabaté, J (2011) The risk of child and adolescent overweight is related to types of food consumed. Nutr J 10, 71.
56Kastorini, CM, Milonis, HJ, Esposito, K, et al. (2011) The effect of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome and its components: a meta-analysis of 50 studies and 534,906 individuals. J Am Coll Cardiol 57, 1299–1313.
57Babio, N, Bullo, M, Basora, J, et al. (2009) Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of metabolic syndrome and its components. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19, 563–570.
58Salas-Salvado, J, Fernandez-Ballart, J, Ros, E, et al. (2008) Effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts on metabolic syndrome status: one-year results of the PREDIMED randomized trial. Arch Intern Med 168, 2449–2458.
59Kendall, CW, Josse, AR, Esfahani, A, et al. (2010) Nuts, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Br J Nutr 104, 465–473.
60Jaceldo-Siegl, K, Haddad, E, Oda, K, et al. (2014) Tree nuts are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity: the Adventist health study-2. PloS ONE 9, e85133.
61O'Neil, CE, Keast, DR, Nicklas, TA, et al. (2012) Out-of-hand nut consumption is associated with improved nutrient intake and health risk markers in US children and adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Nutr Res 32, 185–194.
62Esmaillzadeh, A, Kimiagar, M, Mehrabi, Y, et al. (2006) Fruit and vegetable intakes, C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 1489–1497.
63Haddad, EH, Berk, LS, Kettering, JD, et al. (1999) Dietary intake and biochemical, hematologic, and immune status of vegans compared with nonvegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 586S–593S.
64Pongstaporn, W & Bunyaratavej, A (1999) Hematological parameters, ferritin and vitamin B12 in vegetarians. J Med Assoc Thai 82, 304–311.
65Wilson, AK & Ball, MJ (1999) Nutrient intake and iron status of Australian male vegetarians. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 189–194.
66Sun, L, Franco, OH, Hu, FB, et al. (2008) Ferritin concentrations, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly chinese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, 4690–4696.
67Kim, MH & Bae, YJ (2012) Postmenopausal vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome. Biol Trace Elem Res 149, 34–41.