Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon

  • Ricardo J. S. Costa (a1) (a2), Samantha K. Gill (a2), Joanne Hankey (a2), Alice Wright (a2) and Slawomir Marczak (a2)...

Abstract

The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of energy, macronutrients and water intakes of ultra-endurance runners (UER) competing in a 24 h ultra-marathon (distance range: 122–208 km). The ad libitum food and fluid intakes of the UER (n 25) were recorded throughout the competition and analysed using dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), urinary ketone presence, plasma osmolality (POsmol) and volume change were determined at pre- and post-competition time points. Data were analysed using appropriate t tests, with significance set at P <0·05. The total energy intake and expenditure of the UER were 20 (sd 12) and 55 (sd 11) MJ, respectively (control (CON) (n 17): 12 (sd 1) and 14 (sd 5) MJ, respectively). The protein, carbohydrate and fat intakes of the UER were 1·1 (sd 0·4), 11·3 (sd 7·0) and 1·5 (sd 0·7) g/kg BM, respectively. The rate of carbohydrate intake during the competition was 37 (sd 24) g/h. The total water intake of the UER was 9·1 (sd 4·0) litres (CON: 2·1 (sd 1·0) litres), while the rate of water intake was 378 (sd 164) ml/h. Significant BM loss occurred at pre- to post-competition time points (P =0·001) in the UER (1·6 (sd 2·0) %). No significant changes in POsmol values were observed at pre- (285 (sd 11) mOsmol/kg) to post-competition (287 (sd 10) mOsmol/kg) time points in the UER and were lower than those recorded in the CON group (P <0·05). However, plasma volume (PV) increased at post-competition time points in the UER (10·2 (sd 9·7) %; P <0·001). Urinary ketones were evident in the post-competition samples of 90 % of the UER. Energy deficit was observed in all the UER, with only one UER achieving the benchmark recommendations for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise. Despite the relatively low water intake rates recorded in the UER, hypohydration does not appear to be an issue, considering increases in PV values observed in the majority (80 %) of the UER. Population-specific dietary recommendations may be beneficial and warranted.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr R. J. S. Costa, fax +61 3 99024278, email ricardo.costa@monash.edu

References

Hide All
1 Knoth, C, Knechtle, B, Rust, CA, et al. (2012) Participation and performance trends in multi-stage ultra-marathon – the ‘Marathon des Sables’ 2003–2012. Extreme Physiol Med 1, 111.
2 Murray, A & Costa, RJS (2012) Born to run. Studying the limits of human performance. BMC Med 10, 76.
3 Costa, RJS, Swancott, A, Gill, S, et al. (2013) Compromised energy and nutritional intake of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment. Int J Sports Sci 3, 5161.
4 Costa, RJS, Teixiera, A, Rama, L, et al. (2013) Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study. Nutr J 12, 13.
5 Kruseman, M, Bucher, S, Bovard, M, et al. (2005) Nutrient intake and performance during a mountain marathon: an observational study. Eur J Appl Physiol 94, 151157.
6 Hoffman, MD, Hew-Butler, T & Stuempfle, KJ (2013) Exercise-associated hyponatremia and hydration status in 161-km ultramarathoners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 45, 784791.
7 American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada et al. (2009) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41, 709731.
8 Jeukendrup, AE (2008) Carbohydrate feeding during exercise. Eur J Sport Sci 8, 7786.
9 Jeukendrup, AE & McLaughlin, J (2011) Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: effects on performance, training adaptations and trainability of the gut. Neslte Nutr Inst Workshop Ser 69, 112.
10 Burke, LM, Hawley, JA, Wong, SHS, et al. (2011) Carbohydrates for training and competition. J Sports Sci 29, Suppl. 1, S17S27.
11 Jeukendrup, AE (2010) Carbohydrate and exercise performance: the role of multiple transportable carbohydrates. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13, 452457.
12 Broad, EM & Cox, GR (2008) What is the optimal composition of an athlete's diet? Eur J Sport Sci 8, 5765.
13 Rehrer, NJ, Brouns, F, Beckers, EJ, et al. (1992) Physiological changes and gastro-intestinal symptoms as a result of ultra-endurance running. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 64, 18.
14 Zalcman, I, Guarita, HV, Juzwiak, CR, et al. (2007) Nutritional status of adventure racers. Nutrition 23, 404411.
15 Noakes, TD, Sharwood, K, Speedy, D, et al. (2005) Three independent biological mechanisms cause exercise-associated hyponatremia: evidence from 2,135 weighed competitive athletic performances. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 1855018555.
16 American College of Sports Medicine, Sawka, MN, Burke, LM, et al. (2007) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39, 377390.
17 Noakes, TD (2007) Drinking guidelines for exercise: what evidence is there that athletes should drink “as much as tolerable”, “to replace the weight lost during exercise” or “ad libitum”? J Sports Sci 25, 781796.
18 Goulet, EDB (2012) Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on endurance performance: evaluating the impact of exercise protocols on outcomes using a meta-analytic procedure. Br J Sports Med 47, 679686.
19 Noakes, TD (2007) Hydration in the marathon: using thirst to gauge safe fluid replacement. Sports Med 37, 463466.
20 Hoffman, MD, Fogard, K, Winger, J, et al. (2013) Characteristics of 161-km ultramarathon finishers developing exercise-associated hyponatraemia. Res Sports Med 21, 164175.
21 Hew-Butler, T, Ayus, JC, Kipps, C, et al. (2008) Statement of the Second International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference, New Zealand, 2007. Clin J Sport Med 18, 111121.
22 de Graaf, C, Blom, WA, Smeets, PA, et al. (2004) Biomarkers of satiation and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 946961.
23 Park, AJ & Bloom, SR (2005) Neuroendocrine control of food intake. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 21, 228233.
24 Britton, R, Dempster, S, Moore, JP, et al. (2011) The use of triaxial accelerometry to support dietary intervention during a multi-stage mountain ultra-marathon: a case study approach. J Sports Sci 29, Suppl. 2, S132.
25 Pfeiffer, B, Stellingwerff, T, Hodgson, AB, et al. (2012) Nutritional intake and gastrointestinal problems during competitive endurance events. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44, 344351.
26 Robson-Ansley, PJ, Gleeson, M & Ansley, L (2009) Fatigue management in the preparation of Olympic athletes. J Sports Sci 27, 14091420.
27 Seifarth, CC, Miertschischk, J, Hahn, EG, et al. (2004) Measurement of serum and plasma osmolality in healthy young humans – influence of time and storage conditions. Clin Chem Lab Med 42, 927932.
28 Dill, DB & Costill, DL (1974) Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 37, 247248.
29 Maughan, RJ, Leipers, JB & Greaves, M (2001) Haematology. In Kinanthropometry and Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual: Tests, Procedures and Data, Volume Two: Exercise Physiology, pp. 99116 [Eston, RG and Reilly, T, editors]. Oxon: Routledge.
30 Costa, RJS, Crockford, MJ, Moore, JP, et al. (2014) Heat acclimation responses of an ultra-endurance running group preparing for hot desert based competition. Eur J Sport Sci 14, Suppl. 1, S131S141.
31 James, LJ & Shirreffs, SM (2013) Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hours fluid and/or energy restriction. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 23, 545553.
32 Cox, GR, Snow, RJ & Burke, LM (2010) Race-day carbohydrate intake of elite triathletes contesting Olympic-distance triathlon events. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 20, 299306.
33 Thomas, DR, Cote, TR, Lawhorne, L, et al. (2008) Understanding clinical dehydration and its treatment. J Am Med Dir Assoc 9, 292301.
34 Johannsen, DL, Calabro, MA, Stewart, J, et al. (2010) Accuracy of armband monitors for measuring daily energy expenditure in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42, 21342140.
35 Saris, WH, van Erp-Baart, MA, Brouns, F, et al. (1989) Study on food intake and energy expenditure during extreme sustained exercise: the Tour de France. Int J Sports Med 10, Suppl. 1, S26S31.
36 Stewart, IB & Stewart, KL (2007) Energy balance during two days of continuous stationary cycling. J Int Soc Sport Nutr 4, 15.
37 Colombani, PC, Mannhart, C, Wenk, C, et al. (2002) Nutritional intake during a 244 km multisport ultraendurance race. Pak J Nutr 1, 124126.
38 Koehler, K, Huelsemann, F, de Marees, M, et al. (2011) Case study: simulated and real-life energy expenditure during a 3-week expedition. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 21, 520526.
39 Miller, AD, Taylor, BJ & Johnson, BD (2013) Energy expenditure and intensity levels during a 6170-m summit in the Karakoram mountains. Wilderness Environ Med 24, 337344.
40 Stroud, MA, Ritz, P, Coward, WA, et al. (1997) Energy expenditure using isotope-labelled water (2H218O), exercise performance, skeletal muscle enzyme activities and plasma biochemical parameters in humans during 95 days of endurance exercise with inadequate energy intake. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 76, 243252.
41 Stroud, MA, Coward, WA & Sawyer, MB (1993) Measurements of energy expenditure using isotope-labelled water (2H2(18)O) during an Arctic expedition. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 67, 375379.
42 Knechtle, B, Knechtle, P, Wirth, A, et al. (2012) A faster running speed is associated with a greater body weight loss in 100-km ultra-marathoners. J Sports Sci 30, 11311140.
43 Maughan, RJ, Shirreffs, SM & Leiper, JB (2007) Errors in the estimation of hydration status from changes in body mass. J Sports Sci 25, 797804.
44 Costa, RJS, Harper-Smith, AD, Oliver, SJ, et al. (2010) The effects of two nights of sleep deprivation with and without energy restriction on selected immune responses at rest and in response to cold exposure. Eur J Appl Physiol 106, 417428.
45 Burke, LM, Cox, GR, Culmmings, NK, et al. (2001) Guidelines for daily carbohydrate intake: do athletes achieve them? Sports Med 31, 267299.
46 French, SJ & Cecil, JE (2001) Oral, gastric and intestinal influences on human feeding. Physiol Behav 74, 729734.
47 Rehrer, NJ & Meijer, GA (1991) Biomechanical vibration of the abdominal region during running and bicycling. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 31, 231234.
48 ter Steege, RWF, Geelkerken, RH, Huisman, AR, et al. (2011) Abdominal symptom during physical exercise and the role of gastrointestinal ischemia: a study in 12 symptomatic athletes. Br J Sports Med 46, 931935.
49 van Wijck, K, Lenaerts, K, Grootjans, J, et al. (2012) Physiology and pathophysiology of splanchnic hypoperfusion and intestinal injury during exercise: strategies for evaluation and preventions. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 303, G155G168.
50 Peters, EM & Goetzsche, JM (1997) Dietary practices of South African ultradistance runners. Int J Sport Nutr 7, 80103.
51 Rehrer, NJ (2001) Fluid and electrolyte balance in ultra-endurance sport. Sports Med 31, 701715.
52 Wendt, D, van Loon, LJ & Lichtenbelt, WD (2007) Thermoregulation during exercise in the heat: strategies for maintaining health and performance. Sports Med 37, 669682.
53 Patterson, MJ, Stocks, JM & Taylor, NA (2004) Sustained and generalized extracellular fluid expansion following heat acclimation. J Physiol 559, 327334.
54 Ahmadizad, S, Moradi, A, Nikookheslat, S, et al. (2011) Effects of age on hemorheological responses to acute endurance exercise. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 49, 165174.
55 Hew-Butler, T, Noakes, TD, Soldin, SJ, et al. (2008) Acute changes in endocrine and fluid balance markers during high-intensity, steady-state, and prolonged endurance running: unexpected increases in oxytocin and brain natriuretic peptide during exercise. Euro J Endocrinol 159, 729737.
56 Armstrong, LE, Maughan, RJ, Senay, LC, et al. (2013) Limitations to the use of plasma osmolality as a hydration biomarker. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 503504.
57 Frayne, KN (2010) Metabolic Regulation: A Human Perspective. Chapter 9 Coping with Some Extreme Situations. pp. 235274. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
58 Gill, SK, Teixeira, AM, Rosado, F, et al. (2013) Salivary antimicrobial protein responses during multi-stage ultra-marathon competition conducted in hot environmental conditions. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 38, 111.
59 Walsh, NP, Gleeson, M, Shephard, RJ, et al. (2011) Position statement. Part one: immune function and exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev 17, 663.
60 Speedy, DB, Noakes, TD, Rogers, IR, et al. (1999) Hyponatremia in ultradistance triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31, 809815.
61 Vrijens, DM & Rehrer, NJ (1999) Sodium-free fluid ingestion decreases plasma sodium during exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol 86, 18471851.

Keywords

Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon

  • Ricardo J. S. Costa (a1) (a2), Samantha K. Gill (a2), Joanne Hankey (a2), Alice Wright (a2) and Slawomir Marczak (a2)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed