Al Delaimy WK, Ferrari P, Slimani N, et al. (2005) Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 1387–1396.
Al Delaimy WK, van Kappel AL, Ferrari P, et al. (2004) Plasma levels of six carotenoids in nine European countries: report from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr 7, 713–722.
Andersen LF, Jacobs DR Jr, Gross MD, Schreiner PJ, Dale WO & Lee DH (2006) Longitudinal associations between body mass index and serum carotenoids: the CARDIA study. Br J Nutr 95, 358–365.
Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Litin L & Willett WC (1992) Correlations of vitamin A and E intakes with the plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols among American men and women. J Nutr 122, 1792–1801.
Augood C, Fletcher A, Bentham G, et al. (2004) Methods for a population-based study of the prevalence of and risk factors for age-related maculopathy and macular degeneration in elderly European populations: the EUREYE study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 11, 117–129.
Augood CA, Vingerling JR, de Jong PT, et al. (2006) Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in older Europeans: the European Eye Study (EUREYE). Arch Ophthalmol 124, 529–535.
Bermudez OI, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Talegawkar SA & Tucker KL (2005) Hispanic and non-Hispanic white elders from Massachusetts have different patterns of carotenoid intake and plasma concentrations. J Nutr 135, 1496–1502.
Brady WE, Mares-Perlman JA, Bowen P & Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M (1996) Human serum carotenoid concentrations are related to physiologic and lifestyle factors. J Nutr 126, 129–137.
Cho E, Seddon JM, Rosner B, Willett WC & Hankinson SE (2004) Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 122, 883–892.
Chug-Ahuja JK, Holden JM, Forman MR, Mangels AR, Beecher GR & Lanza E (1993) The development and application of a carotenoid database for fruits, vegetables, and selected multicomponent foods. J Am Diet Assoc 93, 318–323.
Cooper DA, Eldridge AL & Peters JC (1999) Dietary carotenoids and certain cancers, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration: a review of recent research. Nutr Rev 57, 201–214.
Craft NE (1992) Carotenoid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography methods: reference compendium. Methods Enzymol 213, 185–205.
El Sohemy A, Baylin A, Kabagambe E, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D & Campos H (2002) Individual carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma as biomarkers of dietary intake. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 172–179.
Galan P, Viteri FE, Bertrais S, et al. (2005) Serum concentrations of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, zinc and selenium are influenced by sex, age, diet, smoking status, alcohol consumption and corpulence in a general French adult population. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 1181–1190.
Glade MJ (1999) Food, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. American Institute for Cancer Research/World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research, 1997. Nutrition 15, 523–526.
Hung HC, Joshipura KJ, Jiang R, et al. (2004) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 1577–1584.
Hunter D (1998) Biochemical indicators of dietary intake. In Nutritional Epidemiology, pp. 174–243 [Willet W, editor]. New York: Oxford University Press.
Irwig MS, El Sohemy A, Baylin A, Rifai N & Campos H (2002) Frequent intake of tropical fruits that are rich in beta-cryptoxanthin is associated with higher plasma beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations in Costa Rican adolescents. J Nutr 132, 3161–3167.
Jacques PF, Sulsky SI, Sadowski JA, Phillips JC, Rush D & Willett WC (1993) Comparison of micronutrient intake measured by a dietary questionnaire and biochemical indicators of micronutrient status. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 182–189.
Keaney JF Jr, Larson MG, Vasan RS, et al. (2003) Obesity and systemic oxidative stress: clinical correlates of oxidative stress in the Framingham Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 434–439.
Mangels AR, Holden JM, Beecher GR, Forman MR & Lanza E (1993) Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: an evaluation of analytic data. J Am Diet Assoc 93, 284–296.
Mares-Perlman JA, Fisher AI, Klein R, Palta M, Block G, Millen AE & Wright JD (2001) Lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and their relation to age-related maculopathy in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Am J Epidemiol 153, 424–432.
Mayne ST (2003) Antioxidant nutrients and chronic disease: use of biomarkers of exposure and oxidative stress status in epidemiologic research. J Nutr 133, 933S–940S.
Michaud DS, Giovannucci EL, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Forman MR, Sampson L & Willett WC (1998) Associations of plasma carotenoid concentrations and dietary intake of specific carotenoids in samples of two prospective cohort studies using a new carotenoid database. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 283–290.
Morrow JD (2003) Is oxidant stress a connection between obesity and atherosclerosis? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 368–370.
Neuhouser ML, Rock CL, Eldridge AL, Kristal AR, Patterson RE, Cooper DA, Neumark-Sztainer D, Cheskin LJ & Thornquist MD (2001) Serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and the carotenoids are influenced by diet, race and obesity in a sample of healthy adolescents. J Nutr 131, 2184–2191.
O'Neill ME, Carroll Y, Corridan B, et al. (2001) A European carotenoid database to assess carotenoid intakes and its use in a five-country comparative study. Br J Nutr 85, 499–507.
Ritenbaugh C, Peng YM, Aickin M, Graver E, Branch M & Alberts DS (1996) New carotenoid values for foods improve relationship of food frequency questionnaire intake estimates to plasma values. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5, 907–912.
Sasaki S, Ushio F, Amano K, Morihara M, Todoriki O, Uehara Y & Toyooka E (2000) Serum biomarker-based validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese subjects. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 46, 285–296.
Scott KJ, Thurnham DI, Hart DJ, Bingham SA & Day K (1996) The correlation between the intake of lutein, lycopene and beta-carotene from vegetables and fruits, and blood plasma concentrations in a group of women aged 50–65 years in the UK. Br J Nutr 75, 409–418.
Smith W, Mitchell P, Webb K & Leeder SR (1999) Dietary antioxidants and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 106, 761–767.
Stanner SA, Hughes J, Kelly CN & Buttriss J (2004) A review of the epidemiological evidence for the ‘antioxidant hypothesis’. Public Health Nutr 7, 407–422.
Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Evans DA & Morris MC (2004) Reasonable estimates of serum vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-cryptoxanthin are obtained with a food frequency questionnaire in older black and white adults. J Nutr 134, 927–934.
Tucker KL, Chen H, Vogel S, Wilson PW, Schaefer EJ & Lammi-Keefe CJ (1999) Carotenoid intakes, assessed by dietary questionnaire, are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations in an elderly population. J Nutr 129, 438–445.
US Department of Agriculture (2005) Composition of Foods Raw, Processed, Prepared. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18, http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp Washington, DC: USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory.
Valero MP, Fletcher AE, De Stavola BL, Vioque J & Alepuz VC (2002) Vitamin C is associated with reduced risk of cataract in a Mediterranean population. J Nutr 132, 1299–1306.
van Kappel AL, Steghens JP, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Chajes V, Toniolo P & Riboli E (2001) Serum carotenoids as biomarkers of fruit and vegetable consumption in the New York Women's Health Study. Public Health Nutr 4, 829–835.
van Leeuwen R, Boekhoorn S, Vingerling JR, Witteman JC, Klaver CC, Hofman A & de Jong PT (2005) Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 294, 3101–3107.
van Vliet T (1996) Absorption of beta-carotene and other carotenoids in humans and animal models. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, S32–S37.
van't Veer P, Jansen MC, Klerk M & Kok F (2000) Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Public Health Nutr 3, 103–107.
VandenLangenberg GM, Brady WE, Nebeling LC, Block G, Forman M, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M & Mares-Perlman JA (1996) Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 1271–1275.
Vioque J (1995) Validez de la evaluación de la ingesta dietética [in Spanish]. In Nutrición y Salud Pública. Métodos, Bases Científicas y Aplicaciones, pp. 132–136 [Serra-Majem L, Aranceta J and Mataix J, editors]. Barcelona: Masson.
Vioque J & Gonzalez L (1991) Validity of a food frequency questionnaire (preliminary results). Eur J Cancer Prev 1, 19–20.
Vogel S, Contois JH, Tucker KL, Wilson PW, Schaefer EJ & Lammi-Keefe CJ (1997) Plasma retinol and plasma and lipoprotein tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations in healthy elderly participants of the Framingham Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 950–958.
Vuillemier JP & Keck E (1989) Fluorometric assay of vitamin C in biological materials using a centrifugal analyser with fluorescence attachment. J Micronutr Anal 5, 25–34.
Wallstrom P, Wirfalt E, Lahmann PH, Gullberg B, Janzon L & Berglund G (2001) Serum concentrations of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol are associated with diet, smoking, and general and central adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 777–785.
Weinbrenner T, Schroder H, Escurriol V, Fito M, Elosua R, Vila J, Marrugat J & Covas MI (2006) Circulating oxidized LDL is associated with increased waist circumference independent of body mass index in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 30–35.
Willett W (1998) Reproducibility and validity of food-frequency questionnaires. In Nutritional Epidemiology, pp. 101–147 [Willet W, editor]. New York: Oxford University Press.
Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH & Speizer FE (1985) Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 122, 51–65.
Yeum KJ, Booth SL, Roubenoff R & Russell RM (1998) Plasma carotenoid concentrations are inversely correlated with fat mass in older women. J Nutr Health Aging 2, 79–83.
Yong LC, Forman MR, Beecher GR, et al. (1994) Relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids in premenopausal women: application of the USDA-NCI carotenoid food-composition database. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 223–230.