This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
PI Abell (1982) Paleoclimates at Lake Turkana, Kenya, from oxygen isotope ratios of gastropod shells. Nature 297, 321–323.
PB Adams , S Lawson , A Sanigorski & AJ Sinclair (1996) Arachidonic acid to eicosapentanoic acid ratio in blood correlates positively with clinical symptoms of depression. Lipids 31, S157–S161.
C Agostoni , S Trojan , R Bellu , E Riva & M Giovannini (1995) Neurodevelopmental quotient of healthy term infants at 4 months and feeding practice: the role of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Pediatric Research 38, 262–266.
PJ Andrews (1989) Paleoecology of Laetoli. Journal of Human Evolution 18, 173–181.
E Armstrong (1983) Relative brain size and metabolism in mammals. Science 220, 1302–1304.
BH Baker , PA Mohr & LAJ Williams (1972) Geology of the Eastern Rift System of Africa. Geological Society of America Special Paper no. 136.
AK Behrensmeyer , R Potts , T Plummer , L Tauxe , N Opdyke & T Jorstad (1995) The Pleistocene locality of Kanjera, Western Kenya: stratigraphy, chronology, and paleoenvironments. Journal of Human Evolution 29, 247–274.
EA Bestland , GD Thackray & GJ Retallack (1995) Cycles of doming and eruption in the Miocene Kisingiri Volcano, southwest Kenya. Journal of Geology 103, 598–607.
RJ Blumenschine (1987) Characteristics of an early hominid scavenging niche. Current Anthropology 28, 383–406.
RJ Blumenschine (1991) Hominid carnivory and foraging strategies, and the socio-economic function of early archaeological sites. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 334, 211–221.
RJ Blumenschine & JA Cavallo (1992) Scavenging and human evolution. Scientific American 267, 90–96.
NT Boaz , RL Bernor , AS Brooks (1992) A new evaluation of the significance of the Late Neogene beds, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Journal of Human Evolution 22, 505–517.
RG Bohannon , CW Naeser , DL Schmidt & RA Zimmerman (1989) The timing of uplift, volcanism, and rifting peripheral to the Red Sea: a case for passing rifting? Journal of Geophysical Research B 94, 1683–1701.
R Bonnefille (1983) Evidence for a cooler and drier climate in the Ethiopian uplands towards 2.5 Myr ago. Nature 303, 487–492.
R Bonnefille , A Vincens & G Buchet (1987) Palynology, stratigraphy, and paleoenvironment of a Pliocene hominid site (2.9–3.3) m.y. at Hadar, Ethiopia. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, and Paleoecology 60, 249–281.
CL Broadhurst (1997) Balanced intakes of natural triglycerides for optimum nutrition: an evolutionary and phytochemical perspective. Medical Hypotheses 49, 247–261.
M Brunet , A Beauvilain , Y Coppens , E Heintz , AHE Moutaye & D Pilbeam (1995) The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometers west of the Rift Valley (Chad). Nature 378, 273–275.
HT Bunn & JA Ezzo (1993) Hunting and scavenging by Plio-Pleistocene hominids: nutritional constraints, archeological patterns, and behavioral implications. Journal of Archeological Science 20, 365–398.
SE Carlson , RJ Cooke , SH Werkman & EA Tolley (1992) First year growth of preterm infants fed standard compared to marine-oil n−3 supplemented formula. Lipids 27, 901–907.
SE Carlson , SH Werkman , JM Peeples , RJ Cooke & EA Tolley (1993 a) Arachidonic acid status correlates with first year growth in preterm infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90, 1073–1077.
VP Carnielli , DJL Wattimena , IHT Luijendijk , A Boerlage , HJ Degenhart & PJJ Sauer (1996) The very low birth weight premature infant is capable of synthesizing arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids from linoleic and linolenic acids. Pediatric Research 40, 169–171.
TE Cerling (1992) Development of grasslands and savannas in East Africa during the Neogene. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, and Paleoecology 97, 241–247.
MT Clandinin , ML Garg , A Parrott , J Van Aerde , A Hervada & E Lien (1992) Addition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to formula for very low birth weight infants. Lipids 27, 896–900.
JD Clark (1992) African and Asian perspectives on the origins of modern humans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 337, 201–215.
GC Conroy & K Kuykendall (1995) Paleopediatrics: or when did human infants really become human? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 98, 121–131.
MA Crawford , MM Gale & MH Woodford (1969) Linoleic acid and linolenic acid elongation products in muscle tissue of Syncerus caffer and other ruminant species. Biochemical Journal 115, 25–27.
MA Crawford , G Williams & AG Hassam (1986) Do developmental periods of high demand outstrip the rate of desaturation? A reduction in milk arachidonic acid with successive, short birth intervals. Progress in Lipid Research 25, 413–415.
SC Cunnane , LS Harbige & MA Crawford (1993) The importance of energy and nutrient supply in human brain evolution. Nutrition and Health 9, 219–235.
JB Dawson (1992) Neogene tectonics and volcanicity in the north Tanzania sector of the Gregory rift valley: contrasts with the Kenya sector. Tectonophysics 204, 81–92.
JB Dawson , DM Pyle & H Pinkerton (1996) Evolution of a natrocarbonatite from a wollastonite nephelinite parent: evidence from the June 1993 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Journal of Geology 104, 41–54.
HJ Deacon (1992) Southern Africa and modern human origins. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 337, 177–183.
H Dowsett , R Thompson , J Barron , T Cronin , F Fleming , S Ishman , R Poore , D Willard & T Jr Holtz (1994) Joint investigations of the Middle Pliocene climate I: PRISM paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Global and Planetary Change 9, 169–195.
J Farquharson , F Cockburn , WA Patrick , EC Jamieson & RW Logan (1992) Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty-acid composition and diet. Lancet 340, 810–813.
RA Foley (1994) Speciation, extinction, and climatic change in hominid evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 26, 275–289.
RA Foley & PC Lee (1991) Ecology and energetics of encephalization in hominid evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 334, 223–232.
J Harris (1993) Ecosystem structure and growth of the African savanna. Global and Planetary Change 8, 231–248.
T Harrison (1993) Cladistic concepts and the species problem in hominoid evolution. In Species, Species Concepts and Primate Evolution, pp. 345–371 [WH Kimbel and LB Martin , editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
PH Harvey & TH Clutton-Brock (1985) Life history variation in primates. Evolution 39, 557–581.
RT Holman , SB Johnson & PL Ogburn (1991) Deficiency of essential fatty acids and membrane fluidity during pregnancy and lactation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88, 4835–4839.
DF Horrobin (1995) Abnormal membrane concentrations of 20 and 22-carbon essential fatty acids: a common link between risk factors and coronary and peripheral vascular disease? Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 53, 385–396.
SM Innis (1991) Essential fatty acids and growth and development. Progress in Lipid Research 30, 39–103.
B Jacobs & C Kabuye (1987) A middle Miocene (12.2 my old) forest in the East African Rift Valley, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 16, 147–155.
TC Johnson , CA Scholz , MR Talbot , K Kelts , RD Ricketts , G Ngobi , K Beuning , I Ssemmanda & JW McGill (1996) Late Pleistocene dessication of Lake Victoria and rapid evolution of cichlid fishes. Science 273, 1091–1093.
J Kappelman , CC II Swisher , TM Bown & M Feseha (1996) Age of Australopithecus afarensis from Fejej, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution 30, 139–146.
WH Kimbel & Y Rak (1993) The importance of species taxa in paleoanthropology and an argument for the phylogenetic concept of the species category. In Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution, pp. 461–484 [WH Kimbel and LB Martin , editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
WK Kimbel , TD White & DC Johanson (1984) Cranial morphology of Australopithecus afarensis: a comparative study based on composite reconstruction of the adult skull. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 64, 337–388.
RG Klein & K Cruz-Oribe (1996) Exploitation of large bovids and seals at Middle and Later Stone Age sites in South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 31, 315–334.
MM Lahr (1994) The multiregional model of modern human origins; a reassessment of its morphological basis. Journal of Human Evolution 26, 23–56.
MG Leakey , CS Feibel & I McDougall (1995) New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. Nature 376, 565–571.
JA Lee-Thorpe , Merwe NJ van der & CK Brain (1994) Diet of Australopithecus robustus at Swartkrans from stable carbon isotope analysis. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 361–372.
CO Lovejoy (1981) The origin of man. Science 211, 341–350.
HM McHenry (1994) Behavioral ecological implications of early hominid body size. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 77–87.
M Makrides , M Neumann , K Simmer , J Pater & R Gibson (1995) Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy? Lancet 345, 1463–1468.
N Mercier , H Valladas , J-L Joron , J-L Reyss , F Leveque & B Vandermeersch (1991) Thermoluminescence dating of the late Neanderthal remains from Saint-Cesaire. Nature 351, 737–739.
CM Monahan (1996) New zooarchaeological data from Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: implications for hominid behavior in the Early Pleistocene. Journal of Human Evolution 31, 93–128.
JA Nettleton (1995) Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health. New York: Chapman and Hall.
K O'Dea (1991) Traditional diet and food preferences of Australian Aboriginal hunter-gatherers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 334, 233–241.
P Pauletto , M Puato , MT Angeli , AC Pessina , A Munhambo , G Bittolo-Bon & C Galli (1996 a) Blood pressure, serum lipids, and fatty acids in populations on a lake-fish diet or on a vegetarian diet in Tanzania. Lipids 31, S309–S312.
P Pauletto , M Puato , MG Caroli , E Casiglia , AE Munhambo , G Cazzolato , Bon G Bittolo , MT Angeli , C Galli & AC Pessina (1996 b) Blood pressure and atherogenic lipoprotein profiles of fish-diet and vegetarian villagers in Tanzania: the Lugalawa study. Lancet 348, 784–788.
TW Plummer & LC Bishop (1994) Hominid paleoecology at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania as indicated by antelope remains. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 47–75.
RM Potts & A Deino (1995) Mid-Pleistocene change in large mammal faunas of East Africa. Quaternary Research 43, 106–113.
Y Rak (1983) The Australopithecine Face. New York: Academic Press.
Y Rak (1991) Lucy's pelvic anatomy and its role in bipedal gait. Journal of Human Evolution 20, 283–290.
FU Ramirez-Rozzi (1993) Tooth development in East African Paranthropus. Journal of Human Evolution 24, 429–454.
KR Rosenberg (1992) The evolution of modern human childbirth. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 35, 89–124.
CB Ruff (1991) Climate and body shape in hominid evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 21, 81–105.
CB Ruff (1994) Morphological adaptations to climate in modern and fossil hominids. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 37, 65–107.
CB Ruff (1995) Mechanics of the hip and birth in early Homo. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 98, 527–574.
CA Scholz , BR Rosendahl & DL Scott (1990) Development of coarse grained facies in lacustrine rift basins: examples from East Africa. Geology 18, 140–144.
CA Scholz & BR Rosendahl (1988) Low lake stands in Lake Malawi and Tanganyika, East Africa, delineated with multifold sesmic data. Science 240, 1645–1648.
DP Schrag , G Hampt & DW Murray (1996) Pore fluid constraints on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the glacial ocean. Science 272, 1930–1932.
HP Schwarz , R Grun & PV Tobias (1994) ESR dating studies of the australopithecine site of Sterkfontein, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 26, 175–181.
HP Schwarz & HJ Schoeninger (1991) Stable isotope analyses in human nutritional ecology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 34, 283–321.
MM Selvaggio (1994) Carnivore tooth marks and stone tool butchering marks on scavenged bones: archaeological implications. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 215–228.
N Shackelton , J Backman , H Zimmerman , D Kent , M Hall , D Roberts , D Schnitkes , J Baldauf , A Desprairies , R Homrighausen , P Huddlestun , J Keene , A Kaltenback , K Krumsiek , A Morton , J Murray & J Westberg-Smith (1984) Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region. Nature 307, 620–623.
NE Sikes (1994) Early hominids habitat preferences in East Africa: paleosol carbon isotopic evidence. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 25–45.
A Sillen , G Hall & R Armstrong (1995) Strontium-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) and strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of Australopithecus robustus and Homo sp. from Swartkrans. Journal of Human Evolution 28, 277–285.
M Skinner (1991) Bee brood consumption: an alternative explanation for hypervitaminosis A in KNM-ER 1808 (Homo erectus) from Koobi Fora, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 20, 493–503.
RJ Smith , PJ Gannon & BH Smith (1995) Ontogeny of austra lopithecus and early homo: evidence from cranial capacity and dental eruption. Journal of Human Evolution 29, 155–168.
JD Speth (1989) Early hominid hunting and scavenging: the role of meat as an energy source. Journal of Human Evolution 18, 329–349.
JC Stager , B Cumming & L Meeker (1997) A high-resolution 11,400-Yr diatom record from Lake Victoria, East Africa. Quaternary Research 47, 81–89.
KM Stewart (1994) Early hominid utilisation of fish resources and implications for seasonality and behavior. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 229–245.
CB Stringer (1992) Reconstructing recent human evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 337, 217–241.
G Suwa , B Wood & TD White (1994) Further analysis of mandibular molar crown and cusp areas in Pliocene and Early Pleistocene hominids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 93, 407–426.
CC Swisher III, WJ Rink , SC Anton , HP Schwarcz , GH Curtis , A Suprijo & Widiasmoro (1996) Latest Homo erectus of Java: potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia. Science 274, 1870–1874.
I Tattersall (1997) Out of Africa again … and again. Scientific American 276, 60–67.
SA Tishkoff , E Dietzsch , W Speed , AJ Pakstis , JR Kidd , K Cheung , B Bonné-Tamir , AS Santachiara-Benerecetti , P Moral , M Krings , S Pääbo , E Watson , N Risch , T Jenkins & KK Kidd (1996) Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins. Science 271, 1380–1387.
PV Tobias , JC Vogel , HD Oschadleus , TC Partridge & JK McKee (1993) New isotopic and sedimentological measurements of the Thabaseek deposits (South Africa) and the dating of the Taung hominid. Quaternary Research 40, 360–367.
GJM Versteegh , H Brinkhuis , H Visscher & KAF Zonneveld (1996) The relationship between productivity and temperature in the Pliocene North Atlantic at the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation: a palynological study. Global and Planetary Change 11, 155–165.
A Walker , M Zimmerman & R Leakey (1982) A possible case of hypervitaminosis A in Homo erectus. Nature 296, 248–250.
MR Waters , SL Forman & JM Pierson (1997) Diring Yuriakh: a lower Paleolithic site in central Siberia. Science 275, 1281–1283.
J Wheland , KS Broughton , ME Surette & JE Kinsella (1992) Dietary arachidonic and linoleic acids: comparative effects on tissue lipids. Lipids 27, 85–88.
B Wood (1992) Early Homo species and speciation. Journal of Human Evolution 22, 351–365.
B Wood (1993) Early Homo: how many species? In Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution, pp. 485–522 [WH Kimbel and LB Martin , editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
B Wood , L Wood & L Konigsberg (1994) Paranthropus boisei: an example of evolutionary stasis? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95, 117–136.