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Studies with vitamin E and β-carotene as single agents do not prove lack of benefit

  • Raymond A. Firestone (a1)
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1 S Hercberg , S Czernichow & P Galan (2006) Antioxidant vitamins and minerals in prevention of cancers: lessons from the SU.VI.MAX study. Brit J Nutr 96, S28S30.

2HOPE trial investigators (2005) Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer. J Am Med Assoc 293, 13381387.

3 PF Hu , DB Reuben , EM Crimmins , TB Harris , MH Huang & TE Seeman (2004) The effects of serum β-carotene concentration and burden of inflammation on all-cause mortality risk in high-functioning older persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J Gerontol Ser A 59, 849854.

4 K Miwa , S Okinaga & M Fujita (2004) Low serum α-tocopherol concentrations in subjects with various coronary risk factors. Circulation J 68, 542546.

5 KA Steinmetz & JD Potter (1991) Vegetables, fruit and cancer. I. Epidemiology. Cancer Causes Control 2, 325357.

6 R Peto , R Doll , JD Buckley & MB Sporn (1981) Can dietary β-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nature 290, 201208.

7 Y Ito , K Wakai , K Suzuki , A Tamakoshi , N Seki , M Ando , Y Nishino & T Ishibashi (2003) Serum carotenoids and mortality from lung cancer: a case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study. Cancer Sci 94, 5763.

9 PR Taylor (2003) Prospective study of serum vitamin E levels and esophageal and gastric cancers. J Nat Can Inst 95, 1414.

10 AT Diplock (1987) Dietary supplementation with antioxidants. Is there a case for exceeding the recommended dietary allowance? Free Rad Biol Med 3, 199–201.

11HOPE trail investigators (2000) Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. New Engl J Med 342, 154–160.

12 DP Vivekanathan , MS Penn , SK Sapp , A Hsu & EJ Topol (2003) Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Lancet 361, 20172023.

13 LH Kushi , AR Folsom , RJ Prineas , PJ Mink , Y Wu & RM Bostick (1996) Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. New Engl J Med 334, 1156–1162.

14 JM Rapola , J Virtamo , S Ripatti , JK Huttunen , D Albanes , PR Taylor & OP Heinonen (1997) Randomised trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet 349, 17151720.

16 AJ Duffield-Lillico & CB Begg (2004) Reflections on the landmark studies of β-carotene supplementation. J Nat Cancer Inst 96, 17291731.

18 SJ Weinstein , ME Wright , P Pietinen , I King , C Tan , PR Taylor , J Virtamo & D Albanes (2005) Serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in relation to prostate cancer risk in a prospective study. J Nat Cancer Inst 97, 396–399.

19 KH Wagner , A Kamal-Eldin & I Elmadfa (2004) γ-Tocopherol - an underestimated vitamin? Ann Nutr Metab 48, 169–188.

20 KJ Helzlsouer , HY Huang , AJ Alberg , S Hoffman , A Burke , EP Norkus , S Morris & GW Comstock (2000) Association between α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Nat Cancer Inst 92, 20182023.

21 F Osakada , A Hashino , T Kune , H Katsuki , S Kaneko & A Akaike (2004) α-Tocotrienol provides the most important neuroprotection among vitamin E analogs on cultured striatal neurons. Neuropharmacol 47, 904–915.

22 Q Jiang , J Wong , H Fyrst , JD Saba & BN Ames (2004) γ-Tocopherol or combinations of vitamin E forms induce cell death in human prostate cancer cells by interrupting sphingolipid synthesis. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 101, 1782517830.

23 RM Tamimi , SE Hankinson , H Campos , D Spiegelman , S Zhang , GA Colditz & WC Willett (2005) Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 161, 153–160.

24 K Sato , E Niki & H Shimasaki (1990) Free radical-mediated chain oxidation of low density lipoprotein and its synergistic inhibition by vitamin E and vitamin C. Arch Biochem Biophys 279, 402405.

25 VW Bowry & KU Ingold (1999) The unexpected role of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) in the peroxidation of human low-density lipoprotein. Acc Chem Res 32, 27–34.

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British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
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