Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 30
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Garg, Neelima and Kumar, Pushpa 2016. Handbook of Functional Beverages and Human Health.

    Kho, Min Lee, Yun Park, Ji Kim, Hye Yoon, Jung Ahn, You Tan, Rui Park, Min Cha, Jeong Choi, Kyung Kang, Dae and Lee, Ho 2016. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 6, p. 369.

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai Sripradha, Ramalingam and Badhe, Bhawana 2016. Curcumin inhibits hyperlipidemia and hepatic fat accumulation in high-fructose-fed male Wistar rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, p. 1.

    Sil, Rajarshi and Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar 2016. Oxidative Inactivation of Liver Mitochondria in High Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats: Effect of Glycyrrhizin Treatment. Phytotherapy Research,

    Variya, Bhavesh C. Bakrania, Anita K. and Patel, Snehal S. 2016. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms. Pharmacological Research, Vol. 111, p. 180.

    Yamamoto, Hirotaka Morino, Katsutaro Mengistu, Lemecha Ishibashi, Taishi Kiriyama, Kohei Ikami, Takao and Maegawa, Hiroshi 2016. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Vol. 2016, p. 1.

    Juárez-Reyes, Krutzkaya Brindis, Fernando Medina-Campos, Omar N. Pedraza-Chaverri, José Bye, Robert Linares, Edelmira and Mata, Rachel 2015. Hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant effects of the edible plant Anoda cristata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 161, p. 36.

    Koshy, S. M. Bobby, Z. Jacob, S. E. Ananthanarayanan, P. H. Sridhar, M. G. and Paulose, D. T. 2015. Amla prevents fructose-induced hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized rats: role of liver FXR and LXRα. Climacteric, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 299.

    Prabhakar, Pankaj Reeta, K. H. Maulik, S. K. Dinda, A. K. and Gupta, Y. K. 2015. Protective effect of thymoquinone against high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 54, Issue. 7, p. 1117.

    Sil, Rajarshi Ray, Doel and Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar 2015. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage in experimental rat model. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Vol. 409, Issue. 1-2, p. 177.

    2015. The Maillard Reaction Reconsidered.

    Al-Rasheed, Nawal Al-Rasheed, Nouf Bassiouni, Yieldez Faddah, Laila and Mohamad, Azza M 2014. Potential Protective Effects of Nigella Sativa and Allium Sativum Against Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Journal of Oleo Science, Vol. 63, Issue. 8, p. 839.

    D'souza, Jason Jerome D'souza, Prema Pancy Fazal, Farhan Kumar, Ashish Bhat, Harshith P. and Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath 2014. Anti-diabetic effects of the Indian indigenous fruit Emblica officinalis Gaertn: active constituents and modes of action. Food & Function, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 635.

    Kho, Min Chul Lee, Yun Jung Cha, Jeong Dan Choi, Kyung Min Kang, Dae Gill and Lee, Ho Sub 2014. Gastrodia elataAmeliorates High-Fructose Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism and Endothelial Dysfunction. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

    Xing, Xiaomang Li, Danyang Chen, Dilong Zhou, Liang Chonan, Ritsu Yamahara, Johji Wang, Jianwei and Li, Yuhao 2014. Mangiferin treatment inhibits hepatic expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats: a link to amelioration of fatty liver. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 280, Issue. 2, p. 207.

    Yang, Baoru and Liu, Pengzhan 2014. Composition and Biological Activities of Hydrolyzable Tannins of Fruits of Phyllanthus emblica. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 62, Issue. 3, p. 529.

    Baliga, M.S. Prabhu, A.N. Prabhu, D.A. Shivashankara, A.R. Abraham, A. and Palatty, P.L. 2013. Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes.

    Baliga, M.S. Shivashankara, A.R. Thilakchand, K.R. Baliga-Rao, M.P. and Palatty, P.L. 2013. Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease.

    Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas Mathai, Rashmi Teresa Simon, Paul Ravi, Rithin T. Baliga-Rao, Manjeshwar Poonam and Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath 2013. Hepatoprotective properties of the Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn): a review. Food & Function, Vol. 4, Issue. 10, p. 1431.

    Gao, Huanqing Guan, Tao Li, Chunli Zuo, Guowei Yamahara, Johji Wang, Jianwei and Li, Yuhao 2012. Treatment with Ginger Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver and Hypertriglyceridemia in Rats: Modulation of the Hepatic Carbohydrate Response Element-Binding Protein-Mediated Pathway. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 2012, p. 1.


The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model

  • Hyun Young Kim (a1) (a2), Tsutomu Okubo (a3), Lekh Raj Juneja (a3) and Takako Yokozawa (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 02 November 2009

We investigated the effects of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome using a rat model. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fructose (65 %) diet or standard chow for 1 week, and treated with an ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of amla, a polyphenol-rich fraction, at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight per d, or vehicle, for 2 weeks. Serum glucose, TAG, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels of the high-fructose diet-fed rats were increased compared with those of the normal rats (P < 0·001). However, the EtOAc extract of amla ameliorated the high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, including hypertriacylglycerolaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Also, the elevated levels of hepatic TAG and total cholesterol in rats given the high-fructose diet were significantly reduced by 33·8 and 24·6 %, respectively (P < 0·001), on the administration of the EtOAc extract of amla at the dose of 20 mg/kg with the regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 expression. The protein levels of PPARα and SREBP-2 were not affected by the feeding of the high-fructose diet or EtOAc extract of amla. In addition, oral administration of the amla extract at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited the increased serum and hepatic mitochondrial thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (21·1 and 43·1 %, respectively; P < 0·001). Furthermore, the amla extract inhibited the increase of cyclo-oxygenase-2 with the regulation of NF-κB and bcl-2 proteins in the liver, while the elevated expression level of bax was significantly decreased by 8·5 and 10·2 % at the doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight per d, respectively. These findings suggest that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is attenuated by the polyphenol-rich fraction of amla.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Takako Yokozawa, fax +81 76 434 5068, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2C Catena , G Giacchetti , M Novello , (2003) Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Am J Hypertens 16, 973978.

3GL Kelley , G Allan & S Azhar (2004) High dietary fructose induces a hepatic stress response resulting in cholesterol and lipid dysregulation. Endocrinology 145, 548555.

4Z Ackerman , M Oron-Herman , M Grozovski , (2005) Fructose-induced fatty liver disease: hepatic effects of blood pressure and plasma triglyceride reduction. Hypertension 45, 10121018.

5H Basciano , L Federico & K Adeli (2005) Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutr Metab 2, 518.

13IS Hwang , H Ho , BB Hoffman , (1987) Fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertension in rats. Hypertension 10, 512516.

14GM Reaven (1988) Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 37, 15951607.

15T Dimo , A Rakotonirina , PV Tan , (2001) Antihypertensive effects of Dorstenia psilurus extract in fructose-fed hyperinsulinemic, hypertensive rats. Phytomedicine 8, 101106.

16NA Al-Awwadi , A Bornet , J Azay , (2004) Red wine polyphenols alone or in association with ethanol prevent hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and production of reactive oxygen species in the insulin-resistant fructose-fed rat. J Agric Food Chem 52, 55935597.

17DG Kang , MK Moon , EJ Sohn , (2004) Effects of morin on blood pressure and metabolic changes in fructose-induced hypertensive rats. Biol Pharm Bull 27, 17791783.

18LY Wu , CC Juan , LS Hwang , (2004) Green tea supplementation ameliorates insulin resistance and increases glucose transporter IV content in a fructose-fed rat model. Eur J Nutr 43, 116124.

19NA Al-Awwadi , C Araiz , A Bornet , (2005) Extracts enriched in different polyphenolic families normalize increased cardiac NADPH oxidase expression while having differential effects on insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy in high-fructose-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem 53, 151157.

20R Miatello , M Vazquez , N Renna , (2005) Chronic administration of resveratrol prevents biochemical cardiovascular changes in fructose-fed rats. Am J Hypertens 18, 864870.

21RW Li , TD Douglas , GK Maiyoh , (2006) Green tea leaf extract improves lipid and glucose homeostasis in a fructose-fed insulin-resistant hamster model. J Ethnopharmacol 104, 2431.

22CP Thakur (1985) Emblica officinalis reduces serum, aortic and hepatic cholesterol in rabbits. Experientia 41, 423424.

25L Anila & NR Vijayalakshmi (2002) Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica – effectiveness for dyslipidemia. J Ethnopharmacol 79, 8187.

26MC Sabu & R Kuttan (2002) Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property. J Ethnopharmacol 81, 155160.

27MZ Asmawi , H Kankaanranta , E Moilanen , (1993) Anti-inflammatory activities of Emblica officinalis Gaertn leaf extracts. J Pharm Pharmacol 45, 581584.

28S El-Mekkawy , MR Meselhy , IT Kusumoto , (1995) Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase. Chem Pharm Bull 43, 641648.

29JK Jose , G Kuttan & R Kuttan (2001) Antitumour activity of Emblica officinalis. J Ethnopharmacol 75, 6569.

30SK Bandyopadhyay , SC Pakrashi & A Pakrashi (2000) The role of antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruits on prevention from indomethacin induced gastric ulcer. J Ethnopharmacol 70, 171176.

32L Anila & NR Vijayalakshmi (2003) Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats. Food Chem 83, 569574.

33JK Jose & R Kuttan (1995) Antioxidant activity of E. officinalis. J Clin Biochem Nutr 19, 6370.

34HJ Kim , T Yokozawa , HY Kim , (2005) Influence of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation in cholesterol-fed rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 51, 413418.

36T Yokozawa , HY Kim , HJ Kim , (2007) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) attenuates age-related renal dysfunction by oxidative stress. J Agric Food Chem 55, 77447752.

38RJ Havel , HA Eder & JH Bragdon (1955) The distribution and chemical composition of ultracentrifugally separated lipoproteins in human serum. J Clin Invest 34, 13451353.

39KF McFarland , EW Catalano , JF Day , (1979) Nonenzymatic glucosylation of serum proteins in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 28, 10111014.

42D Johnson & H Lardy (1967) Isolation of liver or kidney mitochondria. Methods Enzymol X, 9496.

43K Jung & M Pergande (1985) Influence of cyclosporin A on the respiration of isolated rat kidney mitochondria. FEBS Lett 183, 167169.

44JA Buege & SD Aust (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52, 302310.

45RF Itzhaki & DM Gill (1964) A micro-biuret method for estimating proteins. Anal Biochem 9, 401410.

46H Sakurai , Y Hisada , M Ueno , (1996) Activation of transcription factor NF-κB in experimental glomerulonephritis in rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1316, 132138.

47UK Laemmli (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680685.

48YJ Zhang , T Tanaka , CR Yang , (2001) New phenolic constituents from the fruit juice of Phyllanthus emblica. Chem Pharm Bull 49, 537540.

49TA Tobey , CE Mondon , I Zavaroni , (1982) Mechanism of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Metabolism 31, 608612.

53C Sarti & J Gallagher (2006) The metabolic syndrome: prevalence, CHD risk, and treatment. J Diabetes Complications 20, 121132.

54W Dichtl , L Nilsson , I Goncalves , (1999) Very low-density lipoprotein activates nuclear factor-κB in endothelial cells. Circ Res 84, 10851094.

55HN Ginsberg (2002) New perspectives on atherogenesis: role of abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Circulation 106, 21372142.

56CM Williams , V Maitin & KG Jackson (2004) Triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein-gene interactions in endothelial cells. Biochem Soc Trans 32, 994998.

58N Roglans , E Sanguino , C Peris , (2002) Atorvastatin treatment induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α expression and decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids and liver triglyceride in fructose-fed rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302, 232239.

59K Schoonjans , G Martin , B Staels , (1997) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, orphans with ligands and functions. Curr Opin Lipidol 8, 159166.

60T Aoyama , JM Peters , N Iritani , (1998) Altered constitutive expression of fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes in mice lacking the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α). J Biol Chem 273, 56785684.

62TC Leone , CJ Weinheimer & DP Kelly (1999) A critical role for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in the cellular fasting response: the PPARα-null mouse as a model of fatty acid oxidation disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 74737478.

63M Miyazaki , A Dobrzyn , WC Man , (2004) Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene expression is necessary for fructose-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Biol Chem 279, 2516425171.

64A Aljada , R Garg , H Ghanim , (2001) Nuclear factor-κB suppressive and inhibitor-κB stimulatory effects of troglitazone in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: evidence of an anti-inflammatory action? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 32503256.

65H Ghanim , R Garg , A Aljada , (2001) Suppression of nuclear factor-κB and stimulation of inhibitor κB by troglitazone: evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect and a potential antiatherosclerotic effect in the obese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 13061312.

66JD Browning & JD Horton (2004) Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury. J Clin Invest 114, 147152.

67S Furukawa , T Fujita , M Shimabukuro , (2004) Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest 114, 17521761.

68GE Sonnenberg , GR Krakower & AHA Kissebah (2004) A novel pathway to the manifestations of metabolic syndrome. Obes Res 12, 180186.

69FB Stentz , GE Umpierrez , R Cuervo , (2004) Proinflammatory cytokines, markers of cardiovascular risks, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation in patients with hyperglycemic crises. Diabetes 53, 20792086.

70P Dandona , A Aljada , A Chaudhuri , (2005) Metabolic syndrome: a comprehensive perspective based on interactions between obesity, diabetes, and inflammation. Circulation 111, 14481454.

71S Delbosc , E Paizanis , R Magous , (2005) Involvement of oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase activation in the development of cardiovascular complications in a model of insulin resistance, the fructose-fed rat. Atherosclerosis 179, 4349.

72JI Barzilay , L Abraham , SR Heckbert , (2001) The relation of markers of inflammation to the development of glucose disorders in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Diabetes 50, 23842389.

73AD Pradhan , JE Manson , N Rifai , (2001) C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 286, 327334.

74AS Baldwin (2001) The transcription factor NF-κB and human disease. J Clin Invest 107, 36.

75Q Li & IM Verma (2002) NF-κB regulation in the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 2, 725734.

76M Sasaki , T Kumazaki , H Takano , (2001) Senescent cells are resistant to death despite low Bcl-2 level. Mech Ageing Dev 122, 16951706.

77HY Chung , HJ Kim , KW Kim , (2002) Molecular inflammation hypothesis of aging based on the anti-aging mechanism of calorie restriction. Microsc Res Tech 59, 264272.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *