Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Thiamine status, metabolism and application in dairy cows: a review

  • Xiaohua Pan (a1) (a2), Xuemei Nan (a1), Liang Yang (a1), Linshu Jiang (a3) and Benhai Xiong (a1)...
Abstract

As the co-enzyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, thiamine plays a critical role in carbohydrate metabolism in dairy cows. Apart from feedstuff, microbial thiamine synthesis in the rumen is the main source for dairy cows. However, the amount of ruminal thiamine synthesis, which is influenced by dietary N levels and forage to concentrate ratio, varies greatly. Notably, when dairy cows are overfed high-grain diets, subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) occurs and results in thiamine deficiency. Thiamine deficiency is characterised by decreased ruminal and blood thiamine concentrations and an increased blood thiamine pyrophosphate effect to >45 %. Thiamine deficiency caused by SARA is mainly related to the increased thiamine requirement during high grain feeding, decreased bacterial thiamine synthesis in the rumen, increased thiamine degradation by thiaminase, and decreased thiamine absorption by transporters. Interestingly, thiamine deficiency can be reversed by exogenous thiamine supplementation in the diet. Besides, thiamine supplementation has beneficial effects in dairy cows, such as increased milk and component production and attenuated SARA by improving rumen fermentation, balancing bacterial community and alleviating inflammatory response in the ruminal epithelium. However, there is no conclusive dietary thiamine recommendation for dairy cows, and the impacts of thiamine supplementation on protozoa, solid-attached bacteria, rumen wall-adherent bacteria and nutrient metabolism in dairy cows are still unclear. This knowledge is critical to understand thiamine status and function in dairy cows. Overall, the present review described the current state of knowledge on thiamine nutrition in dairy cows and the major problems that must be addressed in future research.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding authors: Dr X. Pan, email panxiaohuacaas@163.com; Professor B. Xiong, email xiongbenhai@caas.cn
References
Hide All
1. Bubber, P, Ke, ZJ & Gibson, GE (2004) Tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes following thiamine deficiency. Neurochem Int 45, 10211028.
2. Breves, G, Brandt, M, Hoeller, H, et al. (1981) Flow of thiamin to the duodenum in dairy cows fed different rations. J Agr Sci 96, 587591.
3. National Research Council (2001) Vitamins. In Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, pp. 162–177 [N Grossblatt, editor]. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
4. Zintzen, H (1973) Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) in der Ernährung des Wiederkäuers (Vitamin B1 (thiamin) in ruminant nutrition). Übersichten zur Tierernährung 1, 273323.
5. Miller, B, Meiske, J & Goodrich, R (1986) Effects of grain source and concentrate level on B-vitamin production and absorption in steers. J Anim Sci 62, 473483.
6. Zinn, R, Owens, F, Stuart, R, et al. (1987) B-vitamin supplementation of diets for feedlot calves. J Anim Sci 65, 267277.
7. Schwab, E, Schwab, C, Shaver, R, et al. (2006) Dietary forage and nonfiber carbohydrate contents influence B-vitamin intake, duodenal flow, and apparent ruminal synthesis in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 89, 174187.
8. Gould, DH, McAllister, MM, Savage, JC, et al. (1991) High sulfide concentrations in rumen fluid associated with nutritionally induced polioencephalomalacia in calves. Am J Vet Res 52, 11641167.
9. Shaver, RD & Bal, MA (2000) Effect of dietary thiamin supplementation on milk production by dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 83, 23352340.
10. Kholif, AM, Hanafy, MA, El-Shewy, AA, et al. (2009) Effect of supplementing rations with thiamin and/or sodium bicarbonate on milk yield and composition of lactating cows. Egypt J Nutr Feeds 12, 187195.
11. Pan, XH, Yang, L, Xue, FG, et al. (2016) Relationship between thiamine and subacute rumen acidosis induced by a high grain diet in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 99, 87908801.
12. Subramanya, SB, Subramanian, VS & Said, HM (2010) Chronic alcohol consumption and intestinal thiamin absorption: effects on physiological and molecular parameters of the uptake process. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299, 2331.
13. McDowell, LR (1989) Vitamins in Animal Nutrition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
14. Bryant, M & Robinson, IM (1961) Some nutritional requirements of the genus Ruminococcus . Appl Microbiol 9, 9195.
15. Ungerfeld, EM, Rust, SR & Burnett, R (2009) The effects of thiamine inhibition on ruminal fermentation: a preliminary study. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 54, 521526.
16. Zhang, G, Dai, J, Lu, Z, et al. (2003) The phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase from Bacteroides fragilis . J Biol Chem 278, 4130241308.
17. Russell, JB (2002) Rumen Microbiology and Its Role in Ruminant Nutrition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
18. Solouma, GM, Kholif, AM, Hamdon, HA, et al. (2014) Blood components and milk production as affected by supplementing ration with thiamin in Ewe Sohagi sheep. Life Sci J 11, 6066.
19. Rowghani, E, Zamiri, MJ & Ebrahimi, SR (2006) Effects of monensin and thiamin and their combinations on feedlot performance, blood glucose, BUN levels and carcass characteristics of Mehraban lambs fed a high concentrate diet. Pak J Bio Sci 9, 28352840.
20. Silzell, SA, Hellwig, DH, Kegley, EB, et al. (2002) Effects of supplemental thiamin on growth performance and immune function in stressed stocker cattle. J Appl Anim Res 22, 145156.
21. National Research Council (2012) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 11th rev. ed. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
22. Castagnino, DS, Seck, M, Beaudet, V, et al. (2016) Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 99, 18841894.
23. Beaudet, V, Gervais, R, Graulet, B, et al. (2016) Effects of dietary nitrogen levels and carbohydrate sources on apparent ruminal synthesis of some B vitamins in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 99, 27302739.
24. McDowell, LR (2000) Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition. Iowa, NY: Iowa State University Press.
25. Tafaj, M, Schollenberger, M, Feofilowa, J, et al. (2006) Relationship between thiamine concentration and fermentation patterns in the rumen fluid of dairy cows fed with graded concentrate levels. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 90, 335343.
26. Kon, SK & Porter, JWG (1954) The intestinal synthesis of vitamins in the ruminant. Vitamins and Hormones. Adv Res Appl 12, 5368.
27. Castagnino, DS, Kammes, KL, Allen, MS, et al. (2016) Particle length of silages affects apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 99, 62296236.
28. Seck, M, Linton, JV, Allen, MS, et al. (2017) Apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows fed diets with different forage-to-concentrate ratios. J Dairy Sci 100, 19141922.
29. Santschi, DE, Berthiaume, R, Matte, JJ, et al. (2005) Fate of supplementary B-vitamins in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 88, 20432054.
30. Buziassy, C & Tribe, DE (1960) The synthesis of vitamins in the rumen of sheep. I. The effect of diet on the synthesis of thiamine, riboflavin, and nicotinic acid. Crop Pasture Sci 11, 9891001.
31. Boyd, JW & Walton, JR (1977) Cerebrocortical necrosis in ruminants attempt to identify source of thiaminase in affected animals. J Comp Pathol 87, 581589.
32. Brent, BE & Bartley, EE (1984) Thiamin and niacin in the rumen. J Anim Sci 59, 813822.
33. Pan, X, Xue, F, Nan, X, et al. (2017) Illumina sequencing approach to characterize thiamine metabolism related bacteria and the impacts of thiamine supplementation on ruminal microbiota in dairy cows fed high-grain diets. Front Microbiol 8, 1818.
34. Hoeller, H, Fecke, M & Schaller, K (1977) Permeability to thiamin of the sheep rumen wall. J Anim Sci 44, 158161.
35. Smith, RM & Marston, HR (1970) Production, absorption, distribution and excretion of vitamin B12 in sheep. Br J Nutr 24, 857877.
36. Rérat, A, Champigny, O & Jacquot, R (1959) Modalités de l’absorption vitaminique chez les ruminants: forme et disponibilité des vitamines B du bol alimentaire aux différents niveaux digestifs (Modalities of vitamin absorption in ruminants: form and availability of B vitamins from the alimentary bolus at different digestive levels). C R Acad Sci (Paris) 249, 12741276.
37. McDowell, LR (2012) Vitamins in Animal Nutrition: Comparative Aspects to Human Nutrition. London: Academic Press.
38. Breves, G, Hoeller, H, Harmeyer, J, et al. (1980) Thiamin balance in the gastrointestinal tract of sheep. J Anim Sci 51, 11771181.
39. Mao, S, Huo, W, Liu, J, et al. (2016) In vitro effects of sodium bicarbonate buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota. J Sci Food Agric 97, 12761285.
40. Dabak, M & Gul, Y (2004) Thiamine deficiency in sheep with chronic rumen acidosis. Vet Rec 154, 5859.
41. Karapinar, T, Dabak, M & Kizil, O (2010) Thiamine status of feedlot cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. Can Vet J 51, 12511253.
42. Rehm, WF, Zerobin, K, Christeller, S, et al. (1971) Experiments with a new diagnostic method on vitamin B, deficiency in cattle. Berl Muin Tierairztl Wochenschr 84, 6467.
43. Pill, AH (1967) Evidence of thiamine deficiency in calves affected with cerebrocortical necrosis. Vet Rec 81, 178181.
44. Hill, JH, Rammell, CG & Forbes, S (1988) Blood thiamine levels in normal cattle and sheep at pasture. New Zeal Vet J 36, 4950.
45. Gooneratne, SR, Olkowski, AA, Klemmer, RG, et al. (1989) High sulfur related thiamine deficiency in cattle: a field study. Can Vet J 30, 139147.
46. Olkowski, AA, Christensen, DA & Rousseaux, CG (1991) Association of sulfate-water and blood thiamine concentration in beef cattle: field studies. Can J Anim Sci 71, 825832.
47. Chen, L, Luo, Y, Wang, H, et al. (2016) Effects of glucose and starch on lactate production by newly isolated Streptococcus bovis S1 from Saanen Goats. Appl Environ Microbiol 82, 59825989.
48. Asanuma, N & Hino, T (2000) Effects of pH and energy supply on activity and amount of pyruvate formate-lyase in Streptococcus bovis . Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 37733777.
49. Knappe, J, Schacht, J, Mockel, W, et al. (1969) Pyruvate formate-lyase reaction in Escherichia coli. The enzymatic system converting an inactive form of the lyase into the catalytically active enzyme. Eur J Biochem 11, 316327.
50. Magnusdottir, S, Ravcheev, D, de Crecy-Lagard, V, et al. (2015) Systematic genome assessment of B-vitamin biosynthesis suggests co-operation among gut microbes. Front Genet 6, 148.
51. Silverman, M & Werkman, CH (1939) Adaptation of the propionic-acid bacteria to vitamin B1 synthesis including a method of assay. J Bacteriol 38, 2532.
52. Louis, P, Hold, GL & Flint, HJ (2014) The gut microbiota, bacterial metabolites and colorectal cancer. Nat Rev Microbiol 12, 661672.
53. Mao, SY, Zhang, RY, Wang, DS, et al. (2013) Impact of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) adaptation on rumen microbiota in dairy cattle using pyrosequencing. Anaerobe 24, 1219.
54. Khafipour, E, Krause, DO & Plaizier, JC (2009) A grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis challenge causes translocation of lipopolysaccharide and triggers inflammation. J Dairy Sci 92, 10601070.
55. Fernando, SC, Purvis, HT, Najar, FZ, et al. (2010) Rumen microbial population dynamics during adaptation to a high-grain diet. Appl Environ Microbiol 76, 74827490.
56. Brent, BE (1976) Relationship of acidosis to other feedlot ailments. J Anim Sci 43, 930935.
57. Harmeyer, J & Kollenkirchen, U (1989) Thiamin and niacin in ruminant nutrition. Nutr Res Rev 2, 201225.
58. Edwin, E & Jackman, R (1970) Thiaminase I in the development of cerebrocortical necrosis in sheep and cattle. Nature 228, 772774.
59. Randhawa, S, Ahuja, A & Rathor, S (1988) Effect of lactic-acidosis on histamine and thiamine levels in buffalo calves. Indian J Anim Sci 58, 10191023.
60. Dunlop, R (1998) Polioencephalomalacia (Cerebrocortical necrosis). In Merck Veterinary Manual, pp. 960963 [SE Aiello, editor]. Philadelphia, PA: Merck & Co Inc.
61. Bräunlich, K & Zintzen, H (1976) Vitamin B1 in Animal Nutrition. Basel: Hoffmann-La Roche.
62. Pan, XH, Yang, L, Beckers, Y, et al. (2017) Thiamine supplementation facilitates thiamine transporter expression in the rumen epithelium and attenuates high-grain-induced inflammation in low-yielding dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 100, 53295342.
63. Zhu, E, Fang, L, Subramanian, V, et al. (2015) Lipopolysaccharide and cytokines inhibit thiamine uptake and thiamine transporter gene expression In C2c12 myoblasts. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 191, A4361.
64. Arun, R, Antoinette, E, I, David, G, et al. (2001) SLC19A3 encodes a second thiamine transporter ThTr2. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1537, 175178.
65. Plaizier, JC, Li, S, Le Sciellour, M, et al. (2014) Effects of duration of moderate increases in grain feeding on endotoxins in the digestive tract and acute phase proteins in peripheral blood of yearling calves. J Dairy Sci 97, 70767084.
66. Khafipour, E, Li, S, Plaizier, JC, et al. (2009) Rumen microbiome composition determined using two nutritional models of subacute ruminal acidosis. Appl Environ Micro 75, 71157124.
67. Emmanuel, DG, Madsen, KL, Churchill, TA, et al. (2007) Acidosis and lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli B:055 cause hyperpermeability of rumen and colon tissues. J Dairy Sci 90, 55525557.
68. Kurashima, Y, Goto, Y & Kiyono, H (2013) Mucosal innate immune cells regulate both gut homeostasis and intestinal inflammation. Eur J Immunol 43, 31083115.
69. Zhang, R, Zhu, W & Mao, S (2016) High-concentrate feeding upregulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in the ruminal epithelium of dairy cattle. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 7, 4255.
70. Gressley, TF (2014) Inflammatory responses to sub-acute ruminal acidosis. In 25th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium, Gainesville, 4 February, pp. 28–41.
71. Wang, H, Pan, X, Wang, C, et al. (2015) Effects of different dietary concentrate to forage ratio and thiamine supplementation on the rumen fermentation and ruminal bacterial community in dairy cows. Anim Prod Sci 55, 189193.
72. Bainbridge, ML, Cersosimo, LM, Wright, AD, et al. (2016) Rumen bacterial communities shift across a lactation in Holstein, Jersey and Holstein x Jersey dairy cows and correlate to rumen function, bacterial fatty acid composition and production parameters. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 92, fiw059.
73. Flint, HJ, Bayer, EA, Rincon, MT, et al. (2008) Polysaccharide utilization by gut bacteria: potential for new insights from genomic analysis. Nat Rev Microbiol 6, 121131.
74. Lin, ST, Wang, Y, Xue, Y, et al. (2008) Tetrandrine suppresses LPS-induced astrocyte activation via modulating IKKs-IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biochem 315, 4149.
75. Shoeb, M & Ramana, KV (2012) Anti-inflammatory effects of benfotiamine are mediated through the regulation of the arachidonic acid pathway in macrophages. Free Radical Bio Med 52, 182190.
76. Gonzalez-Ortiz, M, Martinez-Abundis, E, Robles-Cervantes, JA, et al. (2011) Effect of thiamine administration on metabolic profile, cytokines and inflammatory markers in drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Nutr 50, 145149.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed