Aksnes L, Rødland O & Aarskog D (1988) Serum levels of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in elderly and young adults. Bone and Mineral 3, 351–357.
Andersen NL, Fagt S, Groth MV, Hartkopp HB, Møller A, Ovesen L & Warming DL (1995) The Danish National Dietary Survey 1995. Main results. The National Food Agency, publication 235, 114–115.
Brixen K, Nielsen HK, Eriksen EF, Charles P & Mosekilde L (1989) Efficacy of wheat germ lectin-precipitated alkaline phosphatase in serum as an estimator of bone mineralization rate: comparison to serum alkaline phosphatase and serum bone Gla-protein. Calcified Tissue International 44, 93–98.
Burnand B, Sloutskis D, Gianoli F, Cornuz J, Rickenbach M, Paccaud F and Burckhardt P (1992) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: distribution and determinants in the Swiss population. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 537–542.
Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, Arnaud S, Galan P, Hercberg S & Meunier PJ (1997) Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporosis International 7, 439–443.
Chapuy MC, Schott AM, Garnero P, Hans D, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ EPIDOS study group (1996) Healthy elderly French women living at home have secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover in winter. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, 1129–1133.
Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Harris S, Sokoll LJ & Falconer G (1991) Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Annals of Internal Medicine 115, 505–512.
Dawson-Hughes B, Harris S & Dallal GE (1997) Plasma calcidiol, season, and serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in healthy elderly men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 67–71.
Egsmose C, Lund B, McNair P, Lund B, Storm T & Sorensen OH (1987) Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in institutionalised old people: influence of solar exposure and vitamin D supplementation. Age and Ageing 16, 35–40.
Gallagher JC, Kinyamu HK, Fowler SE, Dawson-Hughes B, Dalsky GP & Sherman SS (1998) Calciotropic hormones and bone markers in the elderly. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 13, 475–482.
Henriksen C, Brunvand L, Stoltenberg C, Trygg K, Haug E & Pedersen JI (1995) Diet and vitamin D status among pregnant Pakistani women in Oslo. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 211–218.
Holick MF (1996) Vitamin D and bone health. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1159S–1164S.
Kinyamu HK, Gallagher JC, Balhorn KE, Petranick KM & Rafferty KA (1997) Serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption in normal young and elderly free-living women and in women living in nursing homes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 790–797.
Kinyamu HK, Gallagher JC, Rafferty KA & Balhorn KE (1998) Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in elderly women: effect on serum parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolites. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 342–348.
Krall E, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S, Dallal G & Dawson-Hughes B (1989) Effect of vitamin D intake on seasonal variations in parathyroid hormone secretion in postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 321, 1777–1783.
Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Wilhelmsen L, Wilske J, Lappas G, Rosén T, Lindstedt G, Lundberg P-A & Bengtsson B-Å (1995) Sunlight increases serum 25(OH) vitamin D concentration whereas 1,25(OH)2D3 is unaffected. Results from a general population study in Göteborg, Sweden (the WHO MONICA project). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 400–407.
Lund B & Sørensen OH (1979) Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in serum and its relation to sunshine, age and vitamin D intake in the Danish population. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 39, 23–30.
McKenna MJ (1992) Differences in vitamin D status between countries in young adults and the elderly. American Journal of Medicine 93, 69–77.
McKenna MJ & Freaney R (1998) Secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: means to defining hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporosis International suppl. 8, S3–S6.
Malabanan A, Veronikis IE & Holick MF (1998) Redefining vitamin D insufficiency. Lancet 351, 805–806.
Møller A (1989) Food Composition Tables 1989. Publication no. SC3. Copenhagen: National Food Agency.
Mosekilde L, Hermann AP, Beck-Nielsen H, Charles P, Pors Nielsen S & Sørensen OH (1999) The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS): project design and inclusion of 2000 normal perimenopausal women. Maturitas 31, 207–219.
Parfitt AM, Gallagher JC, Heaney RP, Johnston CC, Neer R & Whedon GD (1982) Vitamin D and bone health in the elderly. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, 1014–1031.
Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, Shaw AC, Dereska DJ, Kitch BT, Vamvakas EC, Dick IM, Prince RL & Finkelstein JS (1998) Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. New England Journal of Medicine 338, 777–783.
van der Wielen R, Löwik M, van der Berg H, de Groot L, Haller J, Moreiras O & van Staveren W (1995) Serum vitamin D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet 346, 207–210.
Webb AR, Kline LW & Holick MF (1988) Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 67, 337–338.
Zittermann A, Scheld K & Stehle P (1998) Seasonal variations in vitamin D status and calcium absorption do not influence bone turnover in young women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 501–506.