1 Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 41. London: The Stationery Office.
2 Department of Health (1994) Advisory Group on Osteoporosis Report. London: Department of Health.
3 Department of Health (1998) Nutrition and Bone Health. London: The Stationery Office.
4 Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals (2003) Safe Upper Limits for Vitamins and Minerals. London: Food Standards Agency.
5 World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.
6 Gregory, J, Lowe, S, Bates, CJ, Prentice, A, Jackson, LV, Smithers, G, Wenlock, R & Farron, M (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years. London: The Stationery Office.
7 Henderson, L, Irving, K, Gregory, J, Bates, CJ, Prentice, A, Perks, J, Swan, G & Farron, M (2003) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. Volume 3, Vitamin and Mineral Intake and Urinary Analytes. London: The Stationery Office.
8 Finch, S, Doyle, W, Lowe, C, Bates, CJ, Prentice, A, Smithers, G & Clarke, PC (1998) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: People Aged 65 Years and Over. Report of the Diet and Nutrition Survey, Volume 1, London: The Stationery Office.
9 Winzenberg, T, Shaw, K, Fryer, J & Jones, G (2006) Effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in healthy children; meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br Med J 333, 775–778.
10 Prentice, A, Schoenmakers, I, Laskey, MA, de Bono, S, Ginty, F & Goldberg, GR (2006) Nutrition and bone growth and development. Proc Nutr Soc 65, 348–360.
11 Shea, B, Wells, G, Cranney, A, et al. (2002) Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VII Meta-analysis of calcium supplementation for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 23, 552–559.
12 Jackson, RD, LaCroix, AZ, Gass, M, et al. (2006) Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med 354, 669–683.
13 Curhan, GC, Willett, WC, Speizer, FE, Spiegelman, D & Stampfer, MJ (1997) Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med 126, 497–504.
14 Holick, MF (1994) McCollum Award Lecture, 1994, vitamin D – new horizons for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 619–630.
15 Armas, LAG, Hollis, BW & Heaney, RP (2004) Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 5387–5391.
16 Hirani, V & Primatesta, P (2005) Vitamin D concentrations among people aged 65 years and over living in private households and institutions in England: population survey. Age Ageing 34, 485–491.
17 Lips, P (2001) Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev 22, 477–501.
18 Vieth, R, Ladak, Y & Walfish, PG (2003) Age-related changes in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D versus parathyroid hormone relationship suggest a different reason why older adults require more vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 185–191.
19 Dawson-Hughes, B, Heaney, RP, Holick, MF, Lips, P, Meunier, PJ & Vieth, R (2005) Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporos Int 16, 713–716.
20 Lips, P, Chapuy, MC, Dawson-Hughes, B, Pols, HAP & Holick, MF (1999) An international comparison of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements. Osteoporos Int 9, 394–397.
21 Holick, MF & Jenkins, M (2003) The UV Advantage. New York: ibooks.
22 Hypponen, E & Power, C (2007) Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 860–868.
23 Heaney, RP, Davies, KM, Chen, TC, Holick, MF & Barger-Lux, MJ (2003) Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 204–210.
24 Hathcock, JN, Shao, A, Vieth, R & Heaney, R (2007) Risk assessment for vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 6–18.
25 Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, Willett, WC, Wong, JB, Giovannucci, E, Dietrich, T & Dawson-Hughes, B (2005) Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 293, 2257–2264.
26 Smith, H, Anderson, F, Raphael, H, Crozier, S & Cooper, C (2004) Effect of annual intramuscular vitamin D supplementation on fracture risk: population-based, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 15, Suppl. 1, S8.
27 Grant, AM, Avenell, A, Campbell, MK, et al. (2005) Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 365, 1621–1628.
28 Porthouse, J, Cockayne, S, King, C, et al. (2005) Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. Br Med J 330, 1003–1006.
29 Law, M, Withers, H, Morris, J & Anderson, F (2006) Vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of falls and fractures: results of a randomised controlled trial in elderly people in residential accommodation. Age Ageing 35, 482–486.
30 Lyons, RA, Johansen, A, Brophy, S, Newcombe, RG, Phillips, CJ, Lervy, B, Evans, R, Wareham, K & Stone, MD (2007) Preventing fractures among older people living in institutional care: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation. Osteoporos Int 18, 811–818.
32 Boonen, S, Lips, P, Bouillon, R, Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, Vanderschueren, D & Haentjens, P (2007) Need for additional calcium to reduce the risk of hip fracture with vitamin D supplementation: evidence from a comparative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 1415–1423.
33 De Laet, C, Kanis, JA, Oden, A, et al. (2005) Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 16, 1330–1338.
34 Kanis, JA, Johannson, H, Johnell, O, et al. (2005) Alcohol intake as a risk factor for fracture. Osteoporos Int 16, 737–742.
35 Burns, L, Ashwell, M, Berry, J, et al. (2003) UK Food Standards Agency Optimal Nutrition Status Workshop: environmental factors that affect bone health throughout life. Br J Nutr 89, 835–840.