Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study

  • Pamela L. Lutsey (a1), David R. Jacobs (a1) (a2), Sujata Kori (a3), Elizabeth Mayer-Davis (a4), Steven Shea (a5), Lyn M. Steffen (a1), Moyses Szklo (a6) and Russell Tracy (a7)...
Abstract

We examined the relationship between whole grain intake and obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD using baseline data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Whole grain intake was measured by a 127-item FFQ in 5496 men and women free of CHD and previously known diabetes. Mean whole grain intake was 0·5 (sd 0·5) servings per d; biochemical measures reflect fasting levels. After adjustment for demographic and health behaviour variables, mean differences for the highest quintile of whole grain intake minus the lowest quintile of intake were 0·6 kg/m2 for BMI, 0·36 mg/l for C-reactive protein, 0·82 μmol/l for homocysteine, 0·15 mU/l*mmol/l for homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), 0·48 mU/l for serum insulin, 2·0 mg/dl for glucose and 5·7 % for prevalence of newly diagnosed impaired fasting glucose (glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl or diabetes medication). These differences represent 11–13 % of a standard deviation of BMI, HOMA, glucose and impaired fasting glucose, but 23 %, 52 % and 80 % of a standard deviation of homocysteine, C-reactive protein and insulin, respectively. An inverse association between whole grains and urine albumin excretion was suggested but retained statistical significance after adjustment only in Chinese and Hispanic participants. No associations were observed between whole grain intake and two subclinical disease measures: carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification. Concordant with previous research, whole grain intake was inversely associated with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation and elevated fasting glucose or newly diagnosed diabetes. Counter to hypothesis, however, whole grain intake was unrelated to subclinical CVD.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: David R. Jacobs Jr., fax +1 612 624 0315, email Jacobs@epi.umn.edu
References
Hide All
Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Whitt, MC, et al. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, S498S504.
Ajani, UA, Ford, ES & Mokdad, AH (2004) Dietary fiber and C-reactive protein: findings from National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey data. J Nutr 134, 11811185.
Bild, DE, Bluemke, DA, Burke, GL, et al. (2002) Multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis: objectives and design. Am J Epidemiol 156, 871881.
Block, G, Woods, M, Potosky, A & Clifford, C (1990) Validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire using multiple diet records. J Clin Epidemiol 43, 13271335.
Carr, JJ, Crouse, JR 3rd, Goff, DC Jr, D'Agostino, RB Jr, Peterson, NP & Burke, GL (2000) Evaluation of subsecond gated helical CT for quantification of coronary artery calcium and comparison with electron beam CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174, 915921.
Carr, JJ, Nelson, JC, Wong, ND, et al. (2005) Calcified coronary artery plaque measurement with cardiac CT in population-based studies: standardized protocol of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Radiology 234, 3543.
Chambless, LE, Heiss, G, Folsom, AR, et al. (1997) Association of coronary heart disease incidence with carotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987–1993. Am J Epidemiol 146, 483494.
Cleveland, LE, Moshfegh, AJ, Albertson, AM & Goldman, JD (2000) Dietary intake of whole grains. J Am Coll Nutr 19, Suppl. 3, 331S338S.
Espeland, MA, Evans, GW, Wagenknecht, LE, et al. (2003) Site-specific progression of carotid artery intimal-medial thickness. Atherosclerosis 171, 137143.
Feskens, EJ, Loeber, JG & Kromhout, D (1994) Diet and physical activity as determinants of hyperinsulinemia: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Epidemiol 140, 350360.
Fraser, GE, Sabate, J, Beeson, WL & Strahan, TM (1992) A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med 152, 14161424.
Fung, TT, Hu, FB, Pereira, MA, et al. (2002) Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 535540.
Jacobs, DR Jr & Gallaher, DD (2004) Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a review. Curr Atheroscler Rep 6, 415423.
Jacobs, DR Jr, Meyer, KA, Kushi, LH & Folsom, AR (1998) Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 248257.
Jacobs, DR Jr, Meyer, KA, Kushi, LH & Folsom, AR (1999) Is whole grain intake associated with reduced total and cause-specific death rates in older women? The Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Public Health 89, 322329.
Jacobs, DR Jr, Meyer, HE & Solvoll, K (2001) Reduced mortality among whole grain bread eaters in men and women in the Norwegian County Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 137143.
Jacobs, DR Jr, Murtaugh, MA, Steffes, M, Yu, X, Roseman, J & Goetz, FC (2002) Gender- and race-specific determination of albumin excretion rate using albumin-to-creatinine ratio in single, untimed urine specimens: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Am J Epidemiol 155, 11141119.
Jacobs, DR Jr & Steffen, LM (2003) Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. Am J Clin Nutr 78, Suppl. 3, 508S513S.
Jang, Y, Lee, JH, Kim, OY, Park, HY & Lee, SY (2001) Consumption of whole grain and legume powder reduces insulin demand, lipid peroxidation, and plasma homocysteine concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease: randomized controlled clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21, 20652071.
Jensen, MK, Koh-Banerjee, P, Franz, M, Sampson, L, Gronbaek, M & Rimm, EB (2006) Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation 1. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 275283.
King, DE, Egan, BM & Geesey, ME (2003) Relation of dietary fat and fiber to elevation of C-reactive protein. Am J Cardiol 92, 13351339.
Levy, D, Garrison, RJ, Savage, DD, Kannel, WB & Castelli, WP (1989) Left ventricular mass and incidence of coronary heart disease in an elderly cohort. The Framingham Heart Study. Ann Intern Med 110, 101107.
Lichtenstein, AH & Russell, RM (2005) Essential nutrients: food or supplements? Where should the emphasis be? JAMA 294, 351358.
Liese, AD, Roach, AK, Sparks, KC, Marquart, L, D'Agostino, RB & Mayer-Davis, EJ (2003) Whole-grain intake and insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 965971.
Liu, S, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, et al. (2000) A prospective study of whole-grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in US women. Am J Public Health 90, 14091415.
Liu, S, Stampfer, MJ, Hu, FB, et al. (1999) Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 412419.
Liu, S, Willett, WC, Manson, JE, Hu, FB, Rosner, B & Colditz, G (2003) Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 920927.
Lovejoy, J & DiGirolamo, M (1992) Habitual dietary intake and insulin sensitivity in lean and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 11741179.
Ludwig, DS, Pereira, MA, Kroenke, CH, et al. (1999) Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA 282, 15391546.
Lutsey, PL, Steffen, LM, Feldman, HA, et al. (2006) Serum homocysteine is related to food intake in adolescents: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Am J Clin Nutr 83, 13801386.
Malinow, MR, Duell, PB, Hess, DL, et al. (1998) Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 338, 10091015.
Marshall, JA, Bessesen, DH & Hamman, RF (1997) High saturated fat and low starch and fibre are associated with hyperinsulinaemia in a non-diabetic population: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Diabetologia 40, 430438.
Matthews, DR, Hosker, JP, Rudenski, AS, Naylor, BA, Treacher, DF & Turner, RC (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412419.
Mayer-Davis, EJ, Vitolins, MZ, Carmichael, SL, et al. (1999) Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency interview in a Multi-Cultural Epidemiology Study. Ann Epidemiol 9, 314324.
Metcalf, PA, Baker, JR, Scragg, RK, Dryson, E, Scott, AJ & Wild, CJ (1993) Dietary nutrient intakes and slight albuminuria in people at least 40 years old. Clin Chem 39, 21912198.
Meyer, KA, Kushi, LH, Jacobs, DR Jr, Slavin, J, Sellers, TA & Folsom, AR (2000) Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 921930.
Montonen, J, Knekt, P, Jarvinen, R, Aromaa, A & Reunanen, A (2003) Whole-grain and fiber intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 622629.
Morris, JN, Marr, JW & Clayton, DG (1977) Diet and heart: a postscript. Br Med J 2(6098), 13071314.
O'Leary, DH, Polak, JF, Kronmal, RA, Manolio, TA, Burke, GL & Wolfson, SK Jr (1999) Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 340, 1422.
Pereira, MA, Jacobs, DR Jr, Pins, JJ, et al. (2002) Effect of whole grains on insulin sensitivity in overweight hyperinsulinemic adults. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 848855.
Pietinen, P, Rimm, EB, Korhonen, P, et al. (1996) Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Circulation 94, 27202727.
Qi, L, van Dam, RM, Liu, S, Franz, M, Mantzoros, C & Hu, FB (2006) Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women. Diabetes Care 29, 207211.
Raggi, P, Callister, TQ, Cooil, B, et al. (2000) Identification of patients at increased risk of first unheralded acute myocardial infarction by electron-beam computed tomography. Circulation 101, 850855.
Riddell, LJ, Chisholm, A, Williams, S & Mann, JI (2000) Dietary strategies for lowering homocysteine concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 14481454.
Steffen, LM, Jacobs, DR Jr, Murtaugh, MA, et al. (2003a) Whole grain intake is associated with lower body mass and greater insulin sensitivity among adolescents. Am J Epidemiol 158, 243250.
Steffen, LM, Jacobs, DR Jr, Stevens, J, Shahar, E, Carithers, T & Folsom, AR (2003b) Associations of whole-grain, refined-grain, and fruit and vegetable consumption with risks of all-cause mortality and incident coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 383390.
Tucker, KL, Bermudez, OI & Castaneda, C (2000) Type 2 diabetes is prevalent and poorly controlled among Hispanic elders of Caribbean origin. Am J Public Health 90, 12881293.
US Department of Health and Human Services & the US Department of Agriculture (2005) Dietary Guildelines for Americans 2005 (www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelinesed ).
Vitelli, LL, Folsom, AR, Shahar, E, et al. (1996) Association of dietary composition with fasting serum insulin level: the ARIC Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 6, 194202.
Wardlaw, GM & Kessel, M (2002) Perspectives in Nutrition, 5th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Warram, JH, Gearin, G, Laffel, L & Krolewski, AS (1996) Effect of duration of type I diabetes on the prevalence of stages of diabetic nephropathy defined by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. J Am Soc Nephrol 7, 930937.
Watts, GF, Gregory, L, Naoumova, R, Kubal, C & Shaw, KM (1988) Nutrient intake in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy. Eur J Clin Nutr 42, 697702.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed